2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine
Names
IUPAC name
1-(2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane
Other names
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine
Identifiers
 N
(R) N
(S) N
ChEMBL  Y
ChemSpider  Y
Jmol-3D images Image
Image

R-isomer

PubChem
UNII  N
Properties
C12H19NO2
Molar mass 209.29 g/mol
Melting point 61 °C (142 °F; 334 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM; known on the street as STP, standing for "Serenity, Tranquility, and Peace") is a psychedelic and a substituted amphetamine. It was first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, and later reported in his book PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. DOM is classified as a Schedule I substance in the United States, and is similarly controlled in other parts of the world. Internationally, it is a Schedule I drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[1] It is generally taken orally.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Effects 2
  • Pharmacology 3
    • Analogues and derivatives 3.1
  • Toxicity 4
  • Legal status 5
    • Canada 5.1
    • United States 5.2
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

History

DOM was first synthesized and tested in 1963 by Alexander Shulgin, who was investigating the effect of 4-position substitutions on psychedelic amphetamines.[2]

In mid-1967, tablets containing 20 mg (later 10 mg) of DOM were widely distributed in the Haight-Ashbury District of San Francisco under the name of STP. This short-lived appearance of DOM on the black market proved disastrous for several reasons. First, the tablets contained an excessively high dose of the chemical. This, combined with DOM’s slow onset of action (which encouraged some users, familiar with drugs that have quicker onsets, such as LSD, to re-dose) and its remarkably long duration, caused many users to panic and sent some to the emergency room. Second, treatment of such overdoses was complicated by the fact that no one at the time knew that the tablets called STP were, in fact, DOM.

Effects

Effects of this drug include substantial perceptual changes such as blurred vision, multiple images, vibration of objects, visual hallucinations, distorted shapes, enhancement of details, slowed passage of time, increased sexual drive and pleasure, and increased contrasts. It may also cause pupillary dilation and a rise in systolic blood pressure.[3]

Pharmacology

DOM is a selective 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C receptor partial agonist. Its psychedelic effects are mediated by its agonistic properties at the 5-HT2A receptor. Due to its selectivity, DOM is often used in scientific research when studying the 5-HT2 receptor subfamily. DOM is a chiral molecule, and R-(−)-DOM is the more active enantiomer, functioning as a potent agonist of the serotonin 5-HT family of receptors; mainly of the 5-HT2 subtype.[4]

Analogues and derivatives

The 2,6-dimethoxy positional isomer of DOM, known as Ψ-DOM, is also mentioned in PiHKAL as being active, as is the alpha-ethyl homologue Ariadne. Analogues where the methoxy groups at the 2,5- positions of the aromatic ring have been altered have also been synthesised and tested as part of an effort to identify the binding mode of DOM at the 5-HT2A receptor. Both the 2- and 5- O-desmethyl derivatives 2-DM-DOM and 5-DM-DOM, and the 2- and 5- ethyl analogues 2-Et-DOM and 5-Et-DOM have been tested, but in all cases were significantly less potent than the corresponding methoxy compound, showing the importance of the oxygen lone pairs in 5-HT2A binding.[5][6]

Toxicity

Very little is known about the toxicity of DOM. According to Shulgin, the effects of DOM typically last 14 to 20 hours, though other clinical trials indicate a duration of 7 to 8 hours.[3]

Legal status

Canada

Listed as a Schedule 1, as it is an analogue of amphetamine.

United States

DOM is Schedule I in the United States. This means it is illegal to manufacture, buy, possess, or distribute (sell, trade or give) without a DEA license.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Green List: List of Psychotropic Substances Under International Control" ( 
  2. ^ Shulgin, Alexander (1991). Pihkal : a chemical love story. Berkeley, CA: Transform Press. pp. 53–56.  
  3. ^ a b Snyder, Solomon H.; Louis Faillace and Leo Hollister (3 November 1967). "2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methyl-amphetamine (STP): A New Hallucinogenic Drug" ( 
  4. ^ Sanders-Bush, E; Burris, KD; Knoth, K (September 1988). "Lysergic acid diethylamide and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine are partial agonists at serotonin receptors linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis".  
  5. ^ Eckler JR, Chang-Fong J, Rabin RA, Smith C, Teitler M, Glennon RA, Winter JC (July 2003). "Behavioral characterization of 2-O-desmethyl and 5-O-desmethyl metabolites of the phenylethylamine hallucinogen DOM". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 75 (4): 845–52.  
  6. ^ Braden, Michael Robert (May 2007). Towards a Biophysical Basis of Hallucinogen Action (Thesis). Purdue University.  

External links

  • DOM Entry in PiHKAL
  • DOM Entry in PiHKAL • info
  • Erowid DOM Vault