Alpha-GPC

Alpha-GPC

Alpha-GPC
Systematic (IUPAC) name
[(2R)-2,3-Dihydroxypropyl] 2-trimethylazaniumylethyl phosphate
Clinical data
Legal status
  • OTC
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  N
ATC code N07
PubChem CID:
ChemSpider  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  N
Chemical data
Formula C8H20NO6P
Molecular mass 257.221 g/mol
 N   

L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GPC, choline alfoscerate) is a natural choline compound found in the brain. It is also a parasympathomimetic acetylcholine precursor[1] which may have potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease[2] and other dementias.[3]

Alpha-GPC rapidly delivers choline to the brain across the blood–brain barrier and is a biosynthetic precursor of acetylcholine.[2] It is a non-prescription drug in most countries and in the United States it is classified as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).[4]

Efficacy

Studies have investigated the efficacy of alpha-GPC for cognitive disorders including stroke and Alzheimer's disease. An Italian multicentre clinical trial on 2,044 patients suffering from recent stroke were supplied alpha-GPC in doses of 1,000 mg/day for 28 days and 400 mg three times per day for the five ensuing months. The trial confirmed the therapeutic role of alpha-GPC on the cognitive recovery of patients based on four measurement scales, three of which reached statistical significance.[5] Commonly used doses are 300 to 1,200 mg daily.[4]

Production

Industrially, alpha-GPC is produced by the chemical or enzymatic deacylation of phosphatidylcholine enriched soya phospholipids followed by chromatographic purification. Alpha-GPC may also be derived in small amounts from highly purified soy lecithin.

Storage

Many users report degradation of alpha-GPC when stored openly or for long periods of time. Alpha-GPC is hygroscopic and will pull moisture in from the surrounding air. This will cause the powder to turn into what appears to be a gel. Alpha-GPC with >99% purity will undergo this process at a visible rate (seconds to minutes) and thus requires minimized exposure to the air. This hygroscopic quality can cause gel capsules not fully packed with alpha-GPC to dissolve. Proper storage methods need to be used with alpha-GPC and include removing all air from the container, double bagging with plastic bags rated for chemicals (less likely to leak air), and storing bulk/excess inside the freezer. Vacuum sealed bags are highly recommended. For people accessing alpha-GPC daily it is advisable to separate a month's supply from excess and storing the excess as best as possible. Vacuum sealing a large supply into many 1 month dividends is a method positively reported by many users. It is important to note that hygroscopy is not degradation and leaves the substance still usable, however, the ability to accurately weigh a dose is no longer possible as the substance being weighed will be a mixture of powder and water. Liquefied or gelled alpha-GPC may also be indicative of poor storage and thus have an increased likelihood of actual degradation.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b US Food and Drug Administration: Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) Determination for the Use of AlphaSize Alpha-Glycerylphosphoryl Choline
  5. ^