O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl) phosphorothioate
O,O-Dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate
|Molar mass||277.23 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||3.4 °C (38.1 °F; 276.5 K)|
|Boiling point||118 °C (244 °F; 391 K) at 0.05 mmHg|
|Solubility||Readily soluble in dichloromethane, 2-propanol, toluene, hardly soluble in n-hexane.|
|log P||3.30 (octanol/water)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (Median dose)
Rat, oral: 500 mg/kg
Mouse (female), oral: 1416 mg/kg
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|(: / ?)|
Fenitrothion (insecticide; cheap and widely used worldwide.
In experiments fenitrothion at sublethal doses affected the motor movement of marsupials, and at acute dose levels it reduced the energy of birds.
In chronic (low) dose tests, unexpectedly only the lowest concentration (0.011 microgram/liter) of fenitrothion depressed the growth of an algae, though all of the chronic dose levels used were toxic in other ways to the algae.
Just half of fenitrothion's minimally effective dose altered the thyroid structure of a freshwater murrel (the snakehead fish).
In an unusual demonstration of resistance to pesticides, 8% of insects in farm fields were found to carry a symbiotic gut microbe that can metabolize and detoxify fenitrothion; after in-vitro tests showed that the microbe significantly increased the survival of fenitrothion-treated insects.
- Farm Chemicals Handbook 1999. Willoughby, OH: Meister Publishing Co., 1999., p. C 177
- Hansch, C., Leo, A., D. Hoekman. Exploring QSAR - Hydrophobic, Electronic, and Steric Constants. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society., 1995., p. 60
- Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 3rd ed., Volumes 1-26. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1978-1984., p. V13 440 (1981)
- WHO; Environ Health Criteria 133: Fenitrothion p.70 (1992)
- Buttemer, William A.; Story, Paul G.; Fildes, Karen J.; Baudinette, Russell V.; Astheimer, Lee B. (2008). "Fenitrothion, an organophosphate, affects running endurance but not aerobic capacity in fat-tailed dunnarts (Sminthopsis crassicaudata)". Chemosphere 72 (9): 1315–1320.
- Kitulagodage, Malsha; Isanhart, John; Buttemer, William A.; Hooper, Michael J.; Astheimer, Lee B. (2011). "Fipronil toxicity in northern bobwhite quail Colinus virginianus: Reduced feeding behaviour and sulfone metabolite formation". Chemosphere 83 (4): 524–530.
- Ferrando, M; Sancho, E; Andreu-Moliner, E (1996). "Chronic Toxicity of Fenitrothion to an Algae (Nannochloris oculata), a Rotifer (Brachionus calyciflorus), and the Cladoceran (Daphnia magna)". Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 35 (2): 112–120.
- Saxena, P; Mani, K (1988). "Effect of safe concentrations of some pesticides on thyroid in the freshwater murrel, Channa punctatus: A histopathological study". Environmental Pollution 55 (2): 97–105.
- Kikuchi, Y.; Hayatsu, M.; Hosokawa, T.; Nagayama, A.; Tago, K.; Fukatsu, T. (2012). "Symbiont-mediated insecticide resistance". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109 (22): 8618.
- Fenitrothion in the Pesticide Properties DataBase (PPDB)
- Compendium of Pesticide Common Names (source of data)
- Hazardous Substances Data Bank (source of data)
- Re-evaluation of Fenitrothion by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency of Canada