Afghan cuisine is largely based upon the nation's chief crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are native fruits and vegetables (including nuts) as well as dairy products such as milk, yogurt and whey. Kabuli Palau is the national dish of Afghanistan. The nation's culinary specialties reflect its ethnic and geographic diversity. Afghan food is generally prepared according to Islamic dietary laws. Afghanistan is known for its high quality pomegranates, grapes and sweet football-shaped melons.
Kabul influence on Afghan cuisine 1
- Dastarkhan 1.1
Major foods 2
- Breads and accompaniments 2.1
Rice dishes 2.2
- Types of rice dish 2.2.1
- Challow 2.2.2
- Pulao 2.2.3
- Bata 2.2.4
- Korma 2.3
- Pasta 2.4
- Kebab 2.5
- Quroot 2.6
- Other Afghan food items 2.7
- Drinks 2.8
- Eating out 3
- Special occasions 4
- See also 5
- References 6
- Further reading 7
- External links 8
Kabul influence on Afghan cuisine
An ancient city of art and tradition and the nation’s multicultural capital, Kabul has traditionally offered a wide variety of cooking styles and ingredients. Afghan food items known today were probably first served by urban residents. Most food and trade recipes were traditionally handed down through the generations. Late in the 19th or early in the 20th century, a collection of formal gastronomy documents was published by the Afghan government. These documents included preparation, food history, cookware fabrication and dining etiquette.
Afghanistan's varied climate allows for an abundance of crops throughout the seasons. Fresh yoghurt, coriander, garlic, onions, spring onions, tomatoes, potatoes and fruit are widely available in all parts of the country. Fruits and vegetables, fresh and dried, form an important part of the Afghan diet, especially in rural areas. Afghanistan produces a variety of fruits, notably grapes, pomegranates, apricots, berries and plums, which have traditionally been Afghanistan's main food exports. Nuts and seeds such as walnuts, pistachios, almonds, peanuts and pine nuts are popular and plentiful. A variety of oranges, known locally as "malta," are grown in the warm climate of the Nangarhar Province. Nangarhar's temperate climate supports groves for the nation’s consumption of olive oil. The Wardak Province is well known for its apples and apricots, as is Kandahar for its fabled pomegranates. Herbs and spices used in Afghan cuisine include mint, saffron, coriander, cilantro, cardamom and black pepper. Lamb and chicken are the preferred meats. Afghan cuisine emphasizes well-balanced, contrasting tastes and food is neither spicy nor bland.
Known as dastarkhan, the floor spread is an important expression of culture in Afghanistan. Regardless of economic status, creating an adequate dastarkhan is important to any family, especially when hosting guests. A large tablecloth is spread over a traditional rug. Usually a young family member presents the "aftabah wa lagan", a copper basin and elaborate pot filled with water, to each guest, pouring fresh water over the guest's hands. Soap is provided, as well as a drying cloth. The dastarkhan is then filled with breads, accompaniments, relishes, appetizers, main courses, salads, rice, and fruits. Arrangement is important as guests should have easy access to the specialty foods.
Breads and accompaniments
There are four main types of Afghan bread:
- Naan - literally, bread. Thin, long and oval shaped; mainly a white/whole wheat blend, variously topped with poppy seeds, sesame seeds, nigella seeds or some combination of these. More expensive naan is made with white flour and oil.
- Obi Non - Uzbek-style bread. Shaped like a disc and thicker than naan and often made with white flour.
- Chapati - also called sapati or dodi. The main type of bread used with meals in the Pashtun tribal areas.
- Lavash - very thin bread usually used as a plate for meats and stews.
Accompaniments may include:
- Torshi - various pickled fruits (e.g. peach, lemon) and vegetables (e.g. eggplant, garlic) mixed with vinegar and spices.
- Chutney - sauces usually made with vinegar, fresh cilantro, chili peppers and sometimes tomato paste.
Rice dishes are culturally the most important parts of a meal, and therefore much time and effort is spent creating them. Wealthier families will eat one rice dish per day, and royalty spent much time on rice preparation and invention, as evidenced in the number of rice dishes in their cookbooks. Weddings and family gatherings usually feature several rice dishes, and reputations can be made in the realm of rice preparation.
Types of rice dish
A type of white rice. The rice is first parboiled, then drained and finally baked in an oven with oil, butter and salt added. This method creates a fluffy rice with each grain separated.
Chalaow is served mainly with qormas (korma; stews or casseroles).
Cooked the same as chawal, but meat and stock, qorma, herbs, or a combination are blended in before the baking process. This creates elaborate colors, flavors, and aromas from which some rices are named. Caramelized sugar is also sometimes used to give the rice a rich brown color. Examples include:
- Kabuli Pulao - a national dish. Meat and stock is added, and topped with fried raisins, slivered carrots, and pistachios.
- Yakhni Pulao - meat and stock added. Creates a brown rice.
- Zamarod Pulao - spinach qorma mixed in before the baking process, hence 'zamarod' or emerald.
- Bore Pulao - qorm'eh Lawand added. Creates a yellow rice.
- Bonjan-e-Roomi Pulao - qorm'eh Bonjan-e-Roomi (tomato qorma) added during baking process. Creates red rice.
- Serkah Pulao - similar to yakhni pulao, but with vinegar and other spices.
- Shebet Pulao - fresh dill, raisins added during baking process.
- Narenj Pulao - a sweet and elaborate rice dish made with saffron, orange peel, pistachios, almonds and chicken.
- Maash Pulao - a sweet and sour pulao baked with mung beans, apricots, and bulgur wheat. Exclusively vegetarian.
- Alou Balou Pulao - sweet rice dish with cherries and chicken.
This dish is cooked with water and acquires a sticky consistency. It is usually eaten with a qorma, such as Sabzi (spinach) or Shalgham (turnips). With the addition of stock, meat, herbs, and grains, more elaborate dishes are created. Notable dishes include Mastawa, Kecheri Qoroot, and Shola. A sweet rice dish called Shir Birenj (literally milk rice) is often served as dessert.
Korma is a stew or casserole, usually served with chalau rice. Most are onion-based; onions are fried, then meat added, including a variety of fruits, spices, and vegetables, depending on the recipe. The onion is caramelized and creates a richly colored stew. There are over 100 kormas. Below are some examples:
- Korma Alou-Bokhara wa Dalnakhod - onion-based, with sour plums, lentils, and cardamom. Veal or chicken.
- Korma Nadroo - onion-based, with yogurt, lotus roots, cilantro, and coriander. Lamb or veal.
- Korma Lawand - onion-based, with yogurt, turmeric, and cilantro. Chicken, lamb, or beef.
- Korma Sabzi - sauteed spinach and other greens. Lamb.
- Korma Shalgham - onion-based, with turnips and sugar; sweet and sour taste. Lamb.
Known as khameerbob and often eaten in the form of dumplings. These native dishes are popular, but due to the time-consuming process of creating the dough for the dumplings, they are rarely served at large gatherings such as weddings, but for more special occasions at home:
- Mantu - Dumplings filled with onion and ground beef. Mantu is steamed and usually topped with a tomato-based sauce and a yogurt- or qoroot-based sauce. The yogurt-based topping is usually a mixture of yogurt, sour cream, and garlic. The qoroot-based sauce is made of goat cheese and is also mixed with garlic; a qoroot and yogurt mixture will sometimes be used. The dish is then topped with dried mint.
- Ashak - a dish associated with Kabul. Dumplings filled with leeks. Ashak is topped with garlic-mint qoroot or a garlic yogurt sauce and a well-seasoned ground meat mixture.
Each family or village will have its own version of mantu and ashak, which creates a wide variety of dumplings.
Afghan kebab is most often found in restaurants and outdoor vendor stalls. The most widely used meat is lamb. Recipes differ with every restaurant. Afghan kebab is served with naan, rarely rice, and customers have the option to sprinkle sumac or ghora, dried ground sour grapes, on their kebab. The quality of kebab is solely dependent on the quality of the meat. Pieces of fat from the sheep's tail (jijeq) are usually added with the lamb skewers to add extra flavor.
Chapli kebab, a specialty of Eastern Afghanistan, is a patty made from beef mince. It is a popular barbecue meals in both Pakistan and Afghanistan. The word Chapli comes from the Pashto word Chaprikh, which means flat. It is prepared flat and round, and served with naan. The original recipe of chapli kebab dictates a half meat (or less), half flour mixture, which renders it lighter in taste and less expensive.
Quroot (or Qoroot) is a reconstituted dairy product. It was traditionally a by-product of butter made from sheep or goat milk. The residual buttermilk remaining after churning of the butter is soured further by keeping it at room temperature for a few days, treated with salt, and then boiled. The precipitated casein is filtered through cheesecloth, pressed to remove liquid, and shaped into balls. The product is thus a very sour cottage cheese. Quroot is hard and can be eaten raw. It is typically served with cooked Afghan dishes such as Ashak, Mantu, and Qeshla Qoroot, among others.
Other Afghan food items
- Afghan Kofta (meatball)
- Afghan Kaddu Buranee (sweet pumpkins)
- Ashak (vegetable and chive-filled dumplings topped with tomato and yogurt sauces)
- Aush (hand-made noodles)
- Bichak (small turnovers with various fillings, including potato and herbs, or ground meat)
- Shorba (Afghan soup similar to borscht)
- Dolma (stuffed grape leaves)
- Londi, or gusht-e-qaaq (spiced jerky)
- Khichri (sticky medium-grain rice cooked with mung beans and onions)
- Badenjan (cooked eggplant with potatoes and tomatoes)
- Badenjan-Burani (fried slices of eggplant, topped with a garlic sour cream sauce and sprinkled with dried mint)
- Bhindi/Baamiyah (okra)
- Bolani (somewhat similar to Quesadilla)
- Nan-e-Afghan/Nan-e-Tandoori (Afghan bread cooked in a vertical ground clay oven, or a tandoor)
- Nan-e-Tawagy (flat bread cooked on a flat pan)
- Osh Pyozee (stuffed onion)
- Mantu (meat dumplings), usually served under a yogurt-based white sauce.
- Qabili Palau (traditional rice dish)
- Dampukht (steamed rice)
- Bonjan Salad (spicy eggplant salad)
- Shor-Nakhud (chickpeas with special toppings)
- Maast or labanyat (type of plain yogurt)
- Chakida or chakka (type of sour cream)
- Salata (tomato and onion-based salad, often incorporating cucumber)
- Sheer Berinj (rice pudding)
- Cream roll (pastry)
- Baklava (pastry)
- Afghan Cake (similar to pound cake, sometimes with real fruit or jelly inside)
- Gosh e feel (thin, fried pastries covered in powdered sugar and ground pistachios)
- Kebab (similar to Middle Eastern style)
- Fernea (milk and cornstarch help make this very sweet, similar to rice pudding without the rice)
- Mou-rubba (fruit sauce, sugar syrup and fruits, apple, sour cherry, or various berries, or made with dried fruits. "Afghan favorite is the Alu-Bakhara".)
- Kulcha (variety of cookies, baked in clay ovens with char-wood)
- Narenge Palau (dried sweet orange peel and green raisins with a variety of nuts, mixed with yellow rice glazed with light sugar syrup)
- Nargis kabob (egg-based angel hair pasta soaked in sugar syrup, wrapped around a piece of meat)
- Torshi (eggplant and carrot mixed with other herbs and spices, pickled in vinegar aged to perfection)
- Khoujoor (Afghan pastry, deep-fried, oval shaped, similar to doughnuts in taste)
- Kalah Chuquki or Kalah Gunjeshk (battered deep fried bird heads)
- Kalah Pacha (lamb or beef head/feet cooked in a broth, served in bowls as a soup dish or in a stew or curry)
- Shami kabob (cooked beef blended with spices, flour and eggs, rolled in hot dog shapes or flat round shapes and fried)
- Shorwa-E-Tarkari (meat and vegetable soup)
- Chopan kabob (lamb chops, skewered and grilled on charcoal)
- Delda or Oagra (mainly a Southern dish, made from the main ingredient of split wheat and a variety of beans mixed)
- Owmach (made from flour; a soup-like dish, very thick and pasty)
- Peyawa or Eshkana (a soup based on flour, very similar to a gravy, but mixed with chopped onion, potatoes and eggs)
- Aushe Sarka (vinegar-based flat noodle soup, taste very similar to Chinese hot and sour soup)
- Maushawa (mixed beans and tiny meat balls, served in a bowl)
Bendi (okra), also served for lunch or as a side dish
Doogh (known by Afghans as Shomleh/Shlombeh) is a cold drink made by mixing water with yogurt and then adding fresh or dried mint. It is the most widely consumed drink in Afghanistan, especially during lunch time in the summer season.
Afghans do not usually eat out at restaurants, but some restaurants have booths or a separate dining area for families.
Serving tea and white sugared almonds is a familiar custom during Afghan festivals. Eid-e-Qorban is celebrated at the end of the Haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, when families and friends come visiting each other to drink a cup of tea together and share some nuts, sweets, and sugared almonds called noql.
- Ali, Tanveer (31 July 2012). "Everything You Need To Know About Afghan Food". foodrepublic. Retrieved 2014-02-19.
- Brittin, Helen (2011). The Food and Culture Around the World Handbook. Boston: Prentice Hall. pp. 20–21.
- melon, Afghan Honeydew | Baker Creek Heirloom Seed Co
- Helen J. Saberi (1997). "Travel and Food in Afghanistan". In Harlan Walker. Food on the Move: Proceedings of the
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