Tom yum

Tom yum

Tom yum
Tom yam kung as served in Bangkok, Thailand
Alternative names Tom yam
Type Soup
Place of origin Central Thailand and Laos
Main ingredients stock, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaves, galangal, lime juice, fish sauce, chili peppers
Cookbook: Tom yum 

Tom yum or tom yam (Lao: ຕົ້ມຍຳ ; Thai: ต้มยำ,  ) is a Lao and Thai, clear, spicy and sour soup.[1] Tom yum is widely served in neighbouring countries such as Cambodia, Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore, and has been popularised around the world.

Literally, the words "tom yum" are derived from two Tai words: "tom" and "yam". "Tom" refers to boiling process, while "yam" refers to a kind of Lao and Thai spicy and sour salad. Thus, "tom yum" is a Lao and Thai hot and sour soup. Indeed, tom yum is characterised by its distinct hot and sour flavours, with fragrant spices and herbs generously used in the broth. The basic broth is made of stock and fresh ingredients such as lemongrass, kaffir lime leaves, galangal, lime juice, fish sauce, and crushed chili peppers.

In neighbouring countries like Malaysia and Singapore, the name tom yum is used widely for various spicy soups which can differ greatly from true Lao and Thai tom yum soup. As a result, people are often confused by the disparities.

Commercial tom yum paste is made by crushing all the herb ingredients and stir frying in oil. Seasoning and other preservative ingredients are then added. The paste is bottled or packaged and sold around the world. Tom yum flavoured with the paste may have different characteristics from that made with fresh herb ingredients. The soup often includes meats such as chicken, beef, pork, or shrimp.

The 1997 Financial Crisis in Asia, which started in Thailand, is sometimes referred to as the "Tom Yam Kung Crisis".[2]


  • Selected types 1
  • Other sour and spicy soups 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Selected types

Tom yam kung maphrao on nam khon, as served in Uttaradit, Thailand
Ready-to-use bundles of lemon grass, galangal, lime leaves, and, for chicken tom yum, also turmeric, are sold at Thai markets
  • Tom yum goong or tom yam kung, the version of the dish most popular among tourists, is made with prawns as the main ingredient.[3] The dish originated during the Rattanakosin Kingdom. [4]
  • Tom yum paa (Lao) or tom yam pla (Thai) is a clear fish soup that was traditionally eaten with rice. It used to be the most widespread form of tom yam before mass-tourism came to Thailand, for fresh fish is readily available almost everywhere in the region's rivers, canals and lakes as well as in the sea. Usually fish with firm flesh that doesn't crumble after boiling is preferred for this type of soup.[5]
  • Tom yum gai or tom yam kai is the chicken version of the soup.[6]
  • Tom yum po taek (Lao) or tom yam thale (Thai) is a variant of the soup with mixed seafood, like prawns, squid, clams and pieces of fish.[7]
  • Tom yam nam khon (Thai: ต้มยำน้ำข้น) is a more recent variation. Almost always made with prawns as a main ingredient, a little milk[8] or coconut milk[9] is added to the broth as a finishing touch, and then balanced with some toasted dried chillies. This adaptation is not to be confused with tom kha gai ("chicken galanga soup"), where galanga is the dominant flavour of the coconut milk-based soup.
  • Tom yam kung maphrao on nam khon, a version of prawn tom yum with the meat of a young coconut and a dash of (coconut) milk.
  • Tom yam kha mu (Thai: ต้มยำขาหมู), made with pork leg. These require a long cooking time under low fire.[10]

In the modern popularized versions the soup contains also mushrooms - usually straw mushrooms or oyster mushrooms. The soup is often topped with generous sprinkling of fresh chopped cilantro (coriander leaves). Sometimes Thai chili jam (nam phrik phao, Thai: น้ำพริกเผา) is added: this gives the soup a bright orange color and makes the chili flavour more pronounced.

The Royal Lao version of tom yam includes a pinch of rice in the soup. [11]

Other sour and spicy soups

Less well-known outside Thailand is tom khlong (ต้มโคล้ง), a spicy sour soup where the sourness, however, does not derive from lime juice but through the use of tamarind.[12] Tom som (Thai: ต้มส้ม) are soups that are also very similar to tom yum but most often do not contain lemongrass or kaffir lime leaves. Depending on the type of tom som, the acidity can be derived from lime juice or from the use of tamarind.[13][14]

See also


  1. ^ "Tom Yum Gai (Thai Spicy & Sour Chicken Soup) - The Food Addicts". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  2. ^ From Tom-yam-kung To Hamburger Crisis
  3. ^ "Tom Yam Kung". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  4. ^ "Tom Yam Kung Recipe, Hot and Sour Soup with Shrimp". Retrieved 4 March 2010. 
  5. ^ "". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  6. ^ "Merry's Kitchen - Sour and Spicy Chicken Soup (Tom Yam Kai)". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  7. ^ "". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  8. ^ Leela (2012-02-07). "Creamy Tom Yam Kung (Tom Yam Kung Nam Khon ต้มยำกุ้งน้ำข้น)". Retrieved 2013-01-31. 
  9. ^ Hanuman Thaifoodmaster. "[Thaifoodmaster] Fresh Coconut Milk Tom Yum Soup Recipe of Grilled Banana Blossom and Chicken (สูตรทำต้มยำกะทิหัวปลีย่างใส่ไก่)". Thaifoodmaster. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  10. ^ "ต้มยำขาหมู". YouTube. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  11. ^ "Tom Yum Recipe". Thai Food Online. Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  12. ^ Tom klong pla krob (ต้มโคล้งปลากรอบ)
  13. ^ "Clay's Kitchen : Tam Ra Ahan Thai (Thai Recipes) ตำราอาหารไทย". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 
  14. ^ "Clay's Kitchen : Tam Ra Ahan Thai (Thai Recipes) ตำราอาหารไทย". Retrieved 27 February 2015. 

External links

  • Cuisine of Thailand at DMOZ