Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin (INN, BAN, USAN)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S,5R,6R)-6-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-acetyl]amino}-3,3-dimethyl-7-oxo-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-24-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Trade names Amoxil, Tycil, and Trimox, among others
AHFS/Drugs.com
MedlinePlus
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: A
  • US: B (No risk in non-human studies)
Legal status
Routes of
administration
Oral, intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 95% oral
Metabolism less than 30% biotransformed in liver
Biological half-life 61.3 minutes
Excretion renal
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  YesY
ATC code J01 QG51
PubChem CID:
DrugBank  YesY
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
KEGG  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  YesY
Chemical data
Formula C16H19N3O5S
Molecular mass 365.4 g/mol
 YesY   

Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin and amox, is an health system.[4] It is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics in children.[5] Amoxicillin is available as a generic medication.[1] It has a wholesale costs between 0.02 and 0.05 USD per pill.[6] In the United States ten days of treatment costs about 16 USD.[1]

Contents

  • Medical uses 1
    • Respiratory infections 1.1
    • Skin infections 1.2
    • Infections in infants in resource-limited settings 1.3
    • Prevention of bacterial endocarditis 1.4
    • Combination treatment 1.5
    • Spectrum of activity 1.6
  • Adverse effects 2
    • Nonallergic rash 2.1
  • Interaction 3
  • Mechanism of actions 4
  • History 5
  • Society and culture 6
    • Modes of delivery 6.1
    • Names 6.2
  • References 7
  • Further reading 8
  • External links 9

Medical uses

Amoxicillin BP

Amoxicillin is used in the treatment of a number of infections, including acute otitis media, streptococcal pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, urinary tract infections, Salmonella infections, Lyme disease, and chlamydia infections.[1]

Respiratory infections

Amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate have been recommended by guidelines as the drug of choice for bacterial [10]

Skin infections

Amoxicillin is occasionally used for the treatment of skin infections, such as acne vulgaris.[11] It is often an effective treatment for cases of acne vulgaris that have responded poorly to other antibiotics, such as doxycycline and minocycline.[12]

Infections in infants in resource-limited settings

Amoxicillin is recommended by the World Health Organization for the treatment of infants with signs and symptoms of pneumonia in resource-limited situations when the parents are unable or unwilling to accept hospitalization of the child. Amoxicillin in combination with gentamicin is recommended for the treatment of infants with signs of other severe infections when hospitalization is not an option.[13]

Prevention of bacterial endocarditis

It is also used to prevent bacterial endocarditis in high-risk people having dental work done, to prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae and other encapsulated bacterial infections in those without spleens, such as people with sickle-cell disease, and for both the prevention and the treatment of anthrax.[1] The United Kingdom recommends against its use for infectious endocarditis prophylaxis.[14] These recommendations do not appear to have changed the rates of infection for infectious endocarditis.[15]

Combination treatment

Amoxicillin is susceptible to degradation by β-lactamase-producing bacteria, which are resistant to a narrow spectrum of β-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillin. For this reason, it may be combined with clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This drug combination is commonly called co-amoxiclav.[16]

Spectrum of activity

It is a moderate-spectrum, bacteriolytic, β-Lactam antibiotic in the aminopenicillin family used to treat susceptible Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β-lactam antibiotics. In general, Streptococcus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus, Haemophilus, Helicobacter, and Moraxella are susceptible to amoxicillin, whereas Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosaare resistant to it.[17] Some E. coli and most clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus have developed resistance to amoxicillin to varying degrees.

Adverse effects

Side effects are similar to those for other β-lactam antibiotics, including nausea, vomiting, rashes, and antibiotic-associated colitis. Loose bowel movements (diarrhea) may also occur. Rarer side effects include mental changes, lightheadedness, insomnia, confusion, anxiety, sensitivity to lights and sounds, and unclear thinking. Immediate medical care is required upon the first signs of these side effects.

The onset of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin can be very sudden and intense; emergency medical attention must be sought as quickly as possible. The initial phase of such a reaction often starts with a change in mental state, skin rash with intense itching (often beginning in fingertips and around groin area and rapidly spreading), and sensations of fever, nausea, and vomiting. Any other symptoms that seem even remotely suspicious must be taken very seriously. However, more mild allergy symptoms, such as a rash, can occur at any time during treatment, even up to a week after treatment has ceased. For some people allergic to amoxicillin, the side effects can be fatal due to anaphylaxis.

Use of the amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination for more than one week has caused mild hepatitis in some patients. Young children having ingested acute overdoses of amoxicillin manifested lethargy, vomiting, and renal dysfunction.[18][19]

Nonallergic rash

Between 3 and 10% of children taking amoxicillin (or ampicillin) show a late-developing (>72 hours after beginning medication and having never taken penicillin-like medication previously) rash, which is sometimes referred to as the "amoxicillin rash". The rash can also occur in adults.

The rash is described as maculopapular or morbilliform (measles-like; therefore, in medical literature, it is called "amoxicillin-induced morbilliform rash".[20]) It starts on the trunk and can spread from there. This rash is unlikely to be a true allergic reaction, and is not a contraindication for future amoxicillin usage, nor should the current regimen necessarily be stopped. However, this common amoxicillin rash and a dangerous allergic reaction cannot easily be distinguished by inexperienced persons, so a healthcare professional is often required to distinguish between the two.[21][22]

A nonallergic amoxicillin rash may also be an indicator of infectious mononucleosis. Some studies indicate about 80-90% of patients with acute Epstein Barr virus infection treated with amoxicillin or ampicillin develop such a rash.[23]

Interaction

Amoxicillin may interact with these drugs:

Mechanism of actions

This drug acts by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls. It inhibits cross-linkage between the linear peptidoglycan polymer chains that make up a major component of the cell walls of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

It has two ionizable groups in the physiological range (the amino group in alpha-position to the amide carbonyl group and the carboxyl group).

History

Amoxicillin was one of several semisynthetic derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) developed at Beecham, England in the 1960s. It became available in 1972, and was the second aminopenicillin to reach the market (after ampicillin in 1961).[25][26][27] Co-amoxiclav became available in 1981.[26]

Society and culture

Amoxicillin is the INN and BAN name while amoxycillin is the AAN.

Modes of delivery

Pharmaceutical manufacturers make amoxicillin in trihydrate form, for oral use available as capsules, chewable and dispersible tablets, syrup and pediatric suspension for oral use, and as the sodium salt for intravenous administration. Amoxicillin is most commonly taken orally. The liquid forms are helpful where the patient might find it difficult to take tablets or capsules. Intravenous form is not sold in USA

Research with mice indicated successful delivery using intraperitoneally injected amoxicillin-bearing microparticles.[28]

Names

Amoxicillin is the INN, BAN, and USAN) while amoxycillin is the AAN.

Amoxicillin is one of the semisynthetic penicillins discovered by Beecham scientists. The patent for amoxicillin has expired, thus amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav preparations are marketed under many trade names and/or have several synonyms across the world, such as:

  • Actimoxi[29]
  • Alphamox
  • Amimox
  • AMOXIZIF
  • Amocla
  • AMK
  • Amoksiklav
  • Amorion
  • Amoxibactin (animal use)
  • Amoxibos
  • Amoxiclav
  • Amoxidal
  • Amoxil
  • Amoxin[30]
  • Amoxibiotic[31]
  • Amoxicilina
  • Amoxidal
  • Amoxoral (animal use)
  • Apo-Amoxy
  • Arsogil[32]
  • Augmentin
  • Bactox
  • Bioxidona[33]
  • Cilamox
  • Clamoxyl
  • Clavamox
  • Clonamox
  • Curam
  • Dedoxil
  • Dispermox
  • Duomox
  • Defender[34]
  • E-Mox[35]
  • Enhancin
  • Ezymox[36]
  • Gimalxina
  • Geramox
  • Hiconcil
  • Himox
  • Isimoxin[37]
  • Klavax
  • Klavocin
  • Klavox
  • Lamoxy
  • Largopen
  • MOX
  • Moxatag
  • Moxiclav Duo [38]
  • Moxilen
  • Moxypen
  • Moxyvit
  • Nobactam
  • Novamoxin
  • Optamox
  • Ospamox
  • Pamoxicillin
  • Panklav
  • Pinamox
  • Penamox
  • Polymox
  • Senox [39]
  • Sinacilin
  • Skymox[40]
  • Spektramox
  • Starmox[41]
  • Trimox
  • Tolodina[42]
  • Tormoxin
  • Tyclav[43]
  • Unimox
  • Vidamox
  • Wedemox
  • Wymox
  • Yucla
  • remox
  • Zerrsox
  • Zimox
  • Zoxicillin[44]

Names without individual reference are referenced on the drugs.com website.[45]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ British National Formulary 57 March 2009
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ Catalog.md: Actimoxi Linked 2013-12-09
  30. ^ Amoxin Linked 2014-07-23
  31. ^ Catalog.md: Amoxibiotic Linked 2013-12-09
  32. ^ Aversi (Georgia): Arsogil Linked 2013-12-09
  33. ^ Catalog.md: Bioxidona Linked 2013-12-09
  34. ^ DrugsUpdate India: Defender from Sac Pharma Linked 2013-12-09
  35. ^ Eipico (Egypt): E-Mox Linked 2013-12-09
  36. ^ DrugsUpdate India: Ezymox from Sac Pharma Linked 2013-12-09
  37. ^ Catalog.md: Isimoxin Linked 2013-12-09
  38. ^ [1]
  39. ^ BioPortal: Senox Linked 2013-12-09
  40. ^ PalMediNet: Skymox Linked 2013-12-09
  41. ^ Sarthak Biotech India: Starmox Linked 2013-12-09
  42. ^ Catalog.md: Tolodina Linked 2013-12-09
  43. ^ Beximco Pharma, Bangladesh: Tyclav Linked 2013-12-09
  44. ^ PakMediNet (Pakistan): Zoxicillin Linked 2013-12-09
  45. ^ Drugs.com: Amoxicillin Linked 2013-12-09

Further reading

External links

  • U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal - Amoxicillin