Annals (Latin: annāles, from annus, "year")[1][2] are properly a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year,[1] although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.[2]


  • Scope 1
  • History 2
    • Ancient 2.1
    • Medieval 2.2
    • Modern 2.3
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The nature of the distinction between annals and history is a subject that has received more attention from critics than its intrinsic importance deserves, based on divisions established by the ancient Romans.[1]

  •  "Annals".  

External links

  • "Annals", , 9th ed.Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. II, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1878, pp. 60–61 .
  • "Annals", , 11th ed.Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol. II, .  
  • "n."annals, , Oxford English Dictionary, Vol. I, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1888 [First added 1884], p. 338 .
  • Gibson, Margaret Dunlop (1903), The Didascalia Apostolorum in Syriac, .  
  • Schwartz, E. (1905), Christliche und jüdische Ostertafeln [Christian and Jewish Easter Tables], Berlin . (German)
  • White, Hayden V. (1987), The Content of Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press .
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j EB (1878).
  2. ^ a b OED (1884).
  3. ^ Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, v.18.
  4. ^ a b White (1987), p. 16.
  5. ^ a b White (1987), p. 7.
  6. ^ White (1987), p. 11.
  7. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, ii.12.52.
  8. ^ a b Servius, ad Aen. i.373.
  9. ^ a b c d e f EB (1911).
  10. ^ Schwartz (1905), pp. 104 ff.
  11. ^ Gibson (1903), p. 100.
  12. ^ Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., 7.


  1. ^ Latin: per singulos dies.[8]



See also

It is also applied to various periodicals, particularly peer-reviewed journals in the sciences, after the model of Lavoisier's Annales de chimie et de physique.

In modern literature, the term "annals" is similarly loosely applied to works which more or less strictly adhere to the order of years,[9] both in western contexts (English Annual Registers, French Annuaires de la Revue, German Jahrbücher) and to equivalent styles in other cultures (such as the Chinese Spring and Autumn Annals).


Introduced by insular missionaries to the continent, these texts were recopied, augmented, and continued, especially in Austrasia.[9] During the 9th-century Carolingian Renaissance, they became the usual form of contemporary history: major examples include the Royal Frankish Annals, the Annals of Fulda (Annales Fuldenses), the Annals of St Bertin (Annales Bertiniani), and the Annals of Lorsch (Annales Laureschamenses).[9] As the annals developed into fuller and more descriptive entries, they became more indistinguishable from chronicles, although the term was still used for various works, such as the Annals of Waverley.[9]

Among the early Christians, it was common to establish the date of Easter by asking local Jews for the date of Passover (Nisan 14 in the Jewish calendar) and either using that date or the nearest Sunday to it.[10][11] By the end of the 3rd century, this date sometimes occurred before the spring equinox and frequently varied from city to city.[12] Following the 325 Council of Nicaea, Easter tables began to be drawn up according to various methods of computing Easter, often running from the Passion until decades or centuries into the future. Beginning in Ireland, Wales, and England in the 7th century, monks began to briefly note important events of the year as marginalia in these tables.[9] What is now called the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was written in annalistic form. Other examples include the Annals of the Four Masters, the Annals of Ulster, the Annals of Innisfallen, and the Annals of Wales (Annales Cambriae).


The chief sources of information in regard to the annals of ancient Rome are two passages in Cicero[7][1] and in Servius[8][9] which have been the subject of much discussion. Cicero states that, from the founding of the Republic down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 132 BC), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record the name of the magistrates and the noteworthy events of each year on a white tablet (an album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house so that the people might read it.[1] Servius states the events were written for each day.[n 1] In the late Republic, these were known as the Annales Maximi.[1] After the pontificate of Publius, annals were compiled by various unofficial writers, of whom Cicero names Cato, Pictor, and Piso.[1] These annals have been generally regarded as the same with the Commentarii Pontificum cited by Livy, but there seems reason to believe that the two were distinct, with the Commentarii being fuller and more circumstantial.[1] Verrius Flaccus's division of genres is borne out in the common division of Tacitus's works into Annals and Histories,[1] although he did not use those titles to refer to his own works.



[5] Generally speaking, annalists record events drily, leaving the entries unexplained and equally weighted.[4][6][5] and from histories, which aim to present and conclude a narrative implying the moral importance of the events recorded.[4]