Super Bowl XXXII
|Super Bowl XXXII|
|Date||January 25, 1998|
|Stadium||Qualcomm Stadium, San Diego|
|MVP||Terrell Davis, Running back|
|Favorite||Packers by 11|
|Future Hall of Famers|
Broncos: John Elway, Shannon Sharpe, Gary Zimmerman.
Packers: Reggie White.
|Coin toss||Joe Gibbs, Doug Williams, Eddie Robinson|
|Halftime show||Boyz II Men, Smokey Robinson, The Temptations, and The Four Tops|
|TV in the United States|
|Announcers||Dick Enberg, Phil Simms, and Paul Maguire|
(est. 90 million viewers)
|Cost of 30-second commercial||US$1.3 million|
Super Bowl XXXII was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Green Bay Packers and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Denver Broncos to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 1997 season. The Broncos defeated the Packers by the score of 31–24. The game was played on January 25, 1998 at Qualcomm Stadium in San Diego, California, the second time that the Super Bowl was held in that city. Super Bowl XXXII also made Qualcomm Stadium the only stadium in history to have the Super Bowl and the World Series in the same year.
This was Denver's first league championship after suffering four previous Super Bowl losses, and snapped a 13-game losing streak for AFC teams in the Super Bowl (the previous being the Los Angeles Raiders' win in Super Bowl XVIII after the 1983 season). The Broncos, who entered the game after posting a 12–4 regular season record in 1997, became just the second wild card team to win a Super Bowl and the first since the Raiders in Super Bowl XV. The Packers, who entered the game as the defending Super Bowl XXXI champions after posting a 13–3 regular season record, were the first team favored to win by double digits to lose a Super Bowl since Super Bowl IV.
The game was close throughout much of the contest. The Broncos converted two turnovers to take a 17–7 lead in the second quarter before the Packers cut the score to 17–14 at halftime. Green Bay kept pace with Denver in the second half before tying the game with 13:32 remaining. Both defenses stiffened until Broncos running back Terrell Davis scored the go-ahead touchdown with 1:45 left. Despite suffering a migraine headache that caused him to miss most of the second quarter, Davis (a San Diego native) was named Super Bowl MVP. He ran for 157 yards, caught two passes for 8 yards, and scored a Super Bowl record three rushing touchdowns.
- 1 Background
- 2 Television and entertainment
- 3 Game summary
- 4 Final statistics
- 5 Starting lineups
- 6 Officials
- 7 References
NFL owners awarded Super Bowl XXXII to San Diego during their October 26, 1993 meeting in Chicago. This was the second time San Diego hosted the game; the city previously hosted Super Bowl XXII ten years earlier on January 31, 1988. The Broncos played in both San Diego Super Bowls and became the first franchise to play two different Super Bowls in two stadiums twice. They also played twice at the Louisiana Superdome.
The Broncos entered Super Bowl XXXII after suffering four Super Bowl losses: Super Bowls XII, XXI, XXII, and XXIV. In all of those losses, the Broncos never had the ability to rush well enough or score enough points to be competitive. Denver had been defeated by a large margin in each one, losing all four by a combined scoring margin of 163–50.
The previous three Super Bowl losses were under starting quarterback John Elway, whose ad-libbing skills enabled the Broncos to advance to the league's championship game in a span of three out of four seasons. Elway also led his team to the 1991 AFC Championship Game, but they lost in a defensive struggle to the Buffalo Bills, 10–7.
The team's fortunes changed when Mike Shanahan became head coach of the Broncos in 1995. Shanahan was previously Denver's offensive coordinator during those Super Bowl losses, but was fired in 1991 after a power struggle between him and then-head coach Dan Reeves over the offensive personnel. Shanahan then served as the offensive coordinator for the San Francisco 49ers from 1992 to 1994, including the 49ers' Super Bowl XXIX win. Under Shanahan, the San Francisco offense ranked first in the league in total yards gained for all three of his seasons there.
When Shanahan returned to the Broncos in 1995, he selected running back Terrell Davis in the 6th round of the NFL draft. Davis became the cornerstone of Denver's rebuilt running game, leading the team with 1,117 rushing yards in just his rookie year. The Broncos finished the 1995 regular season with just an 8–8 record. By 1996, the Broncos had the league's best offense, gaining 5,791 total yards, and recorded the AFC's best regular season record at 13–3, but they were upset by the second-year Jacksonville Jaguars, 30–27 in the playoffs.
During the 1997 regular season, the Broncos once again had the league's best offense with 5,872 total yards and led the league in total points scored with 472. Although they recorded a 12–4 regular season record, they finished in second place behind the 13–3 Kansas City Chiefs in the AFC West.
Pro Bowler Davis remained the team's leading rusher, recording 1,750 yards and 15 touchdowns, while also catching 42 passes for 287 yards. At 37 years old, Elway still posted a Pro Bowl season with 280 out of 502 completions for 3,635 yards, 27 touchdowns, and only 11 interceptions. He also rushed for 215 yards and another touchdown. Pro Bowl tight end Shannon Sharpe led the team with 72 receptions for 1,107 yards. Wide receiver Rod Smith, who was not drafted by any NFL team and recorded only 22 receptions for 389 yards and 3 touchdowns in his two previous seasons, had a breakout year with 70 receptions for 1,180 yards and 12 touchdowns. Wide receiver Ed McCaffrey, who played in Shanahan's 1994 49ers offense, recorded 45 receptions for 590 yards and 8 touchdowns. Denver's offensive line was led by seven-time Pro Bowl left tackle Gary Zimmerman and Pro Bowl center Tom Nalen.
On defense, the major acquisition to the team prior to the season was former Chiefs defensive lineman Neil Smith. Smith had a Pro Bowl season for the 6th time in his career with 28 tackles and 8.5 sacks. Defensive end Alfred Williams recorded 36 tackles, 8.5 sacks, and a fumble recovery. The linebacking corps was led by veteran Bill Romanowski, who had 55 tackles and 2 sacks, and John Mobley, who led the team with 97 tackles while also recording 4 sacks, a fumble recovery, and an interception.
The secondary was led by veteran defensive backs Tyrone Braxton, who led the team with 4 interceptions for 113 yards and 1 touchdown, and Steve Atwater, who had 53 tackles, 1 sack, 2 fumble recoveries, and 2 interceptions for 42 yards and 1 touchdown. Defensive back Darrien Gordon recorded 50 tackles, 2 sacks, 4 fumble recoveries, 4 interceptions, 64 return yards, and 1 touchdown. He also returned 40 punts for 543 yards and 3 touchdowns.
Green Bay Packers
Quarterback Brett Favre had another Pro Bowl season and became the first player ever to win the NFL MVP award three times, winning it for the third consecutive year (co-MVP in 1997 with Detroit's Barry Sanders). Favre led the league with 35 passing touchdowns and completed 304 out of 513 attempts for 3,867 yards, with 16 interceptions, while ranking second on the team in rushing with 187 yards and a touchdown. Wide receiver Antonio Freeman led the team in receptions with 81 catches for 1,243 yards and 12 touchdowns. Wide receiver Robert Brooks was also a major deep threat, catching 60 passes for 1,010 yards and 7 touchdowns. Pro Bowl tight end Mark Chmura recorded 38 receptions for 417 yards and 6 touchdowns. Pro Bowl running back Dorsey Levens led the team in rushing with 1,435 yards and 7 touchdowns, while also catching 53 passes for 373 yards and 5 touchdowns. Fullback William Henderson rushed for 113 yards and caught 41 passes for 367 yards and a touchdown.
On the Packers' defense, the line was led by veteran Pro Bowler Reggie White, who led the team with 11 sacks. Behind him, Santana Dotson recorded 37 tackles and 5.5 sacks. In the secondary, Pro Bowl defensive back LeRoy Butler led the team with 5 interceptions, while also adding 70 tackles. Safety Eugene Robinson led the team with 74 tackles while also recording 2.5 sacks, 2 fumble recoveries, and 1 interception. Cornerback Mike Prior recorded 4 interceptions, while rookie Darren Sharper recorded 2 of them, both of which he returned for touchdowns.
The Broncos entered the playoffs as a wild-card team but defeated the Jacksonville Jaguars, 42–17, the Kansas City Chiefs, 14–10, and the Pittsburgh Steelers, 24–21, making Denver the fifth wild-card team to make it to the Super Bowl. Meanwhile, the Packers were victorious against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, 21–7, and the San Francisco 49ers, 23–10.
Super Bowl pregame news
The Packers came into the game as 111⁄2-point favorites, having compiled a 13–3 record regular season record compared to the Broncos' 12–4 and coming in as defending Super Bowl champions after winning Super Bowl XXXI 35–21 over the New England Patriots.
Each player wore a Super Bowl logo patch on their jerseys. This would become a regular practice in each Super Bowl since.
Television and entertainment
The game was broadcast in the United States by NBC, with play-by-play announcer Dick Enberg and color commentators Phil Simms and Paul Maguire. Greg Gumbel hosted all the events, and was joined by co-host Ahmad Rashad and commentators Cris Collinsworth, Sam Wyche, and Joe Gibbs. Following the game, NBC aired a special one-hour episode of 3rd Rock from the Sun, which opened live at the game site with Gumbel playing himself before he was "attacked" by show star John Lithgow.
This broadcast was the last for NBC as the AFC network after 33 years (CBS has held the AFC broadcast rights ever since), their last NFL broadcast overall until 2006, when they signed on to televise Sunday Night Football, and their last Super Bowl broadcast until 2009 (Super Bowl XLIII). This was also the last time Channel 4 in the UK would show the Super Bowl – and their last NFL coverage until 2010 – after they had been showing the event since 1983 (Super Bowl XVII). Only Sky Sports would show it live until Five joined them in 2003 (Super Bowl XXXVII). It also marked the last Super Bowl until 2007 for CTV in Canada after airing the NFL and the event since Super Bowl XVI; from 1999 to 2006 the Super Bowl aired on the Global Television Network. CTV had aired NFL football since 1970 and the Super Bowl since 1982 (Super Bowl XVI). It was also the final NFL game for GMA Network in the Philippines until the 2006 season; GMA had aired NFL football since 1986 and the Super Bowl since Super Bowl XXI in 1987. The Super Bowl would be broadcast on TV5, also from 1999 until 2006. It was also the final Super Bowl in which the Televisa family of networks aired on its own in Mexico, also until 2007, being broadcast on Canal 5; Televisa had aired NFL football since 1970 and the Super Bowl since 1988 (the only other Super Bowl in San Diego). Azteca 13 likewise would exclusively air the Super Bowl from 1999 until 2006, including Super Bowl XXXVII which would be the next Super Bowl to be played at Qualcomm Stadium.
This game was later featured on NFL's Greatest Games as This One's for John.
The pregame show, narrated by actor and comedian Phil Hartman, celebrated the music and history of California. It featured performances by The 5th Dimension, Lee Greenwood, and The Beach Boys. Singer Jewel later sang the National Anthem.
To honor the 10th anniversary of the Washington Redskins' win in Super Bowl XXII, the only other previous Super Bowl played in San Diego, the game's MVP, Doug Williams, and former head coach Joe Gibbs participated during the coin toss ceremony. They were joined by the recently retired, longtime college football head coach Eddie Robinson, who ran the Grambling State University Tigers football team from 1942 until 1997.
Packers wide receiver Antonio Freeman returned the opening kickoff 19 yards to the Green Bay 24-yard line. On the third play of the drive, quarterback Brett Favre kept the offense on the field by completing a 13-yard pass to Freeman on 3rd down and 9. Then running back Dorsey Levens rushed the ball on three consecutive plays, gaining 27 yards to advance to the Denver 35-yard line. Favre finished the drive with two completions to Freeman: the first one for 13 yards, and the second one a 22-yard touchdown pass to give the Packers a 7–0 lead (the Packers were the third team to take the opening kickoff down the field and score a touchdown on that drive; the other two were Miami in Super Bowl VIII and San Francisco in Super Bowl XXIX).
The Broncos stormed right back with a touchdown of their own. Denver running back Vaughn Hebron returned the ensuing kickoff 32 yards to their own 42-yard line. Denver then drove to the Green Bay 46-yard line. On third down, a holding penalty on Packers defensive back Doug Evans nullified quarterback John Elway's incompletion and gave the Broncos a first down. On the next play, running back Terrell Davis ran the ball 27 yards to the 14-yard line. Then after a 2-yard run by Davis, Elway scrambled 10 yards to gain a first down at the 2-yard line. Two plays later, Davis capped off the 10-play, 58-yard drive with a 1-yard touchdown run to tie the game (this was the first and to date only Super Bowl in which both teams scored TDs on their opening drives).
On the second play of the Packers' next possession, Denver defensive back Tyrone Braxton intercepted a pass from Favre at Green Bay's 45-yard line. Aided by five runs by Davis for 29 yards, the Broncos marched 45 yards to score on Elway's 1-yard touchdown run on the first play of the 2nd quarter, taking a 14–7 lead.
Elway's touchdown play involved a fake handoff to Davis, who was previously taken out of the game during the drive because the onset of a migraine headache after being inadvertently tripped by LeRoy Butler had severely impaired his vision. But head coach Mike Shanahan decided to send him into the game for the 3rd-down play, believing that the Packers would not be fooled by a fake handoff without Davis on the field. Davis later said his vision was so impaired that he was afraid Elway would call an audible at the line and try to hand him the ball. Despite his blurred vision, Davis perfectly executed the play, drawing the Green Bay defense into the middle of the line as Elway rushed to the right and into the end zone completely untouched. By the second half, Davis had taken migraine medication, and his vision had returned to normal, allowing him to play the rest of the game.
On the Packers' ensuing possession, Broncos safety Steve Atwater forced a fumble while sacking Favre, and defensive end Neil Smith recovered the ball on the Packers 33-yard line. Although the Broncos were unable to get a first down, kicker Jason Elam made a 51-yard field goal, the second longest in Super Bowl history, to increase Denver's lead to 17–7. Both teams went three-and-out on their next possessions, and Denver punter Tom Rouen's 47-yard kick planted Green Bay at their own 5-yard line with 7:38 left in the quarter. But Green Bay stormed down the field on their ensuing drive, marching 95 yards in 17 plays and scoring with Favre's 6-yard touchdown pass to tight end Mark Chmura with just 12 seconds left in the half. Thus at halftime, the Broncos held onto a slim 17–14 lead.
Green Bay kicked to Denver to start the second half. On the first play after the kickoff, Packer defensive back Tyrone Williams forced and recovered a fumble from Davis at the Broncos 26-yard line. But Denver's defense forced a three-and-out. However, Denver was called for an offsides penalty on the ensuing field goal attempt, giving Green Bay a new set of downs. The Packers had 1st and 10 inside the Broncos 20-yard line, but the drive stalled at the 9-yard line, forcing the Packers to settle for 27-yard Ryan Longwell field goal, tying the game at 17–17.
Green Bay kicked off once again and Denver's offense stalled, forcing a punt, giving the Packers good field position again near their 40-yard line. But once again, Denver's defense forced a three-and-out. On the ensuing punt, Denver's special teams was again called for an offsides penalty, giving Green Bay a fresh set of downs near midfield. But Denver's defense prevented another first down, keeping the score tied.
Later in the quarter, Green Bay punter Craig Hentrich's 51-yard kick pinned the Broncos back at their own 8-yard line. But the Packers' defense could not stop Denver as they marched on a 13-play, 92-yard drive to regain the lead. Aided by a 36-yard reception by receiver Ed McCaffrey, the Broncos advanced to the Green Bay 12-yard line, where on 3rd down, Elway scrambled for an 8-yard run and dove for the first down, a play in which he was hit so hard by Packers defenders Butler and Mike Prior that he spun sideways through the air. This run was later referred to as "The Helicopter", and what many consider as Elway's career-defining moment and the defining moment of Super Bowl XXXII. Two plays later, Davis scored on another 1-yard touchdown run, giving the Broncos the lead, 24–17.
On the ensuing kickoff, Denver's special teams player Detron Smith ran full speed into the wedge of the Green Bay blockers, forcing Freeman outside, to his left. Freeman was hit as he held the ball exposed running sideways and fumbled, then Denver defensive back Tim McKyer recovered the ball at the Packers 22-yard line. Immediately, the Broncos tried to capitalize on the turnover by trying to throw for a touchdown, a pass intended for Rod Smith as he ran a post pattern following a fake handoff and a roll out by Elway, but Packers safety Eugene Robinson intercepted Elway's pass in the end zone and returned it to the 15-yard line.
After the interception, the Packers marched 85 yards in just four plays, three of them receptions by Freeman, to tie it up once again 1:28 into the 4th quarter with Freeman's 13-yard touchdown catch. On the scoring play, Freeman and Robert Brooks ran a "criss-cross" pattern, with Freeman on the inside running towards the sidelines. Denver defensive back Darrien Gordon hesitated as to which receiver to cover, and Favre hit Freeman for the score.
Both teams' defenses tightened up, and the clubs exchanged punts twice. With Green Bay pinned at their own 10-yard line, Hentrich then kicked the ball 39 yards to the Packers 49-yard line with 3:27 left in the game. On the first play of the ensuing drive, Packers linebacker Darius Holland committed a 15-yard facemask penalty while tackling Davis on a 2-yard run, moving the ball to the 32-yard line. Two plays later, Elway completed a 23-yard pass to fullback Howard Griffith, aided by a powerful block by McCaffrey. A holding penalty pushed the Broncos back to the 18-yard line, but then Davis rushed 17 yards to the 1-yard line, and the Broncos called a timeout. This left the Broncos facing 2nd and goal with 1:47 left on the clock. Green Bay had two timeouts remaining.
Packers coach Mike Holmgren told his team to let the Broncos score to maximize the time the Packers would have on the clock for a potential game-tying drive. He admitted later that he had thought that it was 1st and goal rather than 2nd and goal, crucial to clock management decision making on the play. Davis did score his third rushing touchdown on 2nd and goal, leaving 1:45 on the clock. The Broncos now had a one-touchdown lead, at 31–24.
The Packers attempted one final drive to try to tie the game before the end of regulation and send the contest into overtime. Shanahan famously instructed his defensive coordinators to keep playing the same prevent defense as Green Bay attempted to drive downfield in the final two minutes of the game. Freeman returned the Broncos' kickoff 22 yards to the 30-yard line, and the Packers advanced to the Broncos 35-yard line with 1:04 left in the game on a pair of completions from Favre to Levens for gains of 22 and 13 yards. After a 4-yard pass to Levens, Favre's next two passes fell incomplete. The 2nd down play was a bullet throw to a wide open Freeman around the 15-yard line, which would have given the Packers a first down, but Freeman could not handle the pass. On the 3rd down incompletion, both intended receiver Brooks and Denver's Randy Hilliard were blasted by Steve Atwater's seismic hit. All three were knocked out with :32 remaining, and both teams were charged a timeout. Then on 4th down, Denver linebacker John Mobley broke up a pass intended for Chmura, enabling the Broncos to take the ball back and run out the clock for the victory.
During the post-game victory celebration, Broncos owner Pat Bowlen held the Vince Lombardi Trophy in the air and said, "This one's for John," referring to the fact that Elway's long quest for a Super Bowl victory was finally complete.
A remarkable fact about Denver's offensive performance was that, except for two penalties and Elway's kneel-downs to end each half, the Broncos did not lose yardage on any play from scrimmage. Green Bay's White, Gilbert Brown, Butler and others were unable to register a sack against the Broncos' front line. Elway finished the game with 12 out of 22 pass completions, for 123 yards and 1 interception. Elway became the sixth player to score touchdowns in three different Super Bowls, joining Lynn Swann, Franco Harris, Thurman Thomas, Jerry Rice, and Emmitt Smith. He was also the Broncos' second-leading rusher behind Davis with 17 yards and a touchdown on 5 carries. Terrell Davis became the only player to rush for three touchdowns in a Super Bowl, and the only non-San Francisco 49er to score three touchdowns in a Super Bowl; Roger Craig, Jerry Rice, and Ricky Watters were the only other players to do so. Rice had 3 touchdown catches in two different Super Bowls. Davis' three touchdowns in this Super Bowl gave him a total of 48 points (8 touchdowns) during the postseason, an NFL record.
Levens was Green Bay's leading rusher with 90 rushing yards, and was their second-leading receiver with 56 yards on 6 receptions. Both Freeman and Favre had outstanding performances for the second Super Bowl game in a row. Favre completed 25 out of 42 passes for 256 yards and 3 touchdowns, with 1 interception. Freeman caught 9 passes for 126 yards and 2 touchdowns, and also gained another 104 yards on 6 kickoff returns, giving him 230 total yards, the third highest total in Super Bowl history. Freeman also tied himself for second all-time in touchdown catches in Super Bowls with three, joining Lynn Swann, John Stallworth, and Cliff Branch, trailing only Rice's eight. He also became just the third player to have at least 100 yards receiving in back-to-back Super Bowls, joining Rice and Stallworth.
Denver was the first team with a previous 0-2 Super Bowl record to win (their record had been 0-4). The Broncos' victory snapped the NFC's 13-game winning streak in the Super Bowl, becoming the first AFC team to win the NFL championship since the Los Angeles Raiders defeated the Washington Redskins in Super Bowl XVIII. Denver also became the first team to score on four 1-yard touchdown runs in a Super Bowl. The Packers became the third, and most recent, defending Super Bowl champion to lose the Super Bowl, joining the Dallas Cowboys (won Super Bowl XII, lost Super Bowl XIII) and the Washington Redskins (won Super Bowl XVII, lost Super Bowl XVIII).
Source: NFL.com Super Bowl XXXII
|Denver Broncos||Green Bay Packers|
|First downs rushing||14||4|
|First downs passing||5||14|
|First downs penalty||2||3|
|Third down efficiency||5/10||5/14|
|Fourth down efficiency||0/0||0/1|
|Net yards rushing||179||95|
|Yards per rush||4.6||4.8|
|Passing – Completions/attempts||12/22||25/42|
|Times sacked-total yards||0–0||1–1|
|Net yards passing||123||255|
|Total net yards||302||350|
|Punt returns-total yards||0-0||0-0|
|Kickoff returns-total yards||5-95||6-104|
|Interceptions-total return yards||1–0||1–17|
|Time of possession||32:25||27:35|
1Completions/attempts 2Carries 3Long gain 4Receptions
|Denver Broncos||Green Bay Packers|
|Ed McCaffrey #87||WR||Robert Brooks #87|
|Gary Zimmerman #65||LT||Ross Verba #78|
|Mark Schlereth #69||LG||Aaron Taylor #73|
|Tom Nalen #66||C||Frank Winters #52|
|Brian Habib #75||RG||Adam Timmerman #63|
|Tony Jones #77||RT||Earl Dotson #72|
|Shannon Sharpe #84||TE||Mark Chmura #89|
|Rod Smith #80||WR||Antonio Freeman #86|
|John Elway #7||QB||Brett Favre #4|
|Terrell Davis #30||RB||Dorsey Levens #25|
|Howard Griffith #29||FB||William Henderson #30|
|Neil Smith #90||LDE||Reggie White #92|
|Keith Traylor #94||LDT||Gilbert Brown #93|
|Maa Tanuvasa #98||RDT||Santana Dotson #72|
|Alfred Williams #91||RE||Gabe Wilkins #98|
|John Mobley #51||LOLB||Seth Joyner #54|
|Allen Aldridge #57||MLB||Bernardo Harris #55|
|Bill Romanowski #53||ROLB||Brian Williams #51|
|Ray Crockett #39||LCB||Doug Evans #33|
|Darrien Gordon #23||RCB||Tyrone Williams #37|
|Tyrone Braxton #34||SS||LeRoy Butler #36|
|Steve Atwater #27||FS||Eugene Robinson #41|
|Jason Elam #1||K||Ryan Longwell #8|
|Tom Rouen #16||P||Craig Hentrich #17|
- Referee: Ed Hochuli (#85)
- Umpire: Jim Quirk (#5)
- Head Linesman: John Schleyer (#21)
- Line Judge: Ben Montgomery (#117)
- Field Judge: Don Dorkowski (#113)
- Side Judge: Doug Toole (#4)
- Back Judge: Paul Baetz (#22)
- Alternate Referee: Dick Hantak (#105)
- Alternate Umpire: Ed Coukart (#71)
- Historical Super Bowl Nielsen TV Ratings, 1967–2009 – Ratings | TVbytheNumbers
- San Diego's first was Super Bowl XXII after the 1987 season.
- Sandomir, Richard (January 26, 1998). "Lead-In Show Drags Down A Good Game".
- Sandomir, Richard (January 27, 1998). "Last Half-Hour Rang the Nielsen Bell".
- Biggs, Brad. "Holmgren still explaining 'concession' touchdown". Chicago Sun-Times, February 4, 2006. 
- "Super Bowl Memories: This one’s for John!". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "USA Today Super Bowl XXXII Play by Play".
- Neft, David S., Cohen, Richard M., and Korch, Rick. The Complete History of Professional Football from 1892 to the Present. 1994 ISBN 0-312-11435-4