Anti-authoritarianism

Anti-authoritarianism

Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to [5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Views and practice

Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds opinions should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas.[12][13][14] The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers".[12][15]

Argument from authority (Latin: argumentum ab auctoritate) is a common form of argument which leads to a logical fallacy when misused.[16] In informal reasoning, the appeal to authority is a form of argument attempting to establish a statistical syllogism.[17] The appeal to authority relies on an argument of the form:

A is an authority on a particular topic
A says something about that topic
A is probably correct

Fallacious examples of using the appeal include any appeal to authority used in the context of [22]

English punk rock band Crass in 1984. Founders of the anarcho punk movement with a banner of their anarchist slogan "There´s no authority but yourself"

After World War II there was a strong sense of anti-authoritarianism based on anti-fascism in Europe. This was attributed to the active resistance from occupation and to fears arising from the development of superpowers.[23] Anti-authoritarianism has also been associated with countercultural and bohemian movements. In the 1950s the Beat Generation "were politically radical, and to some degree their anti-authoritarian attitudes were taken up by activists in the 1960s.".[24] The hippie and larger counterculture movements of the 1960s carried out a way of life and activism which was ideally carried through anti-authoritarian and non-violent means; thus it was observed that "The way of the hippie is antithetical to all repressive hierarchical power structures since they are adverse to the hippie goals of peace, love and freedom... Hippies don't impose their beliefs on others. Instead, hippies seek to change the world through reason and by living what they believe."[25] In the 1970s anti-authoritarianism became associated with the punk subculture.[26]

[27]

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ "anti-authoritarian" at dictionary.com
  3. ^ "antiauthoritarian" at The Free Dictionary
  4. ^ "Anarchists do reject the state, as we will see. But to claim that this central aspect of anarchism is definitive is to sell anarchism short." by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. pg. 28Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism
  5. ^
  6. ^ "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explored in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations-by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power- and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation." by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. pg. 1Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism
  7. ^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays.
  8. ^ Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism ... Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty.
  9. ^
  10. ^ Anarchist historian Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (pg. 9) ... Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
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  12. ^ a b
  13. ^
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ a b
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ Walton, Douglas (2008). Informal Logic. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-71380-3.p=89
  21. ^ Walton, Douglas (2008). Informal Logic. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-71380-3.p=84
  22. ^ a b "What is Authority?" by Mikhail Bakunin
  23. ^
  24. ^ "The American Novel" at PBS website
  25. ^ Stone 1994, "The Way of the Hippy"
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b "Would We Have Drugged Up Einstein? How Anti-Authoritarianism Is Deemed a Mental Health Problem" by Bruce E. Levine