Ōbaku

Ōbaku

Ōbaku-shū
School: Linji Zen Buddhism
Founder: Yinyuan Longqi
Founded: 1661
Head temple: Manpuku-ji
Subtemples: 420
Lineage: Yinyuan
Primary location: Japan
Website
http://www.obakusan.or.jp

The Ōbaku-shū (黄檗宗) is one of three schools of Zen in Japanese Buddhism, along with Sōtō and Rinzai.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Characteristics 2
    • Culture 2.1
  • Notable temples 3
    • Head temple 3.1
    • Subtemples 3.2
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

History

Often termed the third sect of Zen Buddhism in Japan, it was established in 1661 by a small faction of masters from China and their Japanese students at Manpuku-ji in Uji, Japan.

Today Manpuku-ji serves as the Ōbaku's head temple, with 420 subtemples spread throughout Japan as of 2006.[1] In addition to their contribution to the culture of Zen in Japan, the Ōbaku also "disseminated many aspects of Ming-period culture" in the country.[2] Many of the monks who came from China were accomplished calligraphers, and Obaku's founder Yinyuan Longqi and two other Ōbaku masters, Mokuan Shōtō and Sokuhi Nyoitsu, became known as the Ōbaku no Sanpitsu (or, the "Three Brushes of Ōbaku"). Author Steven Heine writes, "Areas where the influence of — or the reaction to — Ōbaku left an imprint on Japanese Buddhism is manifold, and its impact even reached the fields of Japanese cultural techniques, such as printing and painting.[3] Chinese medicine and architecture were also introduced, as was the practice of "spirit writing", the latter practiced by Ōbaku monks who were said to communicate with Chen Tuan.[4]

Rooted in the lineage (school) of Linji, and therefore sharing a familial relationship with the Rinzai-shū of Japan, the Ōbaku's approach to practice is today tinged with a hint of Chinese influence. More narrowly, Ōbaku abbots are now all from the Ōtōkan lineage, the same as Rinzai, and thus practices are largely similar, though this was not the case originally. Historically, the Ōbaku-shū has sometimes been referred to as "Nembutsu Zen"—a derogatory characterization intended to describe their use of "Zen and Pure Land practices."[5] Helen J. Baroni writes that today, "With a few notable exceptions, such as the style of sutra chanting (which continues to be done in an approximation of Fujian dialect), Ōbaku temples and monasteries appear very like their Rinzai neighbors."[6] Statistically the smallest school/sect of Zen in modern day Japan, the Ōbaku is also like the Rinzai-shū in that it is known to be more conservative and intellectually inclined than the Sōtō-shū.[7]

The development of the Ōbaku-shū in Japan began somewhere around 1620, a period when Chinese emigrants were coming to

  • Mampukuji Official Website
  • Joint Council for Japanese Rinzai and Obaku Zen

External links

  • Addiss, Stephen (1978). Obaku: Zen Painting and Calligraphy, Helen Foresman Spencer Museum of Art, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas
  • Linhartová, Vĕra (2002). La culture Ōbaku et le renouveau de l'art bouddhique au Japon à l'époque des Tokugawa, Arts asiatiques 57, 114-136
  • Moss, Paul et al. (2014). "Eat this and Drink Some Tea:" Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy and Painting of the Obaku School. London: Sydney L. Moss Gallery

Further reading

References

  1. ^ Dougill, 78
  2. ^ Fischer, et al.; 98
  3. ^ a b Heine, 255
  4. ^ a b Haskel, 37-38
  5. ^ Obaku Zen; 87
  6. ^ Iron Eyes; 6
  7. ^ Allen, 131
  8. ^ a b c d Zen Classics; 151
  9. ^ a b c d e f Dumoulin, 299-356
  10. ^ a b c Iron Eyes; 5-6
  11. ^ Totman; 404
  12. ^ a b Weidner, 293
  13. ^ Obaku Zen; 116
  14. ^ Obaku Zen; 82
  15. ^ a b c Zen Classics; 151-152
  16. ^ Baskind, 19-34
  17. ^ Obaku Zen; 112
  18. ^ Kraft; 165
  19. ^ Lloyd; 365
  20. ^ [1]
  21. ^ Coldicott 2009
  22. ^ 京懐石普茶料理, 閑臥庵 (Japanese)
  23. ^ Rowthorn, 89
  24. ^ Dodd, 722

Notes

See also

Subtemples

  • Manpuku-ji – Construction began in 1661 and concluded in 1669. Located in Kyoto, Manpuku-ji serves as the head temple of the Ōbaku school. It provides a "rare example" of a temple built in a purely Chinese Ming period architectural style in Japan.[23]

Head temple

Notable temples

The Ōbaku school also introduced to Japan and practices a variant of the Japanese tea ceremony which uses sencha leaf tea, rather than the more usual matcha powdered tea – see sencha tea ceremony.

The Ōbaku school is also well known for its style of vegetarian cooking known as fucha ryōri (普茶料理), its version of Buddhist cuisine (in Japan known as shōjin ryōri (精進料理, devotion cuisine)). This is similar to usual shōjin ryōri, but with more Chinese influence. It was introduced by Yinyuan and his group, and served at the main temple of Manpuku-ji,[20] along with various subtemples such as Kanga-an.[21][22]

Culture

Specifically, starting under the leadership of chief abbot Ryochu Nyoryu 良忠如隆 (1793–1868), Zen practice largely became the same as Rinzai practice, but monastic and cultural differences remain. Additionally, Buddhist sutras in the Ōbaku-shū continue today to be chanted in Chinese.[19]

The followers of Hakuin Ekaku (1687—1769) tried to purge the elements of Ōbaku Zen they found objectionable. They suppressed the Pure Land practice of reciting Amida Buddha's name, deemphasized the Vinaya, and replaced sutra study with a more narrow focus on traditional koan collections.

As a result of their approach, many Rinzai and Sōtō masters undertook reforming and revitalizing their own monastic institutions, such as Rinzai master Ungo Kiyō who even began implementing the use of nembutsu into his training regimen at Zuigan-ji.[15] T. Griffith Foulk writes:[18]

... regardless of its inclusion of Pure Land elements, the fact remained that the Ōbaku school, with its group practice of zazen on the platforms in a meditation hall and its emphasis on keeping the precepts, represented a type of communal monastic discipline far more rigorous than anything that existed at the time in Japanese Buddhism.

The Ōbaku-shū emphasized the taking of various precepts and also observed the Vinaya of the Dharmaguptaka tradition as well as sutra translation. But perhaps most obvious to the Japanese was their use of nembutsu[16] and also their use of the "nembutsu kōan" which entailed the practice of reciting the name of Amitabha while holding in one's mind the kōan, "Who is reciting?"[8] While foreign to the Japanese (despite this "dual practice" being introduced in Japan as early as the late 13th century),[17] this was very common in Ming period Ch'an, where there was no sectarian divide between Pure Land Buddhists and Ch'an practitioners. Author Steven Heine writes:[15]

Monastic practices of the Ōbaku-shū were once largely informed by the Ōbaku shingi (or, Ōbaku codes), composed in 1672 with ten sections outlining the practice regimen at Manpuku-ji. Steven Heine writes that, "The text reflected a few evolutionary changes that had taken place in Chinese monasteries since the Yuan, but it was squarely in the tradition of classical rules of purity such as the Chanyuan qingui and Chixiu baizhang qingqui."[8] It should be noted that the Rinzai branch Myōshin-ji authored their own set of monastic regulations (penned by Mujaku Dōchū)[15] in response to this later in 1685.[3] To be sure, Myoshinji was worried about losing students to the Ōbaku, who were growing in popularity. The Ōbaku's "emphasis on the precepts and the strict observance of monastic regulations embodied in Ōbaku shingi seem to have stimulated and encouraged certain Japanese masters of similar bent. In the Sōtō sect, for example, the Chinese teachers influenced the monastic codes of reformers like Gesshū Sōko and Manzan Dōhaku who had studied under Ōbaku masters."[4]

Portrait of Chinese monk Yinyuan (Ingen), who founded the Ōbaku school

Characteristics

Perhaps the most important Ōbaku practitioner besides Yinyuan Longqi was Tetsugen Dōkō, a Japanese man who lived from 1630 to 1682. Tetsugen is remembered for having transcribed the entire Ming period Chinese Tripitaka to woodblocks—known as the Tetsugen-ban or Ōbaku-ban (ban meaning edition).[14] Raised as part of the Jōdo Shinshū of Japan, Tetsugen first met Yinyuan in 1655 at Kōfuku-ji in Nagasaki and eventually came to join the Ōbaku.[9] The first Japanese abbot of Mampuku-ji assumed leadership of the Ōbaku in 1740, a man by the name of Ryūtō Gentō. From 1786 on through to modern day, the Ōbaku has been run and controlled by exclusively Japanese leadership.

After Yinyuan's retirement in 1664[12] and death in 1673, other monks who had come to Japan around the same time as he helped to carry on the tradition of practice at Manpuku-ji. The foremost of his disciples was Mokuan Shōtō, who became 2nd abbot of Manpuku-ji in 1664. During its formative years, Manpuku-ji was very popular in Japan with many adherents coming to the temple for instruction.[9] According to the book Latter Days of the Law, "For the next century, Manpuku-ji was headed by Chinese immigrant monks, and they sent their Japanese followers to found other temples. Obaku Zen quickly spread through the country."[12] At least one abbot of Manpuku-ji during this period of early Obaku history proved to be controversial. His name was Tu-chan Hsing-jung (Dokutan Shōtei), and he served as 4th abbot of Manpuku-ji. Critics charge that he took his emphasis on nembutsu recitation at Manpuku-ji too far, and he is today derisively nicknamed "Nembutsu Dokutan".[13]

Construction was completed in 1669, the architecture done in the Chinese Ming dynasty style. By authorization of the local bakufu leaders (i.e. Tokugawa Tsunayoshi[11]), the Ōbaku-shu emerged to help revitalize Rinzai practice in Japan. The practice at Manpuku-ji was different from that in other Rinzai temples and monasteries of Japan during this period, much more Chinese in its approach. Yinyuan brought with him aspects of esoteric Buddhism and Pure Land Buddhism. As Heinrich Dumoulin puts it, "For Zen practice in general, seated meditation and the practice of kōan are central, while cultic ceremony is of secondary importance. Insofar as the Ōbaku belonged to the Rinzai tradition, zazen and kōan practice were made part of daily life, but ritual was also accorded a place of considerable importance."[9] Furthermore, Ōbaku monasteries and temples came to be governed by a doctrine known as Ōbaku shingi, which both imported Chinese practices such as the recitation (dharani) of nembutsu and "sought to preserve the Chinese character of the group."[10] The Ōbaku also chanted sutras derived from the Pure Land Buddhism sect set to Chinese music.[9]

[10] (Ōbaku-san being the mountain name). This marks the emergence of the Ōbaku school/sect of Zen Buddhism in Japan.Kyoto prefecture of Uji in 1661 in Ōbaku-san Manpuku-ji As a consequence, Yinyuan began construction of the modern day head temple of the Ōbaku known as [9]