American Flag

American Flag

"American Flag" redirects here. For other uses, see American Flag (disambiguation).


United States of America
Name The Stars and Stripes; Red, White and Blue; Old Glory; The Star-Spangled Banner
Use National flag and ensign
Proportion 10:19
Adopted June 14, 1777 (original 13-star version)

July 4, 1960 (current 50-star version)

Design Thirteen horizontal stripes alternating red and white; in the canton, 50 white stars of alternating numbers of six and five per row on a blue field

The national flag of the United States of America, often simply referred to as the American flag, consists of thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with white, with a blue rectangle in the canton (referred to specifically as the "union") bearing fifty small, white, five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars. The 50 stars on the flag represent the 50 states of the United States of America and the 13 stripes represent the thirteen British colonies that declared independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain and became the first states in the Union.[1] Nicknames for the flag include the "Stars and Stripes", "Old Glory",[2] and "The Star-Spangled Banner".

Symbolism

The modern meaning of the flag was forged in December 1860, when Major Robert Anderson moved the U.S. garrison from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Adam Goodheart argues this was the opening move of the Civil War, and the flag was used throughout the North to symbolize American nationalism and rejection of secessionism.

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The flag of the United States is one of the nation's most widely recognized symbols. Within the United States, flags are frequently displayed not only on public buildings but on private residences. The flag is a common motif on decals for car windows, and clothing ornaments such as badges and lapel pins. Throughout the world the flag has been used in public discourse to refer to the United States.

The flag has become a powerful symbol of Americanism, and is proudly flown on many occasions, with giant outdoor flags used by retail outlets to draw customers. Desecration of the flag is considered a public outrage, but remains protected as freedom of speech. In worldwide comparison, Testi (2010) notes that the United States is not unique in adoring its banner, for in Scandinavian countries their flags are also "beloved, domesticated, commercialized and sacralized objects".[3]

Design

Creation

The man credited with designing the current 50 star American flag is Robert G. Heft. He earned his place in history in 1958 while living with his grandparents in Ohio.[4]

Specifications

The basic design of the current flag is specified by specification gives the following values:

  • Hoist (width) of the flag: A = 1.0
  • Fly (length) of the flag: B = 1.9[5]
  • Hoist (width) of the canton ("union"): C = 0.5385 (A × 7/13, spanning seven stripes)
  • Fly (length) of the canton: D = 0.76 (B × 2/5, two-fifths of the flag length)
  • E = F = 0.0538 (C/10, One-tenth of the width of the canton)
  • G = H = 0.0633 (D/12, One twelfth of the length of the canton)
  • Diameter of star: K = 0.0616 (L × 4/5, four-fifths of the stripe width, the calculation only gives 0.0616 if L is first rounded to 0.077)
  • Width of stripe: L = 0.0769 (A/13, One thirteenth of the flag width)

These specifications are contained in an executive order which, strictly speaking, governs only flags made for or by the U.S. federal government.[6] In practice, most U.S. national flags available for sale to the public have a different length-to-width ratio; common sizes are 2 × 3 ft. or 4 × 6 ft. (flag ratio 1.5), 2.5 × 4 ft. or 5 × 8 ft. (1.6), or 3 × 5 ft. or 6 × 10 ft. (1.667). Even flags flown over the U.S. Capitol for sale to the public through Representatives or Senators are provided in these sizes.[7] Flags that are made to the prescribed 1.9 ratio are often referred to as "G-spec" (for "government specification") flags.

Colors

The exact red, white, and blue colors to be used in the flag are specified with reference to the CAUS Standard Color Reference of America, 10th edition. Specifically, the colors are "White", "Old Glory Red", and "Old Glory Blue".[8] The CIE coordinates for the colors of the 9th edition of the Standard Color Card were formally specified in JOSA in 1946.[9] These colors form the standard for cloth, and there is no perfect way to convert them to RGB for display on screen or CMYK for printing. The "relative" coordinates in the following table were found by scaling the luminous reflectance relative to the flag’s "white".

Official Colors[10]
Name Absolute Relative
CIELAB D65 Munsell CIELAB D50 sRGB GRACoL 2006
L* a* b* H V/C L* a* b* R G B 8-bit hex C M Y K
White 88.7 −0.2 5.4 2.5Y 8.8/0.7 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 1.000 #FFFFFF .000 .000 .000 .000
Old Glory Red 33.9 51.2 24.7 5.5R 3.3/11.1 39.9 57.3 28.7 .698 .132 .203 #B22234 .196 1.000 .757 .118
Old Glory Blue 23.2 13.1 −26.4 8.2PB 2.3/6.1 26.9 11.5 −30.3 .234 .233 .430 #3C3B6E .886 .851 .243 .122


As with the design, the official colors are only officially required for flags produced for the U.S. federal government, and other colors are often used for mass-market flags, printed reproductions, and other products intended to evoke flag colors. The practice of using more saturated colors than the official cloth is not new. As Taylor, Knoche, and Granville wrote in 1950: "The color of the official wool bunting [of the blue field] is a very dark blue, but printed reproductions of the flag, as well as merchandise supposed to match the flag, present the color as a deep blue much brighter than the official wool."[11]

Sometimes, Pantone Matching System (PMS) approximations to the flag colors are used. One set was given on the website of the U.S. embassy in London as early as 1998; the website of the U.S. embassy in Stockholm claimed in 2001 that those had been suggested by Pantone, and that the U.S. Government Printing Office preferred a different set. A third red was suggested by a California Military Department document in 2002.[12] In 2001, the Texas legislature specified that the colors of the Texas flag should be "(1) the same colors used in the United States flag; and (2) defined as numbers 193 (red) and 281 (dark blue) of the Pantone Matching System."[13]

Pantone Approximations[14]
Source PMS CIELAB D50 sRGB GRACoL 2006
L* a* b* R G B 8-bit hex C M Y K
Safe 100.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1.000 1.000 #FFFFFF .000 .000 .000 .000
U.S. Emb.,
London
193 C 42.1 64.4 26.7 .756 .076 .238 #C1133D .165 1.000 .678 .063
281 C 15.4 7.0 −41.8 .000 .149 .388 #002663 1.000 .906 .388 .231
U.S. Emb.,
Stockholm
186 C 44.1 67.8 37.9 .800 .048 .185 #CC0C2F .122 1.000 .796 .035
288 C 18.0 7.6 −50.3 .000 .172 .466 #002C77 1.000 .863 .357 .141
CA Mil. Dept. 200 C 41.1 64.2 30.8 .745 .051 .203 #BE0D34 .169 1.000 .749 .074

The 49- and 50-star unions

When Alaska and Hawaii were being considered for statehood in the 1950s, more than 1,500 designs were spontaneously submitted to President Dwight D. Eisenhower. Although some of them were 49-star versions, the vast majority were 50-star proposals. At least three of these designs were identical to the present design of the 50-star flag.[15] At the time, credit was given by the executive department to the United States Army Institute of Heraldry for the design.

Of these proposals, one created by 17-year-old Robert G. Heft in 1958 as a school project received the most publicity. His mother was a seamstress, but refused to do any of the work for him. He originally received a B– for the project. After discussing the grade with his teacher, it was agreed (somewhat jokingly) that if the flag was accepted by Congress, the grade would be reconsidered. Heft's flag design was chosen and adopted by presidential proclamation after Alaska and before Hawaii was admitted into the Union in 1959.[16] According to Heft, his teacher did keep to their agreement and changed his grade to an A for the project.[17] Both the 49- and 50-star flags were each flown for the first time ever at Fort McHenry on the Fourth of July one year apart, 1959 and 1960 respectively.[17]

Decoration

Traditionally, the flag may be decorated with golden fringe surrounding the perimeter of the flag as long as it does not deface the flag proper. Ceremonial displays of the flag, such as those in parades or on indoor posts, often use fringe to enhance the beauty of the flag.

The first recorded use of fringe on a flag dates from 1835, and the Army used it officially in 1895. No specific law governs the legality of fringe, but a 1925 opinion of the attorney general addresses the use of fringe (and the number of stars) "... is at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy ..." as quoted from footnote in previous volumes of Title 4 of the United States Code law books and is a source for claims that such a flag is a military ensign not civilian. However, according to the Army Institute of Heraldry, which has official custody of the flag designs and makes any change ordered, there are no implications of symbolism in the use of fringe.[18] Several federal courts have upheld this conclusion.[19][20] Traditionally, the Army and Air Force use a fringed National Color for parade, color guard and indoor display, while the Sea Services (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard) use a fringeless National Color for all uses.

Display and use

The flag is customarily flown all year-round at most public buildings, and it is not unusual to find private houses flying full-size (3' x 5') flags. Some private use is year-round, but becomes widespread on civic holidays like Memorial Day, Veterans Day, Presidents' Day, Flag Day, and on Independence Day. On Memorial Day it is common to place small flags by war memorials and next to the graves of U.S. war veterans. Also on Memorial Day it is common to fly the flag at half staff, until noon, in remembrance of those who lost their lives fighting in U.S. wars.

Flag etiquette

The United States Flag Code outlines certain guidelines for the use, display, and disposal of the flag. For example, the flag should never be dipped to any person or thing, unless it is the ensign responding to a salute from a ship of a foreign nation. This tradition may come from the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, where countries were asked to dip their flag to King Edward VII: the American flag bearer did not. Team captain Martin Sheridan is famously quoted as saying "this flag dips to no earthly king", though the true provenance of this quotation is unclear.[21][22]


The flag should never be allowed to touch the ground and, if flown at night, must be illuminated. If the edges become tattered through wear, the flag should be repaired or replaced. When a flag is so tattered that it can no longer serve as a symbol of the United States, it should be destroyed in a dignified manner, preferably by burning. The American Legion and other organizations regularly conduct flag retirement ceremonies, often on Flag Day, June 14. (The Boy Scouts of America recommends that modern nylon or polyester flags be recycled instead of burned, due to hazardous gases being produced when such materials are burned.)[23]

Significantly, the Flag Code prohibits using the flag "for any advertising purpose" and also states that the flag "should not be embroidered, printed, or otherwise impressed on such articles as cushions, handkerchiefs, napkins, boxes, or anything intended to be discarded after temporary use".[24] Both of these codes are generally ignored, almost always without comment.

One of the most commonly ignored and misunderstood aspects of the Flag Code is section 8. "The flag should never be used as wearing apparel, bedding, or drapery." Section 3 of the Flag Code[25] defines a flag for the purposes of the code. Contrary to popular belief, the U.S. Flag Code does permit the use of flag design in fashion et cetera, provided that such a design was not formed using the actual design of the flag. The wearing of any article of clothing representing the flag is allowed; however, wearing the flag itself is not.

Although the Flag Code is U.S. federal law, it is only binding on government institutions displaying the flag: there is no penalty for a private citizen or group failing to comply with the Flag Code and it is not widely enforced—indeed, punitive enforcement would conflict with the First Amendment right to freedom of speech.[26] Passage of the proposed Flag Desecration Amendment would overrule legal precedent that has been established.

Display on vehicles

When the flag is affixed to the side of a vehicle of any kind (e.g.: cars, boats, planes, anything that moves), it should be oriented so that the canton is towards the front of the vehicle, as if the flag were streaming backwards from its hoist as the vehicle moves forward. Therefore, U.S. flag decals on the right sides of vehicles may appear to be "reversed", with the union to the observer's right instead of left as more commonly seen.

The flag has been displayed on every US spacecraft designed for manned flight, including Mercury, Gemini, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, and the Space Shuttle. The flag also appeared on the S-IC first stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle used for Apollo. But since Mercury, Gemini and Apollo were launched and landed vertically and were not capable of horizontal atmospheric flight like an airplane, the "streaming" convention was not followed and these flags were oriented with the stripes running horizontally, perpendicular to the direction of flight.

Display on uniforms


On some U.S. military uniforms, flag patches are worn on the right shoulder, following the vehicle convention with the union toward the front. This rule dates back to the Army's early history, when both mounted cavalry and infantry units would designate a standard bearer, who carried the Colors into battle. As he charged, his forward motion caused the flag to stream back. Since the Stars and Stripes are mounted with the canton closest to the pole, that section stayed to the right, while the stripes flew to the left.[27] Several US military uniforms, such as flight suits worn by members of the United States Navy, have the flag patch on the left shoulder.[28]

Other organizations that wear flag patches on their uniforms can have the flag facing in either direction. The uniform of the Boy Scouts of America, for example, has the stripes facing front, the reverse of the military style. Law enforcement officers often wear a small flag patch, either on a shoulder, or above a shirt pocket.

Every US astronaut since the crew of Gemini 4 has worn the flag on the left shoulder of his or her space suit, with the exception of the crew of Apollo 1, whose flags were worn on the right shoulder. In this case, the canton was on the left.

Postage stamps

The flag did not appear on U.S. postal stamp issues until the

Display in museums

In 1907 Eben Appleton, New York stockbroker and grandson of Lieutenant Colonel George Armistead (the commander of Fort McHenry during the 1814 bombardment) lent the Star Spangled Banner Flag to the Smithsonian Institution, and in 1912 he converted the loan to a gift. Appleton donated the flag with the wish that it would always be on view to the public. In 1994, the National Museum of American History determined that the Star Spangled Banner Flag required further conservation treatment to remain on public display. In 1998 teams of museum conservators, curators, and other specialists helped move the flag from its home in the Museum’s Flag Hall into a new conservation laboratory. Following the reopening of the National Museum of American History on November 21, 2008, the flag is now on display in a special exhibition, "The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem," where it rests at a 10 degree angle in dim light for conservation purposes.[30]

Places of continuous display

By presidential proclamation, acts of Congress, and custom, U.S. flags are displayed continuously at certain locations.

Particular days for display


The flag should especially be displayed at full staff on the following days:

Display at half-staff

The flag is displayed at half-staff (half-mast in naval usage) as a sign of respect or mourning. Nationwide, this action is proclaimed by the president; state-wide or territory-wide, the proclamation is made by the governor. In addition, there is no prohibition against municipal governments, private businesses or citizens flying the flag at half-staff as a local sign of respect and mourning. However, many flag enthusiasts feel this type of practice has somewhat diminished the meaning of the original intent of lowering the flag to honor those who held high positions in federal or state offices. President Dwight D. Eisenhower issued the first proclamation on March 1, 1954, standardizing the dates and time periods for flying the flag at half-staff from all federal buildings, grounds, and naval vessels; other congressional resolutions and presidential proclamations ensued. However, they are only guidelines to all other entities: typically followed at state and local government facilities, and encouraged of private businesses and citizens.

To properly fly the flag at half-staff, one should first briefly hoist it top of the staff, then lower it to the half-staff position, halfway between the top and bottom of the staff. Similarly, when the flag is to be lowered from half-staff, it should be first briefly hoisted to the top of the staff.[46]

Only state governors can decide to lower the flag to half staff, according to US Code.

Federal guidelines state the flag should be flown at half-staff at the following dates/times:

  • May 15: Peace Officers Memorial Day, unless it is the third Saturday in May, Armed Forces Day, full-staff all day[47]
  • Last Monday in May: Memorial Day (until noon)
  • July 27: National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day (expired 2003; in 2009 became a day of full-staff observance)[48][49]
  • September 11: Patriot Day[50]
  • First Sunday in October: Start of Fire Prevention Week.[51][52]
  • December 7: National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day[53]
  • For 30 days: Death of a president or former president
  • For 10 days: Death of a vice president, Supreme Court chief justice/retired chief justice, or speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • From death until the day of interment: Supreme Court associate justice, member of the Cabinet, former vice president, president pro-tempore of the Senate, or the majority and minority leaders of the Senate and House of Representatives. Also for federal facilities within a state or territory, for the governor.
  • On the day after the death: Senators, members of Congress, territorial delegates or the resident commissioner of the commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Further, the flag is always flown at half-staff at four locations in the United States. These locations are The Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery; Arlington House at Arlington National Cemetery; the U.S.S. Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, and Mackinac Island, Michigan (Fort Mackinac Post Cemetery).[54]

Folding for storage

Though not part of the official Flag Code, according to military custom, flags should be folded into a triangular shape when not in use. To properly fold the flag:

  1. Begin by holding it waist-high with another person so that its surface is parallel to the ground.
  2. Fold the lower half of the stripe section lengthwise over the field of stars, holding the bottom and top edges securely.
  3. Fold the flag again lengthwise with the blue field on the outside.
  4. Make a rectangular fold then a triangular fold by bringing the striped corner of the folded edge to meet the open top edge of the flag, starting the fold from the left side over to the right.
  5. Turn the outer end point inward, parallel to the open edge, to form a second triangle.
  6. The triangular folding is continued until the entire length of the flag is folded in this manner (usually thirteen triangular folds, as shown at right). On the final fold, any remnant that does not neatly fold into a triangle (or in the case of exactly even folds, the last triangle) is tucked into the previous fold.
  7. When the flag is completely folded, only a triangular blue field of stars should be visible.

There is also no specific meaning for each fold of the flag. However, there are scripts read by non-government organizations and also by the Air Force that are used during the flag folding ceremony. These scripts range from either a historical timeline about the flag or have religious themes.[55][56][57]

Use in funerals

Traditionally, the flag of the United States plays a role in military funerals,[58] and occasionally in funerals of other civil servants (such as law enforcement officers, fire fighters, and U.S. presidents). A burial flag is draped over the deceased's casket as a pall during services. Just prior to the casket being lowered into the ground, the flag is ceremonially folded and presented to the deceased's next of kin as a token of respect.[59]

History

The design of the flag has been modified 26 times officially, since 1777. The 48-star flag was in effect for 47 years until the 49-star version became official on July 4, 1959. The 50-star flag was ordered by President Eisenhower on August 21, 1959.[60]

First flag

At the time of the Declaration of Independence, the Continental Congress would not legally adopt flags with "stars, white in a blue field" for another year. The flag contemporaneously known as "the Continental Colors" has historically been referred to as the first national flag.[61]

The Continental Navy raised the Colors as the ensign of the fledgling nation in the American War for Independence—likely with the expedient of transforming their previous British red ensigns by adding white stripes—and would use this flag until 1777, when it would form the basis for the subsequent de jure designs.[61][62]

The name "Grand Union" was first applied to the Continental Colors by George Preble in his 1872 history of the American flag.[62]

The flag closely resembles the British East India Company flag of the era, and Sir Charles Fawcett argued in 1937 that the Company flag inspired the design.[63] Both flags could have been easily constructed by adding white stripes to a British Red Ensign, the maritime flag used throughout the British Empire. However, an East India Company flag could have from nine to 13 stripes, and was not allowed to be flown outside the Indian Ocean.[64]

In any case, both the stripes (barry) and the stars (mullets) have precedents in classical heraldry. Mullets were comparatively rare in early modern heraldry, but an example of mullets representing territorial divisions predating the US flag are those in the coat of arms of Valais of 1618, where seven mullets stood for seven districts.

The Flag Resolution of 1777

On June 14, 1777, the Second Continental Congress passed the Flag Resolution which stated: "Resolved, That the flag of the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation."[65] Flag Day is now observed on June 14 of each year. While scholars still argue about this, tradition holds that the new flag was first hoisted in June 1777 by the Continental Army at the Middlebrook encampment.[66]



The 1777 resolution was most probably meant to define a naval ensign. In the late 18th century, the notion of national flag did not yet exist, or was only nascent. The flag resolution appears between other resolutions from the Marine Committee. On May 10, 1779, Secretary of the Board of War Richard Peters expressed concern "it is not yet settled what is the Standard of the United States."[67]

The Flag Resolution did not specify any particular arrangement, number of points, nor orientation for the stars and the arrangement and appearance was up to the maker of the flag. Some flag makers arranged the stars into one big star, in a circle or in rows and some replaced a state's star with its initial.[68] One famous arrangement features 13 outwardly-oriented five-pointed stars arranged in a circle, the so-called Betsy Ross flag. Although the Betsy Ross legend is controversial, the design is among the earliest 13-star flags. Popular designs at the time were varied and most were individually crafted rather than mass-produced. Examples of 13-star arrangements can be found on other flags attributed to Francis Hopkinson, the Cowpens flag, and the Brandywine flag. Given the scant archaeological and written evidence, it is unknown if one design was the most popular during the period.

Despite the 1777 resolution, a number of flags only loosely based on the prescribed design were used in the early years of American independence. One example may have been the Guilford Court House Flag, traditionally believed to have been carried by the American troops at the Battle of Guilford Court House in 1781. Other evidence suggests it dates only to the nineteenth century.[69] The original flag is at the North Carolina Historical Museum.

The origin of the stars and stripes design is inadequately documented. The apocryphal story credits Betsy Ross for sewing the first flag from a pencil sketch handed to her by George Washington. No evidence for this exists; indeed, nearly a century had passed before Ross' grandson, William Canby, first publicly suggested it.[70] Another woman, Rebecca Young, has also been credited as having made the first flag by later generations of her family. Young's daughter was Mary Pickersgill, who made the Star Spangled Banner Flag.[71][72] According to rumor, the Washington family coat of arms, shown in a 15th-century window of Selby Abbey, was the origin of the stars and stripes.[73]

It is clear that Francis Hopkinson of New Jersey, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, designed the 1777 flag[74] while he was the Chairman of the Continental Navy Board's Middle Department, sometime between his appointment to that position in November 1776 and the time that the flag resolution was adopted in June 1777. This contradicts the Betsy Ross legend, which suggests that she sewed the first Stars and Stripes flag by request of the government in the Spring of 1776.[75][76] Hopkinson was the only person to have made such a claim during his own lifetime, when he sent a bill to Congress for his work. He asked for a "Quarter Cask of the Public Wine" as payment initially. The payment was not made, however, because it was determined he had already received a salary as a member of Congress, and he was not the only person to have contributed to the design.[77]

Later flag acts

In 1795, the number of stars and stripes was increased from 13 to 15 (to reflect the entry of Vermont and Kentucky as states of the Union). For a time the flag was not changed when subsequent states were admitted, probably because it was thought that this would cause too much clutter. It was the 15-star, 15-stripe flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write "Defense of Fort McHenry," later known as "The Star-Spangled Banner", which is now the American national anthem. The flag is currently on display in the exhibition, "The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem" at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History in a two-story display chamber that protects the flag while it is on view.[30]


On April 4, 1818, a plan was passed by Congress at the suggestion of U.S. Naval Captain Samuel C. Reid[78] in which the flag was changed to have 20 stars, with a new star to be added when each new state was admitted, but the number of stripes would be reduced to 13 so as to honor the original colonies. The act specified that new flag designs should become official on the first July 4 (Independence Day) following admission of one or more new states. The most recent change, from 49 stars to 50, occurred in 1960 when the present design was chosen, after Hawaii gained statehood in August 1959. Before that, the admission of Alaska in January 1959 prompted the debut of a short-lived 49-star flag.[79]

Prior to the adoption of the 48-star flag in 1912, there was no official arrangement of the stars in the canton, although the Army and Navy used standardized designs. Throughout the 19th century there were a plethora of star patterns, rectangular and circular.

On July 4, 2007, the 50-star flag became the version of the flag in longest use.

The "Flower Flag" arrives in Asia

The U.S. flag was brought to the city of Canton (Guǎngzhōu) in China in 1785 by the merchant ship Empress of China, which carried a cargo of ginseng.[80] There it gained the designation "Flower Flag" (Chinese: 花旗; pinyin: huāqí; Cantonese Yale: fākeì).[81] According to author and U.S. Naval officer George H. Preble:

When the thirteen stripes and stars first appeared at Canton much curiosity was excited among the people. News was circulated that a strange ship had arrived from the farther end of the world, bearing a flag as beautiful as a flower. Everybody went to see the Kaw-kee-cheun [花旗船], or flower-flag ship. This name at once established itself in the language, and America is now called Kaw-kee-koh [Chinese: 花旗國; pinyin: Huāqíguó; Cantonese Yale: Fākeìgwok], the flower-flag country, and an American, Kah-kee-koh-yin [花旗國人], flower flag country man,—a more complimentary designation than that of red-headed barbarian [ang-moh-lang], the name first bestowed on the Dutch.[80]

In the above quote, the Chinese words are written phonetically based on spoken Cantonese. The names given were common usage in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[82] Other Asian nations have equivalent terms for America, for example Vietnamese: Hoa Kỳ ("Flower Flag"). Chinese nowadays refer to the United States as simplified Chinese: 美国; traditional Chinese: 美國; pinyin: Měiguó. Měi is short for Měilìjiān (a Chinese pronunciation of "America") and "guó" means "country", so this name is unrelated to the flag. However, the "flower flag" terminology persists in some places today; for example, American Ginseng is called simplified Chinese: 花旗参; traditional Chinese: 花旗參; literally "flower flag ginseng" in Chinese.

The U.S. flag took its first trip around the world in 1787–90 on board the Columbia.[81] William Driver, who coined the phrase "Old Glory", took the U.S. flag around the world in 1831–32.[81] The flag attracted the notice of Japanese when an oversized version was carried to Yokohama by the steamer Great Republic as part of a round-the-world journey in 1871.[83]

Historical progression of designs

In the following table depicting the 28 various designs of the United States flag, the star patterns for the flags are merely the usual patterns, often associated with the United States Navy. Canton designs, prior to the proclamation of the 48-star flag, had no official arrangement of the stars. Furthermore, the exact colors of the flag were not standardized until 1934.[84]

Number of
stars
Number of
stripes
Design(s) States represented
by new stars
Dates in use Duration
0 13 N/A Template:Dts/outmdy1[85] – June 14, 1777 1 12 years
13 13 Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Virginia Template:Dts/outmdy1 – May 1, 1795 18 years
15 15 Vermont, Kentucky Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1818 23 years
20 13 Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1819 1 year
21 13 Illinois Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1820 1 year
23 13 Alabama, Maine Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1822 2 years
24 13 Missouri Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1836
1831 term "Old Glory" coined
14 years
25 13 Arkansas Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1837 1 year
26 13 Michigan Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1845 8 years
27 13 Florida Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1846 1 year
28 13 Texas Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1847 1 year
29 13 Iowa Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1848 1 year
30 13 Wisconsin Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1851 3 years
31 13 California Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1858 7 years
32 13 Minnesota Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1859 1 year
33 13 Oregon Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1861 2 years
34 13 Kansas Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1863 2 years
35 13 West Virginia Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1865 2 years
36 13 Nevada Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1867 2 years
37 13 Nebraska Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1877 10 years
38 13 Colorado Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1890 13 years
43 13 Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1891 1 year
44 13 Wyoming Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1896 5 years
45 13 Utah Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1908 12 years
46 13 Oklahoma Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1912 4 years
48 13 Arizona, New Mexico Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1959 47 years
49 13 Alaska Template:Dts/outmdy1 – July 3, 1960 1 year
50 13 Hawaii Template:Dts/outmdy1 – present 53 years

Similar national flags

  • The flag of Bikini Atoll is symbolic of the islanders' belief that a great debt is still owed to the people of Bikini because in 1954 the United States government detonated a thermonuclear bomb on the island as part of the Castle Bravo test.[86]
  • The flag of Liberia bears a close resemblance, showing the ex-American-slave origin of the country.[87] The Liberian flag has 11 similar red and white stripes, which stand for the 11 signers of the Declaration of Independence, as well as a blue square with only a single large white star for the canton.
  • The Flag of the Republic of Texas is very similar as well and flew for seven years from 1839-1846 as the Country flag and for over 150 years from 1846–present day as the State flag.
  • The flag of Togo resembles a Liberian flag with five stripes, though the colors are Pan-African colors.
  • The very short lived First Flag of the Republic of the United States of Brazil, (November 15–19, 1889) resembles the U.S. flag, but uses Brazil's traditional colors of green, yellow, and blue instead of the U.S. flag's red, white, and blue. It was designed to honor the American people and the American Revolution.
  • The flag of El Salvador from 1865 to 1912. A different flag was in use, based on the flag of the United States, with a field of alternating blue and white stripes and a red canton containing white stars.
  • Despite Malaysia having no historical connections with the USA, the flag of Malaysia greatly resembles the US flag. It is possible that the flag of the British East India Company influenced both the Malaysian and USA flag.[63][88]

See also

Article sections

Associated people

References

Bibliography

  • Allentown Art Museum. The American Flag in the Art of Our Country. Allentown Art Museum, 1976.
  • Herbert Ridgeway Collins. Threads of History: Americana Recorded on Cloth 1775 to the Present. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979.
  • Grace Rogers Cooper. Thirteen-star Flags: Keys to Identification. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1973.
  • David D. Crouthers. Flags of American History. Hammond, 1978.
  • Louise Lawrence Devine. The Story of Our Flag. Rand McNally, 1960.
  • William Rea Furlong, Byron McCandless, and Harold D. Langley. So Proudly We Hail: The History of the United States Flag. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1981.
  • Scot M. Guenter, The American Flag, 1777–1924: Cultural Shifts from Creation to Codification. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. 1990. online
  • Kevin Keim & Peter Keim. A Grand Old Flag: A History of the United States through its Flags. DK Publishing. 2007. ISBN 978-0-7566-2847-5.
  • . Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin's Press, 2005.
  • David Roger Manwaring. Render Unto Caesar: The Flag-Salute Controversy. University of Chicago Press, 1962.
  • Boleslaw Mastai and Marie-Louise D'Otrange Mastai. The Stars and the Stripes: The American Flag as Art and as History from the Birth of the Republic to the Present. Knopf, 1973.
  • Milo Milton Quaife. The Flag of the United States. 1942.
  • Milo Milton Quaife, Melvin J. Weig, and Roy Applebaum. The History of the United States Flag, from the Revolution to the Present, Including a Guide to Its Use and Display. Harper, 1961.
  • Albert M. Rosenblatt. "Flag Desecration Statutes: History and Analysis," Washington University Law Quarterly 1972: 193–237.
  • Leonard A. Stevens. Salute! The Case of The Bible vs. The Flag. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.
  • Arnaldo Testi. Capture the Flag: The Stars and Stripes in American History (New York University Press; 2010) 192 pages. A European perspective on the symbolism and political, social, and cultural significance of the flag.

External links

  • Official American Flag Etiquette
  • USA TODAY
  • Flags of the World
  • The Thirteen Stars and Stripes: A Survey of 18th Century Images of the US Flag
  • U.S. Flag Etiquette—ushistory.org
  • U.S. Flag etiquette—americanflags.org
  • Video on the History of the United States Flag
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the flag
  • Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Facts About the United States Flag (citation needs to be updated)
  • The Flag Code—U.S. Code Home: Title 4, Flag and Seal, Seat of Government, and the States—Chapter 1, The Flag—Provides details about the design of the flag, treatment of the flag, the pledge of allegiance, etc.
  • Executive Order No. 10798, with specifications and regulations for the current flag
  • Is the American Flag Alive?
  • Flag of the United States of America
  • Civil Air Patrol – Flag Folding (YouTube)—Video on the proper folding of the United States flag
  • Photo gallery: Inside an American flag manufacturing plan
  • , September 9, 2001.
  • July 1942: United We Stand—An online exhibition from the National Museum of American History highlighting some 500 magazines from across the country that featured the American flag on their cover during World War II
  • The Star-Spangled Banner: The Flag That Inspired the National Anthem—An online exhibition from the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution
  • Slate magazine

Template:List of official United States national symbols