Arya Performing Agnihotra
Civilise the world !
10 April 1875
|Purpose||Educational, Religious studies, Spirituality, Social Reforms|
|Leader||आचार्य हनुमतप्रसाद उपाध्याय जी|
|सार्वदेशिक आर्य प्रतिनिधि सभा – sārvadēśika ārya pratinidhi sabhā|
|Part of a series on|
Arya Samaj (Sanskrit ārya samāja आर्य समाज "Noble Society") is an Indian religious reform movement founded by Swami Dayananda on 7 April 1875. He was a sannyasi who promoted the Vedas. Dayananda emphasised the ideals of brahmacharya (chastity) for priests.
- Vedic schools 1.1.1
- Adi Brahmo Samaj 1.1.2
- The Light of Truth Lecture Series 1.1.3
- New Samaj 1.1.4
- Ahmedabad Debates 1.1.5
- Rajkot Arya Samaj 1.1.6
- Bombay Arya Samaj 1.1.7
Arya Samaj After Dayanand Saraswati 1.2
- Pandit Lekh Ram and Arya Samaj in Punjab 1.2.1
- Humanitarian efforts 1.3
- Foundation 1.1
Contemporary Arya Samaj 2
- Arya Samaj in India 2.1
- Arya Samaj around the world 2.2
- Arya Samaj Core Belief 3
- Practices 4
- See also 5
- References 6
- Further reading 7
- External links 8
Arya Samaj was formally established in Bombay at 10 April 1875 by Dayanand Saraswati. The group found most of its support in Punjab.
Between 1869 and 1873, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, a native of Gujarat from the Kathiawar region, made his first attempt at reform in India. This attempt took the form of the establishment of "Vedic Schools" or "Gurukuls" which put an emphasis on Vedic values, culture, and religion or satya sanatan Dharma to its students including boys and girls separately as on ancient Vedic pattern.The first was established at Farrukhabad in 1869 in up state, with 50 students enrolled in its first year. This initial success led to the founding of four additional gurukuls in rapid succession at Mirzapur (1870), Kasganj (1870), Chhalesar (Aligarh) (1870) and Varanasi (1873) all in Uttar Pradesh.
The Vedic Schools represented the first practical application of Dayanand’s vision of religious and social reform which was based on Vedic tradition. They enjoyed a mixed reception. On the one hand, students were not allowed to perform traditional idol worship of stone sculpture (murti puja in Hindi) at the Gurukul, and were instead expected to perform sandhya (a form of meditative prayer using vedic mantras with devine sound and pronunciation from the Vedas) and participate in agnihotra twice daily in morning. Disciplinary action was swift and not infrequently severe. On the other hand, all meals, lodging, clothing and books were given to the students free of charge, and the study of Sanskrit Holy books like Vedas, Upnishadas, Aranyakas, Kashika, Nirukta,Mahabhashya, Ashtadhyayi,Darshanas were opened to non-Brahmins and also for women. The most noteworthy feature of the Gurukuls was that only those texts which accepted the authority of the Vedas were to be taught. This was critical for the spiritual and social regeneration of Vedic culture in India.
The Vedic Schools soon ran into difficulties. Dayanand had trouble finding qualified teachers who agreed with his views on religious reform, and there existed a paucity of textbooks which he considered suitable for instruction in Vedic culture. Funding was sporadic, attendance fluctuated considerably, and tangible results in the way of noteworthy student achievement were not forthcoming.
Consequentially, some of the schools were forced to close shortly after opening. As early as 1874, it had become clear to Dayanand that, without a wide and solid base of support among the public, setting up schools with the goal of imparting a Vedic education would prove to be an impossible task. He therefore decided to invest the greater part of his resources in the formulation and propagation of his ideology of reform. Deprived of the full attention of Dayanand, the Gurukul/Vedic School system collapsed and the last of the schools (Farrukhabad) was closed down in 1876. But now in India, more than 200 Vedic Schools or Gurukuls are runnung on that method. now Arya Samaj Helpline is working for the Gurukuls reforms and their base
Adi Brahmo Samaj
While traveling (1872–1873), Dayanand came to know of several of the pro-Western Indian intellectuals of the age, including monotheism and the eternality of the soul) and social (e.g., the need to abolish the hereditary caste or varna system and uplift the masses through education). Debendranath Tagore had written a book entitled Brahmo Dharma, which serves as a manual of religion and ethics to the members of that society, and Dayanand had read it while in Calcutta.
Although Dayanand was persuaded on more than one occasion to join the Brahmo Samaj, there existed points of contention which he could not overlook, the most important being the position of the Vedas. Dayanand held the Vedas to be divine revelation, and refused to accept any suggestions to the contrary. Despite this difference of opinion, however, it seems that the members of the Brahmo Samaj parted with Dayanand on good terms, the former having publicly praised the latter’s visit to Calcutta in several journals.
The Light of Truth Lecture Series
Dayanand made several changes in his approach to the work of reforming Hindu society after having visited Calcutta. The most significant of these changes was that he began lecturing in Hindi. Prior to his tour of Bengal, he had always held his discourses and debates in Sanskrit. While this gained him a certain degree of respect among both the learned and the common people, it prevented him from spreading his message to the broader masses. The change to Hindi allowed him to attract increasingly larger following, and as a result his ideas of reform began to circulate among the lower classes of society as well.
After hearing some of Dayanand's speeches delivered in Hindi at Varanasi, Raj Jaikishen Das, a native government official there, suggested that Dayanand publish his ideas in a book so that they might be distributed among the public. Witnessing the slow collapse of the gurukuls/Vedic Schools due to a lack of a clear statement of purpose and the resultant flagging public support, Dayanand recognized the potential contained in Das's suggestion and took immediate action.
From June to September 1874, Dayanand dictated a comprehensive series of lectures to his scribe, Pundit Bhimsen Sharma, which dealt with his views and beliefs regarding a wide range of subjects including God, the Vedas, Dharma, the soul, science, philosophy, child rearing, education, government and the possible future of both India and the world. The resulting manuscript was published under the title Satyarth Prakash or The Light of Meaning of Truth in 1875 at Varanasi. This voluminous work would prove to play a central role in the establishment and later growth of the organization which would come to be known as the Arya Samaj.
While the manuscript of the "Satyarth Prakash" was being edited at Varanasi, Dayanand received an invitation to travel to Bombay in order to conduct a debate with some representatives of the Vallabhacharya sect. Dayanand arrived in Bombay on 20 October 1874. The debate, though greatly publicized, never materialized. Nonetheless, two members of the Prarthana Samaj approached Dayanand and invited him to deliver a few lectures at one of their gatherings, which were received with appreciation by all those present. The members of the Prarthana Samaj of Bombay recognized in Dayanand, an individual in possession of the knowledge and skills necessary for promoting their aims, the greatest and most comprehensive of which being the general uplift of Hindu society at large and its protection from what they perceived to be the advancing threat of Christian and Muslim efforts to convert Hindus.
After his having spent over a month at Bombay, 60 new-found students of Dayanand – among them, prominent members of the Prarthana Samaj – proposed the notion of founding a "New Samaj" with Dayanand’s ideas serving as its spiritual and intellectual basis.
After having received a personal invitation from Gopalrao Hari Deshmukh, Dayanand left Bombay and traveled to Ahmedabad, Gujarat, arriving on 11 December 1874. Once there, he conducted a debate with local pundits on the issue of Vedic authority, and emerged victorious. It is reported that the formation of a Samaj and the founding of a Vedic School at Ahmedabad were proposed following the success of the debate, yet not enough support for such a venture could be mustered.
Rajkot Arya Samaj
On an invitation from Hargovind Das Dvarkadas, the secretary of the local Prarthana Samaj, Dayanand traveled to Bombay, Dayanand stopped off in Ahmedabad and related the news of Rajkot, Gujarat, distributing copies of the rules and regulations to those present. A meeting was held on 27 January 1875 to discuss the proposal of forming an Arya Samaj there, yet no conclusive decision was reached. Unwilling to wait for the deliberations to come to an end, Dayanand continued on his way to Bombay.
While traveling, he received word that the still fragile Rajkot Arya Samaj had involved itself in some political dispute that resulted in a government warning issued against it and its members. Thus, the collapse of the just established society was already looming large.
Bombay Arya Samaj
Dayanand reached Bombay on 29 January 1875, and immediately the appeal to establish an Arya Samaj there was renewed. However, he did not want a protracted debate to ensue as had occurred at Ahmedabad, bringing with it the possibility of endless deliberations. Thus, a membership drive was initiated which would circumvent the need for discussions. Within a short time, 100 individuals enrolled themselves as prospective members.
On 7 April 1875, the Bombay Arya Samaj was officially established. The membership amounted to 100 persons, including Dayanand. The members appealed to him that he should serve as either the President or the Guru of the Samaj, but he refused, requesting instead that he be listed as a regular member. From there onwards Arya Samaj Sect steadily grew in numbers.
Arya Samaj After Dayanand Saraswati
Dayanand died in 1883. Arya Samaj grew after his death mainly in Punjab. Early leaders of the Samaj were Pandit Lekh Ram and Lala Munshi Ram (known as Swami Shraddhanand after his Sanyas). The activities and the opposition Arya Samaj encountered in Punjab was credited with the formation of the rival Sikh dominated Singh Sabha, the forerunner of the Akali Dal. Some authors also claim that the activities of Samaj led to increased antagonism between Muslims and Hindus. Shraddhanand led the Shuddhi movement that worked towards bringing Converted Hindus back into the fold.
The Samaj split into two in Punjab after 1893 on the question of eating meat. The group that refrained from meat was called the Mahatma group and the one favoring consumption of meat as the "Cultured Party".
During the early part of the 20th century, the Samaj or organizations inspired by it such as Jat Pat Todak Mandal were active in campaigning against caste discrimination. Other activities the samaj engaged in was that of widow remarriage and women's education
During the early parts of the 20th century, the Samaj established chapters in British colonies where there was a sizeable Indian diaspora such as South Africa and Guyana. Prominent Indian Nationalists such as Lala Lajpat Rai belonged to Arya Samaj and were active in propagating the message of Samaj.
Pandit Lekh Ram and Arya Samaj in Punjab
Arya Samaj was and is an important sect amongst Hindu Punjabis. Pandit Lekh Ram (1858 – 6 March 1897) was an important Arya Samaj Hindu leader. He is famous for his encounters with the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. He also wrote a book in falsification of Ahmad's Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya and named it Takzeeb e Barahin Ahmadiyya (A falsification of the Barahin e Ahmadiyya). He was assassinated on March 6, 1897. Members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community claim that this was in accordance with the prophecies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.
Arya Samaj wass notable for its donation. After the women's right to vote, and protection for widows.
Contemporary Arya Samaj
Arya Samaj in India
Today, Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) schools in India. There are many arya samaj mandir in Delhi. Some of them are government authorized for conducting wedding ceremonies.
Arya Samaj around the world
The Samaj is also present in countries such as Guyana, Australia, South Africa, Kenya, Mauritius and other countries where a significant Hindu diaspora is present. Immigrants to Canada from East Africa and the Caribbean countries respectively form separate Arya Samaj communities in many Canadian cities including Toronto. Most major metropolitan areas of United States have chapters of Arya Samaj.
Arya Samaj Core Belief
There are many arya samaj mandir in Delhi. Some of them are government authorized for conducting wedding ceremonies.
The Principal Core Belief of the Samaj are as follows:
- The belief in only One Supreme Almighty or creator known by name AUM (as mentioned in 40.17 Yajur Veda)
- Infallible Authority of Vedas and rejection of other religious books (including the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Bible, Quran, etc.),
- Rejection of idol worship
- Equality of all human beings in creating opportunity for all
- Empowerment of Women as described in the Vedas
Rejection of other Hindu religious books in the sense that they are stories to reinforce Vedic knowledge and may not be revealed by a Supreme Being.
The main religious practice of the Arya Samaj include a havan (fire altar) where the Gayatri Mantra is recited. Arya Samaj promotes personal worship of God, where havans can be performed without the need of priest. Main holidays include Holi, celebration of the start of Spring and Divali, a celebration of harvest and the victory of good over evil.
- Arya Samaj in Fiji
- Arya Samaj in Ghana
- Arya Samaj in Guyana
- Arya Samaj in Kenya
- Arya Samaj in Mauritius
- Arya Samaj in Mozambique
- Arya Samaj in Singapore
- Arya Samaj in South Africa
- Arya Samaj in Suriname
- Arya Samaj in Tanzania
- Arya Samaj in Trinidad and Tobago
- Arya Samaj in Thailand
- Arya Samaj in Uganda
- Rajivlochan, M., & Rajivlochan, M. (2014). Coping with Exclusions the Non-Political Way. Mapping Social Exclusion in India: Caste, Religion and Borderlands, 82-83.
- Pandit Lekh Ram (1858-1897)
- Ian Talbot writes : "Relations grew particularly bad between the Aryas and the Muslims. Serious violence broke out in 1897 when Pandit Lekh Ram was assassinated. Lekh Ram's greatest influence was in the north-west of Punjab. He had in fact joined the Peshawar Arya Samaj in 1880 and rose to prominence first as a missionary and then as editor of the Arya Gazette. At first he had limited his attacks to the Ahmadi movement of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, but he increasingly attacked orthodox Muslims as well. His pamphlet, Risala-i-Jihad ya'ri Din-i-Muhammad ki Bunyad (A Treatise on waging holy war, or the foundation of the Muhammadan Religion) caused a considerable outcry, when it was published in 1892. Until his murder by a Muslim five years later, Lekh Ram continued to stir up animosity by his vituperative writings." (Punjab and the Raj, 1849–1947", p. 72–73) Ian Talbot.
- Punjab, the Crucial Decade, by Subash Chander Sharma, p. 133
- Arya Samaj Queensland
- Pt. Chamupati, M.A., Ten Commandments of Arya Samaj, New Delhi: D.A.V. Publications (2001)
- J.T.F. Jordens, Dayanada Saraswati, Delhi: Oxford University Press (1978).
- Lajpat Rai, The Arya Samaj: An Account of its Aims, Doctrine and Activities, with a Biographical Sketch of the Founder, D.A.V. College Managing Committee, New Delhi (1915), ISBN 978-81-85047-77-5.
- Lajpat Rai, A History of the Arya Samaj, (Rep.) New Delhi (1993), ISBN 81-215-0578-X
- M. Ruthven, Fundamentalism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, USA (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-921270-5.
- J.M. Sharma, Swami Dayanand: A Biography, USB Publishers Distributors Ltd., India (1998), ISBN 81-7476-212-4.
- Rajender Sethi, "Rashtra Pitamah Swami Dayanand Saraswati" published by M R Sethi Educational Trust Chandigarh
- The Origin, Scope and Mission of the Arya Samaj, by Ganga Prasad Upadhyaya. Published by Arya Samaj, 1954.
- The Arya Samaj: , by Vaidyanath Shastri. Published by Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha, 1967.
- The Arya Samaj and Indian Nationalism, 1875–1920, by Dhanpati Pandey. Published by S. Chand, 1972.
- A Critical Study of the Contribution of the Arya Samaj to Indian Education, by Saraswati Shantipriya Pandit. Published by Sarvadeshik Arya, Pratinidhi Sabha, 1975.
- Arya Samaj and Indians Abroad, by Nardev Vedalankar, Manohar Somera. Published by Sarvadeshik Arya Pratinidhi Sabha, 1975.
- The Arya Samaj: Hindu Without Hinduism, by D. Vable. Published by Vikas, 1983. ISBN 0-7069-2131-3.
- Social Movements and Social Change: A Study of Arya Samaj and Untouchables in Punjab, by Satish Kumar Sharma. Published by B.R. Publishing, 1985.
- Arya Samaj and the Freedom Movement: 1875–1918, by Kripal Chandra Yadav, Krishan Singh Arya. Manohar Publications, 1988. ISBN 81-85054-42-8.
- Arya Samaj Movement in India, 1875–1947, by Gulshan Swarup Saxena. Published by Commonwealth Publishers, 1990. ISBN 81-7169-045-9.
- Rashtra Pitamah Swami Dayanand Saraswati by Rajender Sethi, published by M R Sethi Educational Trust Chandigarh
- Hinduism Today by R. M. Chopra, 2009.
- Aryasamaj Ke Stambh', Aryasamaj ke Stambh by Arya Samaj Jamnagar, Divyang Pandya.
- Official website
- Aryasamaj Jamnagar
- Arya Samaj India
- Arya/ Pratinidhi Sabha, America