Country of origin USSR
First flight 1967
Designer OKB-1, V. M. Melnikov
Manufacturer Voronezh Mechanical Plant
Application Upper Stage
Associated L/V N-1, Proton-K, Proton-M, Zenit
Predecessor S1.5400
Status In Production
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / RG-1
Cycle Oxidizer Rich Stage Combustion
Chamber 1
Thrust (vac.) 79.46 kilonewtons (17,860 lbf)
Isp (vac.) 353 sec
Burn time up to 600s
Dry weight 300 kilograms (660 lb)
Used in
Block D
References [1][2][3][4]

The RD-58 (manufacturer designation 11D58) was a rocket engine, developed in the 1960s by OKB-1, now RKK Energia. The project was managed by Mikhail Melnikov, and it was based on the previous S1.5400 which was the first stage combustion engine in the world.[1] The engine was initially created to power the Block D stage of the Soviet Union's abortive N-1 rocket.[5] Derivatives of this stage are now used as upper stages on some Proton and Zenit rockets.[6] An alternative version of the RD-58 chamber, featuring a shorter nozzle, was used as the N-1's roll-control engine.

The RD-58 uses LOX as the oxidizer and RG-1 as fuel in an oxidizer rich stage combustion cycle. It features a single gimbaled chamber, radial centrifugal pumps with auxiliary booster pumps, and an oxygen-rich preburner.[7] Recent modifications include a lightweight carbon-composite nozzle extender developed by NPO Iskra.[8][9][10]

The Buran spacecraft used two of an evolution of the RD-58M, called 17D12, as its main orbital correction engines. Instead of RG-1, it burned Syntin, and could be ignited 15 times.[11][12] It is assumed that it was the base for the RD-58S, which had practically the same specifications and powered the Blok DM-2M.[13] But the manufacturer states that the engine is compatible with both propellants.[1]

The current version of the engine is the RD-58M (manufacturer designation 11D58M), which has slightly reduced thrust, but increased isp. An even newer version is under development and is known as the RD-58MF (manufacturer designation 11D58MF). It will reduce thrust to 49.03 kilonewtons (11,020 lbf) to keep the same length but increase expansion ratio to 500:1. This will enable it to gain 20s of isp (to an expected 372s). It will eventually fly on the Blok DM-03.[14] This new version of the engine will be built in the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant.[15][16] During a November 2014 interview, Vladimir Kolmykov, the Deputy General Director of the Chemical Division of Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant, stated that the production of Block-DM was suspended during that year, but work on the stage and development of the RD-58MF will resume during 2015.[17]


This engine has had many versions through the years:

  • RD-58 (GRAU Index 11D58): Original version developed for the Blok D of the N1 (rocket).[5][18]
  • RD-58M (GRAU Index 11D58M): Improved version developed for the Proton (rocket) Blok D.[7][19]
  • RD-58M (Carbon-carbon nozzle): Version of the RD-58M that replaces the regeneratively cooled nozzle for a carbon-carbon extension manufactured by NPO Iskra. Used on Zenit-3SL's Blok DM-SL since June 10, 2003 on the Thuraya 2 launch.[8][9][10]
  • RD-58MF (GRAU Index 11D58MF): Reduced thrust and increased specific impulse version expected to fly on the Proton and Zenit (rocket) Blok DM-03. Will probably also use a carbon-carbon nozzle extension.[20]
  • RD-58S (GRAU Index 11D58S): Version designed to use Syntin synthetic propellant rather than RG-1. Used on the Blok DM-2M. Probably developed based on the 17D12.[13][21][22]
  • RD-58Z (GRAU Index 11D58Z): Version adapted to the Zenit Blok DM-SL.[9][23]
  • 17D12: Orbital maneuvering engines (DOM) of the Buran propulsion system 17D11, burned Syntin/LOX.[11][12][24]
RD-58 Family of Engines
Name RD-58 RD-58M RD-58M
(Carbon Composite Nozzle)
RD-58S RD-58Z RD-58MF 17D12
Index 11D58 11D58M 11D58S 11D58Z 11D58MF
Development years 1964-1968 1970-1974 2000-2004 1986-1995 1981-1990 2002-2009 1981-1987
Engine Type Oxidizer Rich Stage Combustion upper stage liquid rocket engine Orbital correction liquid rocket engine
Propellant RG-1/LOX RG-1/LOX RG-1/LOX Syntin/LOX RG-1/LOX RG-1/LOX Syntin/LOX
O/F 2.48 2.48 2.82 ? 2.6 2.82 ?
Chamber Pressure 7.8 MPa (1,130 psi) 7.75 MPa (1,124 psi) 7.9 MPa (1,150 psi) 7.94 MPa (1,152 psi) 7.8 MPa (1,130 psi) 7.9 MPa (1,150 psi) 7.94 MPa (1,152 psi)
Thrust (Vac) 83.4 kN (18,700 lbf) 83.4 kN (18,700 lbf) 85 kN (19,000 lbf) 86.3 kN (19,400 lbf) 71 kN (16,000 lbf) 49.03 kN (11,020 lbf) 86.24 kN (19,390 lbf)
Isp (Vac) 349 s (3.42 km/s) 356 s (3.49 km/s) 361 s (3.54 km/s) 361 s (3.54 km/s) 361 s (3.54 km/s) 372 s (3.65 km/s) 362 s (3.55 km/s)
Nozzle Expansion 189 189 280 189 189 500 189
Ignitions 4 4 7 5 5 ? 15
Burntime 600 seconds 720 seconds 1200 seconds 680 seconds 660 seconds ? seconds 680 seconds
Length 2.27 m (89 in) 2.27 m (89 in) 2.72 m (107 in) 2.27 m (89 in) 2.27 m (89 in) 2.27 m (89 in)
Diameter 1.17 m (46 in) 1.17 m (46 in) 1.4 m (55 in) 1.17 m (46 in) 1.17 m (46 in) 1.17 m (46 in)
Weight 300 kg (660 lb) 310 kg (680 lb) 340 kg (750 lb) 310 kg (680 lb) 300 kg (660 lb) 230 kg (510 lb)
Used on N-1 and Blok D Blok DM Blok DM-SL since 2003 and Blok DM-SLB Blok DM-2M Blok DM-SL 11S861-03 Buran
First Launch 1967-03-10 1974-03-26 2003-06-10 1994-10-13 1999-03-28 ? 1988-11-15
Status Retired Retired In Production Retired Retired In Production Retired
References [2][5][6][7][8][9][11][12][13][14][18][19][20][21][22][23][25]


  1. ^ a b c "Engines". RSC Energiya Official Page.  
  2. ^ a b "DESCRIPTION OF ZENIT-2SLB, ZENIT-3SLB, ZENIT-3SLBF INTEGRATED LAUNCH VEHICLES". Land Launch User's Guide (Revision B) (PDF). Space International Services. 2014-10-01. p. 29. Retrieved 2015-06-03. 
  3. ^ Kiselev, Anatoli I.; Medvedev, Alexander A.; Menshikov, Valery A. (2012). "Section 2.2.2 Carrier rocket booster units". Astronautics: Summary and Prospects. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 304–305.  
  4. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Block D upper stage". russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 2015-06-03. 
  5. ^ a b c "RD-58". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  6. ^ a b "Zenit-3SL". Spaceflight 101. Retrieved July 2014. 
  7. ^ a b c "Двигательная установка. 11Д58М" [The propulsion system. 11D58M] (in Russian). Ecoruspace. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  8. ^ a b c Sokolovskiy, M.I.; Petukhov, S.N.; Semenov, Yu.P.; Sokolov, B.A. (2008). "Разработка углерод-углеродного соплового насадка для жидкостных ракетных двигателей" [The development of carbon-carbon nozzle extension for liquid rocket engines] (PDF). Thermophysics and Aeromechanics (in Russian) 15 (N°4): 721–727. Retrieved 2015-08-02. 
  9. ^ a b c d Mezhevov, A.V.; Skoromnov, V.I.; Kozlov, A.V.; Tupitsin, N.N.; Khaskekov, V.G. (2006). "Внедрениесоплового насадка радиационного охлаждения из углерод-углеродного композиционного материала на камеру маршевого двигателя 11Д58М разгонного Блока ДМ-SL" [Installation of a Radiation-Cooled Nozzle of Carbon-Carbon Composite Material to the Combustion Chamber of Main Engine 11D58M of Block DM-SL] (PDF). Вестник СГАУ [Bulletin SSAU] (in Russian) ( 
  10. ^ a b "Раздвижные сопла и сопловые насадки для РДТТ и ЖРД" [Extendable nozzle and nozzle extensions for SRM and LRE]. www.npoiskra.ru (in Russian). NPO Iskra. Retrieved 2015-08-02. 
  11. ^ a b c "17D12". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  12. ^ a b c Hendrickx, Bart; Vis, Bert (2007-10-04). Energiya-Buran: The Soviet Space Shuttle (UK 2007 ed.). Springer. pp. 127–131.  
  13. ^ a b c "Block DM-2M 11S861-01". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  14. ^ a b "Двигательная установка. 11Д58МФ" [The propulsion system. 11D58MF] (in Russian). Ecoruspace. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  15. ^ "Research and development". www.krasm.com (in Russian). JSC Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant. Retrieved 2015-06-10. 
  16. ^ """2014-02-28 Our Krasnoyarsk Krai "Krasmash. Future projects. www.krasm.com (in Russian). JSC Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant. Retrieved 2015-06-10. 
  17. ^ Galina Yakovleva (2014-11-10). " [Vladimir Kolmykov: "Serious challenges ahead for Krasmash"]""Владимир КолмыКоВ: "Перед Красмашем стоят серьезные задачи (PDF). Журнал "Синева" [Magazine "Sineva"] (in Russian) 2014 (Sineva № 7-8): 2. Retrieved 2015-08-03. 
  18. ^ a b "Двигательная установка. 11Д58" [The propulsion system. 11D58] (in Russian). Ecoruspace. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  19. ^ a b "RD-58M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  20. ^ a b "RD-58MF". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  21. ^ a b "RD-58S". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  22. ^ a b "Двигательная установка. 11Д58С" [The propulsion system. 11D58S] (in Russian). Ecoruspace. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  23. ^ a b "RD-58Z". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  24. ^ "17D11". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  25. ^ "Энергия, Ракетно-Космическая Корпорация имени С.П.Королева, открытое акционерное общество" [Open Joint Stock Company S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia] (PDF) (in Russian). K204. 1998-10-12. Retrieved 2015-08-03.