Azole

Azole

An azole is a class of five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic ring compounds containing at least one other non-carbon atom of either nitrogen, sulfur, or oxygen.[1] The parent compounds are aromatic and have two double bonds; there are successively reduced analogs (azolines and azolidines) with fewer. One, and only one, lone pair of electrons from each heteroatom in the ring is part of the aromatic bonding in an azole. Names of azoles maintain the prefix upon reduction (e.g., pyrazoline, pyrazolidine). The numbering of ring atoms in azoles starts with the heteroatom that is not part of a double bond, and then proceeds towards the other heteroatom.

Imidazole and other six-membered aromatic heterocyclic systems with two nitrogens are extremely common in nature and form the core of many biomolecules

Contents

  • Compound classes 1
  • Uses 2
  • Imidazole-based Antifungals 3
    • Triazole-based Antifungals 3.1
    • Treatment for hyperthyrodism and or thyrotoxicosis 3.2
    • Alpha 1 adrenoreceptor blocker 3.3
  • Precautions 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Compound classes

Azoles

  • 1 nitrogen atom (but it only includes one nitrogen and no other heteroatom)

A "dioxole" is a similar compound with two oxygen atoms in a five membered ring. Dioxolane is a derivative of dioxole.

Uses

Many azoles are used as antifungal drugs, inhibiting the fungal enzyme 14α-demethylase which produces ergosterol (an important component of the fungal plasma membrane).

Imidazole-based Antifungals

Triazole-based Antifungals

Treatment for hyperthyrodism and or thyrotoxicosis

Alpha 1 adrenoreceptor blocker

Precautions

Some people are allergic to azole(s).[2]

Some of these drugs have adverse side effects.[3]

Some azole drugs may disrupt estrogen production in pregnancy, affecting pregnancy outcome.[4]

References

This article incorporates material from the Citizendium article "Azole", which is licensed under the but not under the .

  1. ^ Eicher, T.; Hauptmann, S. (June 2003). The Chemistry of Heterocycles: Structure, Reactions, Synthesis, and Applications (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons.  
  2. ^ Pinto A., Chan R.C. (April 2009). "Lack of Allergic Cross-Reactivity between Fluconazole and Voriconazole". American Society for Microbiology 53 (4): 1715–6.  
  3. ^ Stein GE, Christensen S, Mummaw N (June 1991). "Comparative study of fluconazole and clotrimazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis". DICP 25 (6): 582–5.  
  4. ^ Kragie L, Turner SD, Patten CJ, Crespi CL, Stresser DM (August 2002). "Assessing pregnancy risks of azole antifungals using a high throughput aromatase inhibition assay". Endocr. Res. 28 (3): 129–40.  

External links