The hymenium is the tissue layer on the hymenophore of a fungal fruiting body where the cells develop into basidia or asci, which produce spores. In some species all of the cells of the hymenium develop into basidia or asci, while in others some cells develop into sterile cells called cystidia (basidiomycetes) or paraphyses (ascomycetes). Cystidia are often important for microscopic identification. The subhymenium consists of the supportive hyphae from which the cells of the hymenium grow, beneath which is the hymenophoral trama, the hyphae that make up the mass of the hymenophore.
The position of the hymenium is traditionally the first characteristic used in the classification and identification of mushrooms. Below are some examples of the diverse types which exist amongst the macroscopic Basidiomycota and Ascomycota.
- In agarics the hymenium is on the vertical faces of the gills.
- In boletes it is in a spongy mass of downward-pointing tubes.
- In puffballs it is internal.
- In stinkhorns it develops internally and then is exposed in the form of a foul-smelling gel.
- In cup fungi, it is on the concave surface of the cup.
- In teeth fungi, it grows on the outside of tooth-like spines.
Gills of the Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria
The cup fungus Sarcoscypha austriaca
The large angular pores of Polyporus alveolaris, the hexagonal-pored polypore
- Régis Courtecuisse, Bernard Duhem : Guide des champignons de France et d'Europe (Delachaux & Niestlé, 1994–2000). ISBN 2-603-00953-2
- IMA Mycological Glossary: Hymenium
- IMA Mycological Glossary: Subhymenium
- APSnet Illustrated Glossary of Plant Pathology: Hymenium Hymenium of an ascomycete, Monilinia fructicola
- Jack Murphy Mycological Images: Hymenium Hymenium of a basidiomycete, Russula laurocerasi