Architectural design competition

Architectural design competition

An architectural design competition is a type of architects to submit design proposals. The winning design is usually chosen by an independent panel of design professionals and stakeholders (such as government and local representatives). This procedure is often used to generate new ideas for building design, to stimulate public debate, generate publicity for the project, and allow emerging designers the opportunity to gain exposure. Architecture competitions are often used to award commissions for public buildings: in some countries rules for tendering public building contracts stipulate some form of mandatory open architectural competition.[1]

Winning first prize in a competition is not a guarantee that the project will be constructed. The commissioning body often has the right to veto the winning design, and both requirements and finances may change, thwarting the original intention. The 2002 World Trade Center site design competition is an example of a highly publicized competition where only the basic elements of the winning design by Daniel Libeskind appeared in the finished project.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Competition types 2
  • Rules and guidelines 3
  • Major international architectural design competitions 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • See also 7
  • External links 8

History

Architecture competitions have a more than 2,500-year-old history. The Acropolis in Athens was a result of an architectural competition in 448 B.C., as were several cathedrals in the Middle Ages. During the Renaissance, many projects initiated by the church have been decided through design competition. Examples are the Spanish Stairs in Rome or in 1419, a competition was held to design the dome of the Florence Cathedral, which was won by Filippo Brunelleschi. Open competitions were held in the late 18th century in several countries including the United States, Great Britain, Ireland, France and Sweden.[2]

In 19th century England and Ireland there have been over 2,500 competitions in five decades, with 362 in London alone. The

  • Architectural Competition - Nordic Symposium
  • Canadian Competitions Catalogue
  • DesignCompetition.com, list of design competitions
  • CABE: Making Competitions Work
  • RIBA Competitions, the Royal Institute of British Architects dedicated RIBA Competitions unit
  • Wettbewerbe Aktuell, a German journal specialized in architectural competitions
  • Handbook of Architectural Design Competitions, American Institute of Architects (AIA)

External links

See also

  • Andersson E., Bloxham Zettersten, G. und Rönn, M., (eds) Architectural Competitions - Histories and Practice. Stockholm: The Royal Institute of Technology and Rio Kulturkooperativ, 2013. ISBN 978-91-85249-16-9
  • Chupin, Jean-Pierre, Carmela Cucuzzella and Bechara Helal (eds) Architecture Competitions and the Production of Culture, Quality and Knowledge: An International Inquiry, Montreal: Potential Architecture Books, 2015, ISBN 978-0-9921317-0-8
  • Collyer, G. Stanley, Competing Globally in Architecture Competitions, Wiley Academy, 2004, ISBN 0470-86-2130
  • De Jong, Cees and Mattie, Erik: Architectural Competitions 1792-1949, Taschen, 1997, ISBN 3-8228-8599-1

Further reading

  1. ^ a b Competitions and Architectural Excellence, in Places 9:2, MIT, 1994Jacques Cabanieu: , retrieved 2009-09-25
  2. ^ 130 Years of Finnish architectural competitions, retrieved 2009-09-23
  3. ^ De Jong, Cees and Mattie, Erik: Architectural Competitions 1792-1949, Taschen, 1997, ISBN 3-8228-8599-1
  4. ^ "Guidelines for Architectural Design Competitions" (PDF). Australian Institute of Architects. October 2003. Retrieved 2013-09-12. 
  5. ^ UIA competition guide, retrieved 2009-10-10
  6. ^ Canadian competition rules, retrieved 2009-10-10
  7. ^ Finnish competition rules, retrieved 2009-10-10
  8. ^ Indian competition guidelines, retrieved 2009-10-10
  9. ^ German competition guidelines, retrieved 2015-09-24

References

Competition Name Location Year Winner(s) Design entries
White House Washington D.C. 1792 James Hoban 9
Walhalla memorial Donaustauf 1816 Leo von Klenze
Houses of Parliament London 1835 Charles Barry 98
Vienna Ring Road Vienna 1858 Ludwig Förster - Friedrich August von Stache - Eduard van der Nüll and August Sicard von Sicardsburg 85
Hofoper Vienna 1860 Eduard van der Nüll and August Sicard von Sicardsburg
Paris Opera Paris 1860 Charles Garnier 171
Rijksmuseum Amsterdam 1863 P.J.H. Cuypers
Law Courts London 1866 George Edmund Street 11
Reichstag Berlin 1872 Paul Wallot
Beurs Amsterdam 1884 Hendrik Petrus Berlage
World Exhibition tower Paris 1889 Gustave Eiffel
Austrian Postal Savings Bank Vienna 1903 Otto Wagner
Stockholm City Hall Stockholm 1903 Ragnar Östberg
Helsinki Central railway station Helsinki 1903 Eliel Saarinen 21
Peace Palace The Hague 1905 Louis Marie Cordonnier and J.A.G. van der Steur
Tribune Tower Chicago 1922 John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood 260
League of Nations Building Geneva 1926 Henri Paul Nénot & Julien Flegenheimer; Carlo Broggi; Camille Lefèvre; Giuseppe Vago 377
Lenin Library Moscow 1928 Vladimir Shchuko
ANZAC War Memorial Sydney 1929 Charles Bruce Dellit 117
Termini Station Rome 1947 Leo Calini, Eugenio Montuori, Massimo Castellazzi, Vasco Fadigati, Achille Pintonello and Annibale Vitellozzi
Town Hall and Church Seinäjoki 1950 Alvar Aalto
Sydney Opera House Sydney 1955 Jørn Utzon 233
Toronto City Hall Toronto 1956 Viljo Revell 500
Amsterdam City Hall Amsterdam 1967 Wilhelm Holzbauer, Cees Dam, B. Bijvoet and G.H.M. Holt 804
Supreme Court Tokyo 1968 Shin-ichi Okada 217
Centre Georges Pompidou Paris 1971 Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers 681
San Cataldo Cemetery Modena 1971 Aldo Rossi and Gianni Braghieri
Hongkong and Shanghai Bank Hong Kong 1979 Foster Associates
Parliament House of Australia Canberra 1979 Romaldo Giurgola 329
Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie Paris 1980 Adrien Fainsilber and Sylvain Mersier
La Grande Arche de la Défense Paris 1982 Johan Otto von Spreckelsen 420
Parc de la Villette Paris 1982 Bernard Tschumi 471
Opéra Bastille Paris 1983 Carlos Ott 750
Carré d'Art Nîmes 1984 Norman Foster 12
Shonandai Cultural Centre Fujisawa 1985 Itsuko Hasegawa 215
New National Theatre Tokyo 1984 Takahiko Yanagisawa and Tak Associates 228
Tokyo International Forum Tokyo 1987 Rafael Viñoly 395
Kansai Airport Osaka 1988 Renzo Piano Building Workshop 48
Jewish Museum Berlin 1989 Daniel Libeskind 165
Bibliotheca Alexandrina Alexandria 1989 Snøhetta 523
Bibliothèque Nationale de France Paris 1989 Dominique Perrault 244
Centre for Japanese Culture Paris 1989-1990 Masayuki Yamanaka, Kenneth Armstrong & Jennifer Smith 453
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Bilbao 1991 Frank Gehry
Kiasma Contemporary Art Museum Helsinki 1992 Steven Holl 516
Austrian Cultural Forum New York 1992 Raimund Abraham 226
Royal Danish Library Copenhagen 1993 Schmidt Hammer Lassen 179
Felix Nussbaum Museum Osnabrück 1995 Daniel Libeskind 296
Millennium Bridge London 1996 Norman Foster, Sir Anthony Caro, and Ove Arup 200
Federation Square Melbourne 1997 Lab Architecture Studio 177
GeoCenter Møns Klint Møn Island 2002 PLH Architects 292
Philharmonie de Paris Paris 2011 Jean Nouvel 98

Most significant among architectural competitions are the ones which are internationally open, attract a large number of design submissions, and the winning design is built.

Major international architectural design competitions

In France and Germany design competitions are compulsory for all public buildings exceeding a certain cost.[1][9]

[8][7] and provide guidance on possible competition types, eligibility criteria, jury composition, participation conditions, payments, prizes, publication of results and other aspects.[6] The rules of each competition are defined by the organiser; however, these often follow the guidelines provided by the

Rules and guidelines

  • Open competitions (international, national or regional) or limited, selected, non-open competitions, depending on who is allowed to participate.
  • Project competitions or ideas competitions: depending on the intention of building the project or generating new ideas.
  • Single-stage or two-stage competitions: dependending on the scale and complexity of the competition.
  • Anonymous or cooperative procedures: anonymity supports greater objectivity during the evaluation and award-granting deliberations. In cooperative procedures, the authors are invited to make in-person presentations to the jury in order to explain their design strategies and allow individual discussion.
  • Student design competitions.

There are a variety of competition types resulting from the combination of following options:[4]

Competition types

Competition entry by Otto Wagner
Entry by Franz Heinrich Schwechten
Entry by Hendrik Petrus Berlage
Building by competition winner Louis M. Cordonnier
Competition for the design of the Peace Palace in The Hague, 1905
Entries (from left to right) by Otto Wagner, Franz Heinrich Schwechten, Hendrik Petrus Berlage and built design by Louis M. Cordonnier

[3]