Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols  ; 5-LO; 5-LOX; 5LPG; LOG5
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
EC number
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search
arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Identifiers
EC number 1.13.11.34
CAS number 80619-02-9
Databases
IntEnz IntEnz view
BRENDA BRENDA entry
ExPASy NiceZyme view
KEGG KEGG entry
MetaCyc metabolic pathway
PRIAM profile
PDB structures RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene Ontology AmiGO / EGO

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase, also known as 5-lipoxygenase, 5-LOX or 5-LO, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ALOX5 gene.[1] Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase is a member of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. It transforms EFAs into leukotrienes and is a current target for pharmaceutical intervention in a number of diseases.

Contents

  • Substrates and products 1
  • Function 2
  • Clinical significance 3
    • 5-LO inhibitors 3.1
  • Activation 4
  • Interactions 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8

Substrates and products

EFA substrates and products of 5-LO include:

Function

5-LO catalyzes oxidation of AA at the 5-position to yield 5-HpETE. 5-LO then converts 5-HpETE to leukotriene A4.[2]

As well as being intermediates in the formation of leukotrienes, hydroperoxides are released from lipoxygenase enzymes. These hydroperoxides (such as 5-HpETE) are rapidly reduced to their corresponding hydroxy products (such as 5-HETE), and both families have biological activates.

Recently, oxidized lipid products of 5-LO have been measured in membranes of neutrophils in the form of esterified-5-HETE phospholipids. These novel products have biological activities including inhibition of neutrophil extracellular traps.[3]

Eicosanoid synthesis.

Two other lipoxygenases, 12-LO and 15-LO, act at the 12- and 15-positions, yielding 12- and 15-HPETE. These pathways lead to the leukotriene 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) and to the lipoxins, respectively.[4]

Clinical significance

5-LO is a target for pharmaceutical intervention in CAD.[5] Some people with variant alleles for 5-LO are at elevated risk for CAD.[6] 5-LO is expressed in brain cells and may participate in neuropathologic processes.[7]

Mutations in the promoter region of this gene lead to a diminished response to antileukotriene drugs used in the treatment of asthma and may also be associated with atherosclerosis and several cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed, but their full-length nature has not been determined.[8]

5-LO inhibitors

As leukotrienes are important causes of pathological symptoms in asthma, 5-LO inhibitors were developed as asthma treatments. The only 5-LO inhibitor currently licensed for human use in asthma is Zileuton. Minocycline, although primarily a tetracycline antibiotic, is also a 5-LO inhibitor.[9] It may therefore be used as a DMARD-medication in mild rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic conditions.[10]

Hyperforin, an active constituent of the herb St John's wort, is a highly potent 5-LO inhibitor.[11] Another natural product, indirubin-3'-monoxime, was also described as selective 5-LO inhibitor effective in a range of cell-free and cell-based models.[12]


Activation

5-LO is activated by 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP).

Interactions

Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase has been shown to interact with:

References

  1. ^ Funk CD, Hoshiko S, Matsumoto T, Rdmark O, Samuelsson B (April 1989). "Characterization of the human 5-lipoxygenase gene". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86 (8): 2587–91.  
  2. ^ Reaction R01595 and R03058 at KEGG Pathway Database.
  3. ^ Clark SR, Guy CJ, Scurr MJ, Taylor PR, Kift-Morgan AP, Hammond VJ, Thomas CP, Coles B, Roberts GW, Eberl M, Jones SA, Topley N, Kotecha S, O'Donnell VB (February 2011). "Esterified eicosanoids are acutely generated by 5-lipoxygenase in primary human neutrophils and in human and murine infection". Blood 117 (6): 2033–43.  
  4. ^ Dorlands Medical Dictionary, entries at arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase and following. Retrieved on 2006-02-07.
  5. ^ "5-Lipoxygenase, A New Therapeutic And Diagnostic Target For Heart Disease Management". UCLA Case No. 2001-429 PCT Publication Number: WO 03/035670 A2. Archived from the original on 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  6. ^ Dwyer JH, Allayee H, Dwyer KM, et al. (2004). "Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase promoter genotype, dietary arachidonic acid, and atherosclerosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 350 (1): 29–37.  
  7. ^ Zhang L, Zhang WP, Hu H, et al. (2006). "Expression patterns of 5-lipoxygenase in human brain with traumatic injury and astrocytoma". Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology 26 (2): 99–106.  
  8. ^ "Entrez Gene: ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase". 
  9. ^ can be used as DMARDS. Song Y, Wei EQ, Zhang WP, Zhang L, Liu JR, Chen Z (2004). "Minocycline protects PC12 cells from ischemic-like injury and inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activation". NeuroReport 15 (14): 2181–4.  
  10. ^ arthritis.about.com: Minocin - Minocycline - Dosage - Side Effects - Drug Interactions
  11. ^ Albert D, Zündorf I, Dingermann T, Müller WE, Steinhilber D, Werz O (December 2002). "Hyperforin is a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase". Biochem. Pharmacol. 64 (12): 1767–75.  
  12. ^ Blazevic T, Schaible AM, Weinhäupl K, Schachner D, Nikels F, Weinigel C, Barz D, Atanasov AG, Pergola C, Werz O, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH (January 2014). "Indirubin-3'-monoxime exerts a dual mode of inhibition towards leukotriene-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell migration". Cardiovasc. Res. 101 (3): 522–32.  
  13. ^ Provost P, Doucet J, Hammarberg T, Gerisch G, Samuelsson B, Radmark O (May 2001). "5-Lipoxygenase interacts with coactosin-like protein". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (19): 16520–7.  
  14. ^ VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1995). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase and growth factor receptor binding protein 2". Anal. Biochem. 230 (1): 108–14.  
  15. ^ Lepley RA, Fitzpatrick FA (September 1994). "5-Lipoxygenase contains a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts with the Src homology 3 domain of Grb2 and cytoskeletal proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (39): 24163–8.  

Further reading

  • Rådmark OP (2000). "The molecular biology and regulation of 5-lipoxygenase.". Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 161 (2 Pt 2): S11–5.  
  • Hammarberg T, Reddy KV, Persson B, Rådmark O (2003). "Calcium binding to 5-lipoxygenase". Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 507: 117–21.  
  • Ishii S, Noguchi M, Miyano M, et al. (1992). "Mutagenesis studies on the amino acid residues involved in the iron-binding and the activity of human 5-lipoxygenase". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 182 (3): 1482–90.  
  • Nguyen T, Falgueyret JP, Abramovitz M, Riendeau D (1991). "Evaluation of the role of conserved His and Met residues among lipoxygenases by site-directed mutagenesis of recombinant human 5-lipoxygenase". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (32): 22057–62.  
  • Hoshiko S, Rådmark O, Samuelsson B (1991). "Characterization of the human 5-lipoxygenase gene promoter". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (23): 9073–7.  
  • Matsumoto T, Funk CD, Rådmark O, et al. (1988). "Molecular cloning and amino acid sequence of human 5-lipoxygenase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (1): 26–30.  
  • Rouzer CA, Kargman S (1988). "Translocation of 5-lipoxygenase to the membrane in human leukocytes challenged with ionophore A23187". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (22): 10980–8.  
  • Dixon RA, Jones RE, Diehl RE, et al. (1988). "Cloning of the cDNA for human 5-lipoxygenase". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (2): 416–20.  
  • Jakobsson PJ, Shaskin P, Larsson P, et al. (1995). "Studies on the regulation and localization of 5-lipoxygenase in human B-lymphocytes". Eur. J. Biochem. 232 (1): 37–46.  
  • Janssen-Timmen U, Vickers PJ, Wittig U, et al. (1995). "Expression of 5-lipoxygenase in differentiating human skin keratinocytes". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (15): 6966–70.  
  • Lepley RA, Fitzpatrick FA (1994). "5-Lipoxygenase contains a functional Src homology 3-binding motif that interacts with the Src homology 3 domain of Grb2 and cytoskeletal proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (39): 24163–8.  
  • Shaw KJ, Ng C, Kovacs BW (1994). "Cyclooxygenase gene expression in human endometrium and decidua". Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids 50 (5): 239–43.  
  • Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene 138 (1–2): 171–4.  
  • Woods JW, Evans JF, Ethier D, et al. (1993). "5-lipoxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein are localized in the nuclear envelope of activated human leukocytes". J. Exp. Med. 178 (6): 1935–46.  
  • Mancini JA, Li C, Vickers PJ (1994). "5-Lipoxygenase activity in the human pancreas". Journal of lipid mediators 8 (3): 145–50.  
  • VanderNoot VA, Fitzpatrick FA (1996). "Competitive binding assay of src homology domain 3 interactions between 5-lipoxygenase and growth factor receptor binding protein 2". Anal. Biochem. 230 (1): 108–14.  
  • Brock TG, McNish RW, Bailie MB, Peters-Golden M (1997). "Rapid import of cytosolic 5-lipoxygenase into the nucleus of neutrophils after in vivo recruitment and in vitro adherence". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (13): 8276–80.  
  • Nassar GM, Montero A, Fukunaga M, Badr KF (1997). "Contrasting effects of proinflammatory and T-helper lymphocyte subset-2 cytokines on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in monocytes". Kidney Int. 51 (5): 1520–8.  
  • Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full length-enriched and a 5'-end-enriched cDNA library". Gene 200 (1–2): 149–56.  

External links