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"Decree on weights and measures". April 7, 1795.
Gramme, le poids absolu d'un volume d'eau pure égal au cube de la centième partie du mètre , et à la température de la glace fondante.
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- Isotopic composition and temperature per London South Bank University’s “List of physicochemical data concerning water”, density and uncertainty per NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69 (Retrieved April 5, 2010)
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]KilogramКилограмм [ (in Русский), retrieved December 28, 2013,
Из 40 изготовленных копий прототипа две (№12 и №26) были переданы России. Эталон №12 принят в СССР в качестве государственного первичного эталона единицы массы, а №26 — в качестве эталона-копии.
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- R. S. Davis (July–August 1985). "Recalibration of the U.S. National Prototype Kilogram". Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards 90 (4).
- Conjecture why the IPK drifts, R. Steiner, NIST, Sep 11, 2007.
- Report to the CGPM, 14th meeting of the Consultative Committee for Units (CCU), April 2001, 2. (ii); General Conference on Weights and Measures, 22nd Meeting, October 2003, which stated “The kilogram is in need of a new definition because the mass of the prototype is known to vary by several parts in 108 over periods of time of the order of a month…” (MB ZIP file, here 3.2).
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"Fed-Std-376B, Preferred Metric Units for General Use By the Federal Government" (294 KB PDF). NIST.
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"An initial measurement of Planck's constant using the NPL Mark II watt balance", I.A. Robinson et al., Metrologia 44 (2007), 427–440;
NPL: NPL Watt Balance
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- R. Steiner, No FG-5?, NIST, Nov 30, 2007. “We rotate between about 4 resistance standards, transferring from the calibration lab to my lab every 2–6 weeks. Resistors do not transfer well, and sometimes shift at each transfer by 10 ppb or more.”
- "CODATA Value: Avogadro constant". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. US
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- Brumfiel, Geoff (October 21, 2010). "Elemental shift for kilo". Nature 467: 892.
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- The German national metrology institute, known as the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB): Working group 1.24, Ion Accumulation
- General Conference on Weights and Measures, 22nd Meeting, October 2003 (3.2 MB ZIP file).
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- BIPM: SI Brochure: Section 3.2, The kilogram
- BIPM: SI Brochure: Section 4.1, Non-SI units accepted for use with the SI, and units based on fundamental constants: Table 6
|BIPM: The IPK in three nested bell jars|
|NIST: K20, the US National Prototype Kilogram resting on an egg crate fluorescent light panel|
|BIPM: Steam cleaning a 1 kg prototype before a mass comparison|
|BIPM: The IPK and its six sister copies in their vault|
|The Age: Silicon sphere for the Avogadro Project|
|NPL: The NPL’s Watt Balance project|
|NIST: This particular Rueprecht Balance, an Austrian-made precision balance, was used by the NIST from 1945 until 1960|
|BIPM: The FB‑2 flexure-strip balance, the BIPM’s modern precision balance featuring a standard deviation of one ten-billionth of a kilogram (0.1 µg)|
|BIPM: Mettler HK1000 balance, featuring 1 µg resolution and a 4 kg maximum mass. Also used by NIST and Sandia National Laboratories’ Primary Standards Laboratory|
|Micro-g LaCoste: FG‑5 absolute gravimeter, (diagram), used in national laboratories to measure gravity to 2 µGal accuracy|
- NIST Improves Accuracy of ‘Watt Balance’ Method for Defining the Kilogram
- The UK’s National Physical Laboratory (NPL): Are any problems caused by having the kilogram defined in terms of a physical artefact? (FAQ - Mass & Density)
- NPL: NPL watt balance
- Metrology in France: Watt balance
- Australian National Measurement Institute: Redefining the kilogram through the Avogadro constant
- International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM): Home page
- NZZ Folio: What a kilogram really weighs
- NPL: What are the differences between mass, weight, force and load?
- BBC: Getting the measure of a kilogram
- NPR: This Kilogram Has A Weight-Loss Problem, an interview with National Institute of Standards and Technology physicist Richard Steiner
- Avogadro and molar Planck constants for the redefinition of the kilogram
- Realization of the awaited definition of the kilogram