The town of Brighton, East Sussex
Brighton shown within East Sussex
|OS grid reference|
|Unitary authority||Brighton and Hove|
|Ceremonial county||East Sussex|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||BN1, BN2, BN50, BN88|
|Ambulance||South East Coast|
|EU Parliament||South East England|
|UK Parliament||Brighton Kemptown|
Brighton is a town on the south coast of Great Britain. It makes up half of the city and unitary authority of Brighton and Hove (formed from the previous towns of Brighton, Hove, Portslade and several other villages). Formerly part of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex, it remains part of the ceremonial county of East Sussex, within the historic county of Sussex.
Brighton had rapid population growth over the next century, reaching a peak of more than 160,000 by 1961. Since then, it has had to compete with other coastal destinations. Modern Brighton forms part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation stretching along the coast, with a population of around 480,000 inhabitants.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and topography
- 4 Governance and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Landmarks
- 7 Culture
- 8 Education
- 9 Sport
- 10 Transport
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 External links
Brighton's earliest name was Bristelmestune, recorded in the Domesday Book. Although more than 40 variations have been documented, Brighthelmstone (or Brighthelmston) was the standard rendering between the 14th and 18th centuries.
Brighton was originally an informal shortened form, first seen in 1660; it gradually supplanted the longer name, and was in general use from the late 18th century. Brighthelmstone was the town's official name until 1810, though. The name is of Saxon origin. Most scholars believe that it derives from Beorthelm + tūn—the homestead of Beorthelm, a common Saxon name associated with villages elsewhere in England. The tūn element is common in Sussex, especially on the coast, although it occurs infrequently in combination with a personal name. An alternative etymology taken from the Saxon words for "stony valley" is sometimes given but has less acceptance. Brighthelm gives its name to, among other things, a church and a pub in Brighton and some halls of residence at the University of Sussex.
Brighton has several nicknames. Poet Horace Smith called it "The Queen of Watering Places", which is still widely used, and "Old Ocean's Bauble". Novelist William Makepeace Thackeray referred to "Doctor Brighton", calling the town "one of the best of Physicians". "London-by-Sea" is well-known, reflecting Brighton's popularity with Londoners. "The Queen of Slaughtering Places", a pun on Smith's description, became popular when the Brighton trunk murders came to the public's attention in the 1930s. The mid 19th-century nickname "School Town" referred to the remarkable number of boarding, charity and church schools in the town at the time.
The first settlement in the Brighton area was Whitehawk Camp, a Neolithic encampment on Whitehawk Hill which has been dated to between 3500 BC and 2700 BC. It is one of six causewayed enclosures in Sussex. Archaeologists have only partially explored it, but have found numerous burial mounds, tools and bones, suggesting it was a place of some importance. There was also a Bronze Age settlement at Coldean. Brythonic Celts arrived in Britain in the 7th century BC, and an important Brythonic settlement existed at Hollingbury Camp on Hollingbury Hill. This Celtic Iron Age encampment dates from the 3rd or 2nd century BC and is circumscribed by substantial earthwork outer walls with a diameter of c. 1,000 feet (300 m). Cissbury Ring, roughly 10 miles (16 km) from Hollingbury, is suggested to have been the tribal "capital". Later, there was a Roman villa at Preston Village, a Roman road from London ran nearby, and much physical evidence of Roman occupation has been discovered locally. From the 1st century AD, the Romans built a number of villas in Brighton and Romano-British Brythonic Celts formed farming settlements in the area. After the Romans left in the early 4th century AD, the Brighton area returned to the control of the native Celts. Anglo-Saxons then invaded in the late 5th century AD, and the region became part of the Kingdom of Sussex, founded in 477 AD by king Ælle.
Anthony Seldon identified five phases of development in pre-20th century Brighton. The village of Bristelmestune was founded by these Anglo-Saxon invaders, probably in the early Saxon period. They were attracted by the easy access for boats, sheltered areas of raised land for building, and better conditions compared to the damp, cold and misty Weald to the north. By the time of the Domesday survey in 1086 it was a fishing and agricultural settlement, a rent of 4,000 herring was established, and its population was about 400. Its importance grew from the Norman era onwards. By the 14th century there was a parish church, a market and rudimentary law enforcement (the first town constable was elected in 1285). Sacked and burnt by French invaders in the early 16th century—the earliest depiction of Brighton, a painting of c. 1520, shows Admiral Pregent de Bidoux's attack of June 1514—the town recovered strongly based on a thriving mackerel-fishing industry. The grid of streets in the Old Town (the present Lanes area) were well developed and the town grew quickly: the population rose from c. 1,500 in 1600 to c. 4,000 in the 1640s. By that time Brighton was Sussex's most populous and important town. Over the next few decades, though, events severely affected its local and national standing, such that by 1730 "it was a forlorn town decidedly down on its luck". More foreign attacks, storms (especially the devastating Great Storm of 1703), a declining fishing industry, and the emergence of nearby Shoreham as a significant port caused its economy to suffer. By 1708 other parishes in Sussex were charged rates to alleviate poverty in Brighton, and Daniel Defoe wrote that the expected £8,000 cost of providing sea defences was "more than the whole town was worth". The population declined to 2,000 in the early 18th century.
From the 1730s, Brighton entered its second phase of development—one which brought a rapid improvement in its fortunes. The contemporary fad for drinking and bathing in seawater as a purported cure for illnesses was enthusiastically encouraged by Dr Richard Russell from nearby Lewes. He sent many patients to "take the cure" in the sea at Brighton, published a popular treatise[note 1] on the subject, and moved to the town soon afterwards (the Royal Albion, one of Brighton's early hotels, occupies the site of his house). Others were already visiting the town for recreational purposes before Russell became famous, and his actions coincided with other developments which made Brighton more attractive to visitors. From the 1760s it was a boarding point for boats travelling to France; road transport to London was improved when the main road via Crawley was turnpiked in 1770; and spas and indoor baths were opened by other entrepreneurial physicians such as Sake Dean Mahomed and Anthony Relhan (who also wrote the town's first guidebook).
From 1780, development of the  He spent much of his leisure time in the town and constructed the Royal Pavilion during the early part of his Regency. In this period the modern form of the name Brighton came into common use.
The arrival of the London and Brighton Railway in 1841 brought Brighton within the reach of day-trippers from London. The population grew from around 7,000 in 1801 to more than 120,000 by 1901. Many of the major attractions were built during the Victorian era, such as the Grand Hotel (1864), the West Pier (1866), and the Palace Pier (1899). Prior to either of these structures, the famous Chain Pier was built, to the designs of Captain Samuel Brown. It lasted from 1823 to 1896, and is featured in paintings by both Turner and Constable.
Because of boundary changes, the land area of Brighton expanded from 1,640 acres (7 km2) in 1854 to 14,347 acres (58 km2) in 1952. New housing estates were established in the acquired areas, including Moulsecoomb, Bevendean, Coldean and Whitehawk. The major expansion of 1928 also incorporated the villages of Patcham, Ovingdean and Rottingdean, and much council housing was built in parts of Woodingdean after the Second World War.
Geography and topography
Brighton lies between the South Downs and the English Channel to the north and south, respectively. The Sussex coast forms a wide, shallow bay between the headlands of Selsey Bill and Beachy Head; Brighton developed near the centre of this bay around a seasonal river, the Wellesbourne (or Whalesbone), which flowed from the South Downs above Patcham. This emptied into the English Channel at the beach near the East Cliff, forming "the natural drainage point for Brighton". Behind the estuary was a stagnant pond called the Pool or Poole, so named since the medieval era.[note 2] This was built over with houses and shops from 1793, when the Wellesbourne was culverted to prevent flooding, and only the name of the road (Pool Valley, originally Pool Lane) marks its site. One original house survives from the time of the pool's enclosure. Behind Pool Valley is Old Steine (historically The Steyne), originally a flat and marshy area where fishermen dried their nets. The Wellesbourne occasionally reappears during times of prolonged heavy rain; author Mark Antony Lower referred to an early 19th-century drawing of the Royal Pavilion showing "quite a pool of water across the Steyne". Despite 16th-century writer Andrew Boorde's claim that "Bryght-Hempston [is] among the noble ports and havens of the realm", Brighton never developed as a significant port: rather, it was considered as part of Shoreham Port. Nevertheless the descriptions "Port of Brighthelmston" or "Port of Brighton" were sometimes used between the 14th and 19th centuries, as for example in 1766 when its notional limits were defined for customs purposes.
The East Cliff runs for several miles from Pool Valley towards Rottingdean and Saltdean, reaching 24 metres (80 ft) above sea level. The soil beneath it, a mixture of alluvium and clay with some flint and chalk rubble, has experienced erosion for many years. The cliff itself, like the rest of Brighton's soil, is chalk. Below this are thin layers of Upper and Lower Greensand separated by a thicker band of Gault clay. The land slopes upwards gradually from south to north towards the top of the Downs.
Main transport links developed along the floor of the Wellesbourne valley, from which the land climbs steeply—particularly on the east side. The earliest settlement was by the beach at the bottom of the valley, which was partly protected from erosion by an underwater shale-bar. Changes in sea level affected the foreshore several times: 40 acres (16 ha) disappeared in the first half of the 14th century, and the Great Storm of 1703 caused widespread destruction. The first sea defences were erected in 1723, and a century later a long sea-wall was built.
ClimateBrighton has a temperate climate: its Köppen climate classification is Cfb. It is characterised by mild, calm weather with high levels of sunshine, sea breezes and a "healthy, bracing air" attributed to the low level of tree cover. Average rainfall levels increase as the land rises: the 1958–1990 mean was 740 millimetres (29 in) on the seafront and about 1,000 millimetres (39 in) at the top of the South Downs above Brighton. Storms caused serious damage in 1703, 1806, 1824, 1836, 1848, 1850, 1896, 1910 and 1987. Snow is rare, but particularly severe falls were recorded in 1881 and 1967.
|Climate data for Brighton|
|Average high °C (°F)||
|Average low °C (°F)||
|Precipitation mm (inches)||
|Source: Met Office|
Boundaries and areas
|Date from||Parish area|
|c. 11th century||1,640 acres (660 ha)|
|31 October 1873||2,445 acres (989 ha)|
|1 October 1923||2,539 acres (1,027 ha)|
|1 April 1928||12,503 acres (5,060 ha)|
|1 April 1952||14,347 acres (5,806 ha)|
|31 March 1972||15,041 acres (6,087 ha)|
|1 April 1993||15,140 acres (6,130 ha)|
|1 April 1997[note 3]||21,632 acres (8,754 ha)|
At the time of the Domesday survey in 1086, Brighton was in the Rape of Lewes and the Hundred of Welesmere. The new Hundred of Whalesbone, which covered the parishes of Brighton, West Blatchington, Preston and Hove, was formed in 1296. Parishes moved in and out several times, and by 1801 only Brighton and West Blatchington were included in the Hundred.
Brighton's ecclesiastical and civil parish boundaries were coterminous until 1873. Since then, the latter have changed several times as the urban area has expanded. In its original form, Brighton covered about 1,640 acres (660 ha) between the English Channel, Hove, Preston, Ovingdean and Rottingdean. The civil parish was first extended from 31 October 1873, when 905 acres (366 ha) was annexed from Preston. Its ecclesiastical parish was not affected.
On 1 October 1923, 94 acres (38 ha) were added to Brighton from Patcham parish: Brighton Corporation was developing the Moulsecoomb council estate there at the time. On 1 April 1928, Brighton became a county borough and grew by nearly five times by adding Ovingdean and Rottingdean parishes in their entirety and parts of Falmer, Patcham and West Blatchington. From 1 April 1952, more of Falmer and part of the adjacent Stanmer parish were added; 20 years later, land and marine territory associated with the new Brighton Marina development also became part of Brighton. Except for a small addition of rural land in 1993 (from Pyecombe parish), Brighton Borough's boundaries remained the same until it was joined to Hove Borough in 1997 to form the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.
The old boundary between Brighton and Hove is most clearly seen on the seafront, where the King Edward Peace Statue (1912) straddles the border, and in a twitten called Boundary Passage which runs northwards from Western Road to Montpelier Road. There is a Grade II-listed parish boundary marker stone in this passageway. Between Western Road and the seafront, the boundary runs up Little Western Street (pavement on eastern side, in Brighton), but it is not visible. Northwards from Western Road, it runs to the west of Norfolk Road, Norfolk Terrace, Windlesham Road and Windlesham Gardens in the Montpelier area, then along the south side of Davigdor Road to Seven Dials. From there it runs along the west side of Dyke Road as far as Withdean Road in Withdean, at which point it crosses Dyke Road so that the section north of that is part of Hove parish. The boundary continues to follow Dyke Road towards Devil's Dyke on the South Downs.
Governance and politics
Brighton is covered by two constituencies in the Parliament of the United Kingdom: Brighton Kemptown and Brighton Pavilion. Both are marginal constituencies which were held by Labour from 1997 to 2010. At the 2010 general election, Brighton Kemptown elected the Conservative MP Simon Kirby, while Brighton Pavilion elected Caroline Lucas, the first Green Party MP elected to Westminster. Lucas won 16,238 votes (31.3%), compared with Labour's 14,986 votes (28.9%) and the Conservative's 12,275 votes (23.7%). In European elections, Brighton is part of the European Parliament constituency of South-East England.
As of 2015, there are 21 wards in the city of Brighton and Hove, of which 12 are in Brighton. Regency, St Peter's & North Laine, Preston Park, Withdean, Patcham, Hollingdean & Stanmer and Hanover & Elm Grove are part of the Brighton Pavilion constituency; Moulsecoomb & Bevendean, Queen's Park, East Brighton, Woodingdean and Rottingdean Coastal are covered by the Brighton Kemptown constituency.
The newly created Borough of Brighton consisted of six wards in 1854: St Nicholas, St Peter, Pier, Park, Pavilion and West. When the territory was extended to include part of Preston parish in 1873, the new area became a seventh ward named Preston. The seven were split into 14 in 1894: Hanover, Kemp Town (renamed King's Cliff in 1908), Lewes Road, Montpelier, Pavilion, Pier, Preston, Preston Park, Queen's Park, Regency, St John, St Nicholas, St Peter, and West. Preston ward was extended in 1923 to incorporate the area taken into the borough from Patcham parish in 1923 for the construction of the Moulsecoomb estate, and in 1928 the ward was divided into four: Hollingbury, Moulsecoomb, Preston and Preston Park. Elm Grove and Patcham wards were created at the same time, bringing the total to 19. There were further changes in 1952, 1955 and 1983, at which time there were 16 wards. This situation continued until 1 April 1997, when Hove and its wards became part of the new unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.
Brighton Town Hall occupies a large site in The Lanes. Medieval Brighthelmston had a town hall, although it was called the Townhouse and functioned more like a market hall. A later building (1727) known as the Town Hall was principally used as a workhouse. Work on the first purpose-built town hall began in 1830; Thomas Read Kemp laid the first stone, and Thomas Cooper designed it on behalf of the Brighton Town Commissioners (of which he was a member). Brighton Corporation spent £40,000 to extend it in 1897–99 to the Classical design of Brighton Borough Surveyor Francis May. Despite this, the building was too small for municipal requirements by the mid-20th century, and extra council buildings were built in various locations throughout Brighton Borough Council's existence: the most recent, Bartholomew House and Priory House next to the town hall, were finished in 1987. The town hall ceased to be responsible solely for Brighton's affairs when Brighton and Hove were united in 1997, but it is still used by Brighton & Hove City Council—particularly for weddings and civil ceremonies.
The political campaigning group Justice? and its SchNEWS newspaper are based in Brighton, at the Cowley Club libertarian social centre. This was named after Harry Cowley (1890–1971), "one of the earliest and best-loved proponents of 'people power' activism in Brighton". Also operating locally is a branch of the Palestine Solidarity Campaign. The presence of a British subsidiary of the United States arms company EDO Corporation on the Home Farm Industrial Estate in Moulsecoomb has been the cause of protests since 2004. The premises were significantly damaged in January 2009 when protesters broke in.
In 1985, the Borough Council described three "myths" about Brighton's economy. Common beliefs were that most of the working population commuted to London every day; that tourism provided most of Brighton's jobs and income; or that the borough's residents were "composed entirely of wealthy theatricals and retired businesspeople" rather than workers. Brighton has been an important centre for commerce and employment since the 18th century. It is home to several major companies, some of which employ thousands of people locally; as a retail centre it is of regional importance; creative, digital and new media businesses are increasingly significant; and, although Brighton was never a major industrial centre, its railway works contributed to Britain's rail industry in the 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the manufacture of steam locomotives.
Since the amalgamation of Brighton and Hove, economic and retail data has been produced at a citywide level only. Examples of statistics include: Brighton and Hove's tourism industry contributes £380m to the economy and employs 20,000 people directly or indirectly; the city has 9,600 registered companies; and a 2001 report identified it as one of five "supercities for the future". In December 2013, Brighton was the third-highest ranked place on the UK Vitality Index Report, which measures the economic strength of towns and cities in the United Kingdom. It was "among the top performing towns and cities on almost all" of the 20 measures used by the index.
Commerce and industryprivate sector employer is American Express, whose European headquarters—the 300,000-square-foot (28,000 m2) Amex House at Carlton Hill—opened in 1977. As of 2008, 3,500 people worked there. Planning permission to demolish the offices and build a replacement was granted in 2009, and work started in March 2010. The £130 million scheme is expected to support 1,000 jobs in the construction industry. Other major employers include Lloyds Bank, Asda (which has hypermarkets at Hollingbury and Brighton Marina), Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company and call-centre operator Inkfish. In 2012, it was reported that about 1,500 of Gatwick Airport's 21,000 workers lived in the city of Brighton and Hove.
Brighton is a popular destination for conferences, exhibitions and trade fairs, and has had a purpose-built conference centre—the Brighton Centre—since 1977. Direct income from the Brighton Centre's 160 events per year is £8 million,[note 4] and a further £50 million is generated indirectly by visitors spending money during their stay. Events range from political party conferences to concerts.
The Hollingbury Industrial Estate is one of the largest such facilities in Brighton; in its early days about 6,000 people were employed, principally in industrial jobs, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries its focus has switched to commercial and retail development, limiting Brighton's potential for industrial growth. Brighton Corporation laid out the estate on 18 acres (7.3 ha) of land around Crowhurst Road in 1950. By 1956, large-scale employment was provided at a bakery, a typewriter factory and a machine tools manufacturer among others. Most of the large factories closed during the recessions of the 1980s and 1990s, employment fell to 1,000, and structural changes started in the mid-1980s with a move towards small-scale industrial units (the Enterprise Estate was finished in October 1985) and then retail warehouses. Asda's superstore opened in November 1987, MFI followed two years later, and other retail units were built in the 1990s. Two large headquarters buildings were vacated in quick succession when British Bookshops left in March 2011 and The Argus newspaper moved out of its headquarters in 2012—although the Brighton & Hove Bus and Coach Company signed a contract to move its 1,250 employees into the latter building.
Brighton has a high density of businesses involved in the media sector, particularly digital or "new media", and since the 1990s has been referred to as "Silicon Beach". By 2007, over 250 new media business had been founded in Brighton. Examples include Midnight Communications, Madgex, Makemedia and Brightplace (an e-learning provider), which have all won or been nominated for various local and national awards. Cogapp started in 1985 and was initially focused on floppy disk manufacture, but it now deals with all aspects of information technology and has been involved with the Apple iPad. Brandwatch is a social media monitoring company based in offices near Brighton station. Computer game design company Black Rock Studio was founded in 1998 and was taken over by Disney Interactive Studios, who closed it down in 2011. The Gamer Network, whose portfolio of websites relating to computer gaming (including Eurogamer) and creative industries was founded in 1999, is based in Brighton.
By the early 21st century, the market for office accommodation in the city was characterised by fluctuating demand and a lack of supply of high-quality buildings. As an example, the Trafalgar Place development (c. 1990), "now considered a prime office location", stood partly empty for a decade. Exion 27 (built in 2001), a high-tech, energy-efficient office development at Hollingbury, remained empty for several years and is still not in commercial use: it houses some departments of the University of Sussex. It was Brighton's first ultramodern commercial property and was intended for mixed commercial and industrial use, but its completion coincided with a slump in demand for high-tech premises.
The Lanes form a retail, leisure and residential area near the seafront, characterised by narrow alleyways following the street pattern of the original fishing village. The Lanes contain predominantly clothing stores, jewellers, antique shops, restaurants and pubs. The North Laine area is a retail, leisure and residential area immediately north of the Lanes. Its name derives from the Anglo-Saxon "Laine" meaning "fields". The North Laine contains a mix of businesses dominated by cafés, independent and avant-garde shops, bars and theatres.
Churchill Square is a shopping centre with a floor space of 470,000 sq ft (44,000 m2) and over 80 shops, several restaurants and 1,600 car-parking spaces. It was built in the 1960s as an open-air, multi-level pedestrianised shopping centre, but was rebuilt and enlarged in 1998 and is no longer open-air. Further retail areas include Western Road and London Road.
The mainstay of Brighton's economy for its first 700 years was fishing. Open land called the Hempshares (the site of the present Lanes) provided hemp for ropes; sails were made from flax grown in Hove; nets were dried and boats were kept on the open land which became Old Steine; and fishermen lived and worked on the foreshore below the East Cliff, in an area known as Lower Town. Herring and mackerel were sometimes used in ecclesiastical and manorial transactions, a tradition which ended in the 19th century. As Brighton grew, many fishermen moved to the Carlton Hill area and used its many warehouses and workshops to cure and smoke their catches. The industry was so important in the town's early history that in 1579 a commission of important residents, formed at the Privy Council of England's request, commanded the fishermen to document how they worked and how they divided and distributed their catches and profits. These customs were then enshrined in law. Two original copies of The Book of All The Auncient Customs heretoforeused amonge the fishermen of the Toune of Brighthelmstone [sic] survive. In 1580, the year it was published, Brighton's 80-boat, 10,000-net fleet was the largest in southern England and employed 400 men. Herring and mackerel were the main products, but plaice, cod and conger eels were also fished. By 1790 there were 100 boats, but this declined to 48 by 1948. A fish market established below King's Road in 1864, replacing the ancient open-air market on the beach, moved to Carlton Hill in 1960 but closed in 2005. The present, much smaller fleet is based at Brighton Marina.
In the 18th century the economy diversified as the town grew. Small-scale foundries were established, especially in the North Laine area; coal importers such as the Brighthelmston Coal Company set up business to receive fuel sent from Newcastle; and the rise of tourism and fashionable society was reflected in the proliferation of lodging house keepers, day and boarding school proprietors, dressmakers, milliners and jewellers. Many women worked: more than half of working women in Brighton in the late 18th century were in charge of lodging houses, and domestic service and large-scale laundries were other major employers. Brewing was another of Brighton's early specialisms. The industry started in the 17th century and took off after 1800. Major names included the Kemp Town Brewery (1840s–1964),[note 5] Cannon Brewery (1821–1969), Griffiths (later Rock) Brewery (1809–1960), the Albion, the Longhurst and the Bristol Steam Brewery. Many others failed to survive the 19th century. The Black Lion Brewery in The Lanes, founded by Dirick Carver in 1545, stopped brewing in 1901 but its buildings survived until 1968. The biggest brewery was Tamplins (1821–1973), which owned over 200 pubs in Brighton at one time and bought many smaller breweries such as the Smithers (1851) and West Street (1767) companies.
The Royal Pavilion is a former royal palace built as a home for the Prince Regent during the early 19th century, under the direction of the architect John Nash, and is notable for its Indo-Saracenic architecture and Oriental interior. Other Indo-Saracenic buildings in Brighton include the Sassoon Mausoleum, now, with the bodies reburied elsewhere, in use as a chic supper club.
The West Pier was built in 1866 and is one of only two Grade I listed piers in the United Kingdom. It has been closed since 1975. For some time it was under consideration for restoration, but two fires in 2003, and other setbacks, led to these plans being abandoned. Plans for a new landmark in its place – the i360, a 183 m (600 ft) observation tower designed by London Eye architects Marks Barfield – were announced in June 2006. Plans were approved by the council on 11 October 2006. As of early 2009, construction had yet to begin, but the area has been cordoned off.
Brighton clocktower, built in 1888 for Queen Victoria's jubilee, stands at the intersection of Brighton's busiest thoroughfares.
The Brighton Wheel opened with some controversy, directly north east of the Brighton Marine Palace and Pier in October 2011 after a previous attempt to locate it in a more central location near the Metropole Hotel, at which time it was to have been the "Brighton O" – a special spokeless design rather than the traditional spoked wheel eventually purchased from its previous home in South Africa.
The Brighton i360 observation tower is expected to be completed in 2016. At 162 metres (531.49 feet) high, and with an observation pod rising to 138 metres (452.75 feet), the i360 will be Britain's highest observation tower outside London – taller even than the London Eye.
Churches and places of worship
The 11th century (1086) St Nicholas Church is the oldest building in Brighton, commonly known as "The Mother Church". Other notable churches include the very tall brick-built St Bartholomew's (1874) designed by the architect Edmund Scott, St Peter's (1828), and St. Martin's, noted for its decorated interior. Brighton's Quakers run the Friends' Meeting House in the Lanes. There is an active Unitarian community based in a Grade 2 listed building in New Road, and a Spiritualist church in Norfolk Square. There are also a number of New Age outlets and groups.
Brighton has three synagogues: the Middle Street Synagogue is a Grade II-listed building built in 1874–75. It is being gradually restored by English Heritage. There are also several mosques and Buddhist centres.
Brighton has become known as one of the least religious places in the UK, based upon analysis of the 2011 census which revealed that 42 per cent of the population profess no religion, far higher than the national average of 25%. As part of the Jedi census phenomenon, 2.6 per cent claimed their religion was Jedi Knight, the largest percentage in the country.
Brighton has a 5.4-mile (8.7 km) expanse of shingle beach, part of the unbroken 8-mile (13 km) section within the city limits.[note 6] The seafront has bars, restaurants, nightclubs, sports facilities and amusement arcades, principally along the central section between the West and Palace Piers. This part is the most popular: daily visits exceed 150,000 at weekends in high summer. During a heatwave in October 2011, 200,000 tourists visited in a single weekend and spent about £5 million. Neighbouring Hove is well known for its hundreds of painted timber beach huts, but brick-walled chalets are also available on Brighton seafront, especially towards Rottingdean and Saltdean. Especially east of the Palace Pier, a flat sandy foreshore is exposed at low tide. The Palace Pier section of the beach has been awarded blue flag status. Part of the beach adjoining Madeira Drive, to the east of the city centre, has been redeveloped into a sports complex and opened to the public in March 2007, with courts for pursuits such as beach volleyball and ultimate Frisbee among others.
The city council owns all the beaches, which are divided into named sections by groynes—the first of which were completed in 1724. Eastwards from the Hove boundary, the names are Boundary, Norfolk, Bedford, Metropole, Grand (referring to the four hotels with those names), Centre, King's, Old Ship, Volk's, Albion, Palace Pier, Aquarium, Athina (where the MS Athina B ran aground), Paston, Banjo, Duke's, Cliff, Crescent and Black Rock. Cliff Beach is a nudist beach. Beyond Black Rock, the cliffs (part of the Brighton to Newhaven Cliffs Site of Special Scientific Interest) rise to more than 100 feet (30 m) and there are three small beaches at Ovingdean Gap, Rottingdean Gap and Saltdean Gap. All are connected by the Undercliff Walk, which has been affected by several cliff falls since 2000.
Since the demolition in 1978 of the Black Rock open-air lido at the eastern end of Brighton's seafront, the area has been developed and now features one of Europe's largest marinas. However, the site of the pool itself remains empty except for a skate park and graffiti wall. Since 2003 a series of developments have been proposed but have come to nothing, including housing, a five-star hotel with a winter garden, and an 11,000-seat sports arena.
Brighton featured in a number of popular movies including Quadrophenia (1979), The End of the Affair (1999), MirrorMask (2005), Angus, Thongs and Perfect Snogging (2008), The Young Victoria (2009), Brighton Rock (2010 and 1947) and The Boat that Rocked (2009).
The Duke of York's Picturehouse, dating from 1910, was opened by Mrs Violet Melnotte-Wyatt. It is the country's oldest purpose-built cinema and was Brightons first Electric Bioscope, which still operates as an arthouse cinema. The Duke of Yorks Picturehouse has expanded the cinema range in Brighton to include two more screens at the Komedia Theatre situated in Gardner Street central Brighton. There are two multiplex cinemas.
Festivals and rallies
Each May the city hosts the Brighton Festival, the second largest arts festival in the UK (after Edinburgh). This includes processions such as the Children's Parade, outdoor spectaculars often involving pyrotechnics, and theatre, music and visual arts in venues throughout the city, some brought into this use exclusively for the festival. The earliest feature of the festival, the Artists' Open Houses, are homes of artists and craftspeople opened to the public as galleries, and usually selling the work of the occupants. Since 2002, these have been organised independently of the official Festival and Fringe.
Brighton Fringe runs alongside Brighton Festival, and has grown to be the second largest fringe festival in the world. Together with the street performers from Brighton Festival's "Streets of Brighton" events, and the Royal Mile-esque outdoor performances that make up "Fringe City", outdoor spectacles and events more than double during May.
Other festivals include The Great Escape, featuring three nights of live music in venues across the city; the Soundwaves Festival in June, which shows classical music composed in the 21st Century, and involves both amateur and professional performers; Paddle Round the Pier; Brighton Live which each September stages a week of free gigs in pubs to show local bands; Burning the Clocks, a winter solstice celebration; and Brighton Pride (see lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community, below). For a number of years, Andrew Logan's Alternative Miss World extravaganza was held in the city.
The Kemptown area has its own small annual street festival, the Kemptown Carnival, and the Hanover area similarly has a "Hanover Day". Local resident Fatboy Slim puts on a "Big Beach Boutique" show most years. An inaugural White Nights (Nuit Blanche) all-night arts festival took place in October 2008. 2009 saw the first Brighton Zine Fest celebrating zine and DIY culture within the city.
Brighton is the terminus of a number of London-to-Brighton rides, and runs, such as the veteran car run and bike ride. Transport rallies are also hosted on the seafront. Groups of mods and Rockers still bring their scooters and motorbikes to the town, but their gatherings are now much more sedate than the violent 1960s confrontations depicted in Quadrophenia.
Food and drink related festivals include the traditional Blessing of the Fisheries, where barbecued mackerel are eaten on the beach and the more recent Fiery Foods Chilli Festival. There is also a twice-yearly general food festival. The main Sussex beer festival is held in nearby Hove, and there is a smaller beer festival in the Hanover area. Foodies Festival also counts Brighton as one of its seven national venues, with the event taking place between 25–27 May at Hove Lawns and including top chefs such as Loyd Grossman.
Brighton is the home of the UK's first Walk of Fame which celebrates the many rich and famous people associated with the city.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community
Brighton has a substantial LGBT community served by shops, bars, night-clubs, and support organisations. It is often referred to as "the gay capital". The Gay Pride carnival every August attracts thousands. It consists of a carnival parade and a party and funfair in Preston Park.
Brighton museums include Brighton Museum & Art Gallery, Preston Manor, Booth Museum of Natural History, Brighton Toy and Model Museum, and Brighton Fishing Museum, the long established social epicentre of the seafront, which includes artefacts from the West Pier. The Royal Pavilion is also open to the public, serving as a museum to the British Regency.
Night-life and popular music
Brighton has many night-life hotspots and is associated with popular musicians including Fatboy Slim, Kirk Brandon, Tim Booth, Nick Cave, Robert Smith and Jimmy Somerville. Live music venues include the Concorde2, Brighton Centre and the Brighton Dome, where ABBA received a substantial boost to their career when they won the Eurovision Song Contest 1974. Many events and performance companies operate in the city.
Popular alternative rock band The Eighties Matchbox B-Line Disaster, alternative rock duo Blood Red Shoes, indie rock band The Kooks, metalcore band Architects, hip-hop duo Rizzle Kicks and dark cabaret band Birdeatsbaby originated in Brighton. Alternative blues rock duo Royal Blood formed in Brighton in 2013 and had a UK number 1 album with their debut in 2014. Indie psych band The Wytches are based in Brighton and signed to Heavenly Recordings in 2014, releasing their debut album Annabel Dream Reader in August which reached the UK top 50. There are over 300 pubs in the town.
Brighton has about 400 restaurants, more per head than anywhere else outside London. A wide range of cuisines is available.
Theatres include the Brighton Dome and associated Pavilion Theatre, the expanded Komedia (primarily a comedy and music venue but also a theatre), The Old Market which was renovated and re-opened in 2010, and the Theatre Royal which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2007. There are also smaller theatres such as the Marlborough Theatre and Nightingale Theatre, both above pubs, which attract mostly local productions, and the Brighton Little Theatre.
Brighton & Hove City Council is responsible for 80 schools, of which 54 are in Brighton.
The University of Sussex established in 1961 is a campus university between Stanmer Park and Falmer, four miles (6 km) from the city centre. Served by frequent trains (to Falmer railway station) and 24-hour buses, it has a student population of 12,500 of which 70% are undergraduates. The university is currently ranked 21st in the UK and 110th in the world by the World University Rankings.
The University of Brighton, the former Brighton Polytechnic, has a student population of 20,017 of which 80% are undergraduates. The university is on several sites with additional buildings in Falmer, Moulsecoomb, Eastbourne and Hastings.
In 2003, the universities of Sussex and Brighton formed a medical school, known as Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The school was one of four new medical schools to be created as part of a government programme to increase the number of qualified NHS doctors. The school is based in Falmer and works closely with the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust.
A range of non-university courses for students over 16, mainly in vocational education subjects, is provided at the further education college, City College Brighton and Hove. More academic subjects can be studied by 16–18-year-olds at Brighton Hove & Sussex Sixth Form College (BHASVIC) in the Seven Dials area. Varndean College in North Brighton occupies a commanding position. The 1920s building is celebrated for its façade and internal quads. The college offers academic A levels, The International Baccalaureate and vocational courses.
There are state schools and some faith schools. Notable state schools include Longhill High School, Varndean School, Patcham High School, Dorothy Stringer High School, Blatchington Mill School and Sixth Form College and Brighton Aldridge Community Academy.
There are a number of private schools, including Brighton College, Roedean School, Steiner School, BHHS and a Montessori School. As with the state schools, some independents are faith-based; Torah Academy, the last Jewish primary school, became a Pre-K/Nursery School at the end of the 2007. The Brighton Institute of Modern Music, a fully accredited music college, opened in 2001 and has since expanded to five locations throughout the UK.
In spring and summer, thousands of students from all over Europe gather to attend language courses at the many language schools.
Brighton & Hove Albion Football Club is the city's professional football team. After playing at the Goldstone Ground for 95 years, the club spent two years ground-sharing at Gillingham before returning to the town as tenants of the Withdean Athletics Stadium. However, in 2011 the club moved to a permanent home at Falmer at the start of the 2011/12 season, with the first match in July 2011. The club's notable achievements including winning promotion to the Football League First Division for the first time in 1979, staying there for four seasons, during the last of which they reached the FA Cup Final and took Manchester United to a replay before losing 4–0. Notable former managers of the club include Brian Clough, Peter Taylor (born 1928), Peter Taylor (born 1953), Jimmy Melia, Liam Brady, Jimmy Case, Steve Gritt, Brian Horton, Steve Coppell and Mark McGhee. Notable former players include Gareth Barry, Dave Beasant, Justin Fashanu, Dennis Mortimer, Gordon Smith, Frank Stapleton, Howard Wilkinson and Bobby Zamora.
Brighton and Hove is home to the Sussex County Cricket Club at Eaton Road in Hove.
Brighton Football Club (RFU) is one of the oldest Rugby Clubs in England.
Throughout the year many events take place on Madeira Drive (a piece of roadway on Brighton's seafront), which was constructed to host what is commonly held to be the world's oldest motor race, the Brighton and Hove Motor Club and normally takes place on the second Saturday in September each year.
There is also an from time to time a beach soccer competition in a temporary stadium on imported sand on the beach. The inaugural contest in June 2002 featured football stars such as Eric Cantona and Matt Le Tissier.
Brighton has a horse-racing course, Brighton Racecourse, with the unusual feature that when the full length of the course is to be used, some of the grass turf of the track has to be laid over the tar at the top of Wilson Avenue, a public road, which therefore has to be closed for the races.
The Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club runs an annual triples, doubles and singles competition, informal KOs, winter and summer league, plus Open competitions with other clubs. The club is affiliated to Sussex Pétanque, the local region of the English Pétanque Association, so they can also play at a Regional and National level. The Peace Statue terrain is the official pétanque terrain situated on the seafront near the West Pier.
There are yachting clubs and other boating activities run from Brighton Marina.
Brighton has several railway stations, many bus routes, coach services and taxis. A Rapid Transport System has been under consideration for some years. Trolleybuses, trams, ferries and hydrofoil services have operated in the past.
Brighton is connected to the national road network by the A23 (London Road) northwards, and by two east–west routes: the A259 along the coast and the A27 trunk route inland. The A23 joins the M23 motorway at Pease Pottage near Gatwick Airport. The A27 originally ran through the urban area along Old Shoreham Road and Lewes Road, but it now follows the route of the Brighton Bypass (opened in 1990) and the old alignment has become the A270. A bypass was first proposed in 1932, six routes were submitted for approval in 1973, and the Department of the Environment published its recommended route in 1980. Public enquiries took place in 1983 and 1987, construction started in 1989 and the first section—between London Road at Patcham and the road to Devil's Dyke—opened in summer 1991. By 1985 there were about 5,000 parking spaces in central Brighton. The largest car parks are at London Road, King Street, and the Churchill Square/Regency Road/Russell Road complex. In 1969, a 520-space multi-storey car park was built beneath the central gardens of Regency Square.
Frequent trains operate from Brighton railway station. Many Brighton residents commute to work in London and destinations include London Victoria, London Bridge and St Pancras International. Many trains serve Gatwick Airport, and those operated by Thameslink continue to Luton, Luton Airport and Bedford. The fastest service from London Victoria takes 51 minutes. The West Coastway Line serves stations to Hove, Worthing, Portsmouth and Southampton; and the East Coastway Line runs via Lewes to Newhaven, Eastbourne, Hastings and Ashford, Kent, crossing the landmark London Road viaduct en route and providing "a dramatic high-level view" of Brighton. A wider range of long-distance destinations was served until 2007–08 when rationalisation caused the ending of InterCity services via Kensington (Olympia) and Reading to Birmingham, Manchester and Edinburgh. Twice-daily long-distance services to Bristol and Great Malvern are operated by First Great Western via the West Coastway Line.
Until deregulation in 1986, bus services in Brighton were provided by Southdown Motor Services and Brighton Borough Transport under a joint arrangement called "Brighton Area Transport Services". Southdown were part of the nationalised NBC group and were based at Freshfield Road in the Kemptown area; Brighton Borough Transport were owned by the council and used the former tram depot at Lewes Road as their headquarters. Joint tickets were available and revenue was shared. The Brighton & Hove Bus Company, owned by the Go-Ahead Group since 1993, now runs most bus services in Brighton. Its fleet has about 280 buses. Compass Travel, The Big Lemon, Metrobus, Stagecoach South and The Sussex Bus also operate some services to central Brighton. The city had 1,184 bus stops in 2012, 456 of which had a shelter. Real-time travel information displays are provided at many stops.
The only park and ride facility in Brighton is based at the Withdean Stadium. It does not offer a dedicated shuttle bus service: intending passengers must join the Brighton & Hove Bus Company's route 27 service to Saltdean—which travels via Brighton railway station, the Clock Tower and Old Steine—and pay standard fares. The 20-year City Plan released in January 2013 ruled out an official park-and-ride facility, stating it would be an "inefficient use of public money, particularly in an era of declining car use". Councillors and residents in Woodingdean and Rottingdean have claimed that streets and car parks in those areas have become unofficial park-and-ride sites: drivers park for free and take buses into the city centre.
Shoreham Airport, which offers chartered and scheduled flights using light aircraft, is 9 miles (14 km) west of Brighton near the town of Shoreham-by-Sea. In 1971, the borough councils of Worthing, Hove and Brighton bought it and operated it jointly as a municipal airport, but since 2006 it has been privately owned. On 6 March 2013, newly established operator Brighton City Airways started running a scheduled service to Paris Pontoise–Cormeilles Airport in France. Flights were suspended shortly afterwards. The airport was rebranded Brighton (Shoreham) Airport around the same time.
Gatwick Airport, one of Britain's major international airports, is 22 miles (35 km) north on the A23; regular coach and rail services operate from Brighton.
- The Argus (Brighton) – newspaper
- Brighton in fiction
- Royal Alexandra Hospital, Brighton – a children's hospital
- De Tabe Glandulari, sive, De usu aquæ marinæ in morbis glandularum dissertatio (1750); translated into English in 1753 as Glandular Diseases, or a Dissertation on the Use of Sea Water in the Affections of the Glands.
- The name was documented as Poole in 1296 and 1497.
- Area of the unitary authority of Brighton and Hove.
- 2009 figures.
- This is not the same as the present Kemp Town Brewery, founded in 1988 and based at the Hand in Hand pub in Kemptown.
- Until the extension of Brighton's boundaries to include Rottingdean and Saltdean in 1928, the coastline between the Hove and Rottingdean parish boundaries measured 2.2 miles (3.5 km).
- "Census 2011 result shows increase in population of the South East". Retrieved 20 May 2014.
- OS Explorer map 122: Brighton and Hove. Scale: 1:25 000. Publisher:Ordnance Survey – Southampton B2 edition. Publishing Date:2009. ISBN 978 0319240816
- Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. p. 127. East Sussex County Libraries. ISBN 0-86147-315-9
- "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- Collis 2010, p. 44.
- Leslie & Short 1999, pp. 32–33.
- Collis 2010, p. 39.
- "The Bright Helm".
- Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 3.
- Carder 1990, §. 16.
- Sampson 1994, p. 56.
- Carder 1990, §. 17.
- "Whitehawk Camp". Brighton and Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Information derived from National Trust".
- Current Archaeology, 13 March 2014, http://www.archaeology.co.uk/digging/fieldwork/rocky-clump-2.htm accessed 27 April 2014.
- Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (Parker MS) (E-text)
- Seldon 2002, Ch. 2.
- Musgrave 1981, p. 21.
- Seldon 2002, p. 32.
- Seldon 2002, p. 33.
- Farrant, John H. (September 2011). "Oxford DNB article: Russell, Richard". (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Seldon 2002, p. 34.
- Seldon 2002, pp. 34–35.
- Gwynne 1990, p. 98.
- Carder 1990, §. 71.
- Mawer, Stenton & Gover 1930, p. 291.
- Carder 1990, §. 127.
- Carder 1990, §. 34.
- Carder 1990, p. 13
- Carder 1990, §. 15.
- Collis 2010, p. 246.
- Dale 1976, p. 95.
- Dale 1976, p. 8.
- Lower 1864, p. 248.
- Lower 1864, p. 247.
- Carder 1990, §. 128.
- Carder 1990, §. 56.
- Leslie & Short 1999, p. 3.
- Carder 1990, §. 43.
- Carder 1990, §. 40.
- Collis, pp. 34–35.
- Collis, p. 35.
- Collis, p. 34.
- Dale 1986, p. 57.
- G.I. Barnett Publishers & Cartographers (1960). Barnett's Official Street Plan: Brighton and Hove (Map). 1:15840. Cartography by Ordnance Survey. Ilford. Section G9,G8,H7,G7,G6,F6,F5,E4,D3,C3.
- "Brighton, Kemptown". UK Polling Report website. Anthony Wells. 2004–2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "Brighton, Pavilion". UK Polling Report website. Anthony Wells. 2004–2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "BBC News Election 2010 Constituency Brighton Pavilion". Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "Ward Map" (PDF). Brighton and Hove City Council. August 2013. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- Carder 1990, §47.
- Collis 2010, p. 156.
- Collis 2010, pp. 341–342.
- Antram & Morrice 2008, p. 72.
- "Ceremonies in Brighton Town Hall". Brighton & Hove City Council. 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Collis, p. 214.
- Collis, p. 90.
- Collis, p. 205.
- Brighton Borough Council 1985, p. 51.
- Collis 2010, p. 113.
- "Brighton ranks number 3 in UK for economic vitality". Brighton & Hove Economic Partnership. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Collis, p. 9.
- Collis, p. 10.
- "Thousands of jobs at Gatwick".
- Collis, p. 56.
- "IKEA fails to get Hollingbury site". Brighton & Hove Economic Partnership. 9 April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Collis, pp. 149–150.
- "British Bookshops warehouse on the market". Brighton & Hove Economic Partnership. 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Hove bus garage move offers a real win-win prize". Brighton & Hove Economic Partnership. 1 June 2012. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Munford, Monty (22 September 2011). "Brighton's Silicon Beach tech cluster finally breaks shore". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Purchese, Robert (1 July 2011). "Split/Second dev Black Rock to close".
- "Gamer Network". Gamer Network. 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Brighton & Hove Tall Buildings Study" (PDF) (C). Brighton & Hove City Council (in association with Gillespies and GVA Grimley). October 2003. p. 28. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Change of Use for Exion 27 indicates planning flexibility?". Brighton & Hove Economic Partnership. 21 July 2004. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- "Exion won't be empty for much longer".
- "Churchill Square Shopping Centre: Churchill Square Food". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Collis 2010, p. 124.
- Collis 2010, p. 224.
- Musgrave 1981, p. 386.
- Carder 1990, §2.
- Collis 2010, pp. 124–125.
- Collis 2010, p. 125.
- Collis 2010, p. 111.
- Collis 2010, p. 38.
- Collis 2010, pp. 36–38.
- "I will never return to the pier". Theargus.co.uk. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Pricey on the Pier". Theargus.co.uk. 9 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Pressure the pier". The Argus. 14 May 2007. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Pier Threatens To Unplug Rival". Worldwidewet.net. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "England – Southern Counties – Tall tower rises from pier ashes". BBC News. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Home page of Volks Electric Railway Group". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Blog post from The Virgin Backpacker". Retrieved 16 December 2010.
- "OK or O no". Jasonkitcat.com. 20 November 2009. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Atkinson, Clive. Matthews, David. Savile , Andrew. Tunna , Robert. Weighill , Tim. Macdonald, Ken (1990). A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton. Saint Nicholas’s Church – Church Street – Description with dates (McMillan Martin Ltd). p. 94 – 11b.
- "St. Nicholas Church – Out & About – Regency Square Area Society". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- Atkinson, Clive. Matthews, David. Savile , Andrew. Tunna , Robert. Weighill , Tim. Macdonald, Ken (1990). A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton. Saint bartholomem’s Church – Anne Street – Description with dates and reference to the architect (McMillan Martin Ltd). p. 50 – 4G.
- "Brighton and Hove Spiritualist Church". Brighton and Hove Spiritualist Church. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Al-Quds Mosque". Brightonmosque.com. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Al-Medinah Mosque Timetable Download (PDF, 641KB). "Al Medina mosque". Bhmf.org.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Welcome to the Brighton Buddhist Centre. "Brighton Buddhist Centre". Brighton Buddhist Centre. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Brighton and Hove is country's most Godless city". The Argus. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Haines, Lester (28 January 2004). "Brighton Tops Jedi League". The Register. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "The Seafront". Brighton and Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Collis 2010, p. 302.
- Evans, Rebecca (3 October 2011). "Heatwave worth £5 million to Brighton and Hove economy".
- Collis 2010, p. 303.
- "Palace Pier Beach (Brighton)". UK Beach Guide. 2014. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- "The Cliffs between Black Rock and Saltdean". Brighton and Hove City Council. Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- Collis 2010, p. 29.
- "Films made in the Brighton & Hove area". 30 June 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- Atkinson, Clive. Matthews, David. Savile , Andrew. Tunna , Robert. Weighill , Tim. Macdonald, Ken (1990). A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton. Duke of York Cinema – reference to date and description (McMillan Martin Ltd). p. 51 – 4h.
- "Brighton Fringe Festival 2006 – Cities – VisitBritain". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Brighton Fringe Festival 2007. 5–28 May 2007.". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Brighton Zine Fest homepage".
- "Fiery Foods Chilli festival, Brighton, 2012". Fieryfoodsuk.co.uk. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Brighton Food Festival". Brighton Food Festival. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Foodiesfestivals.com". Foodiesfestivals.com. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- Brighton Walk of Fame
- "'"England – Southern Counties – Couples tie knot in 'gay capital. BBC News. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- Life at Sussex university
- "Concorde 2". Concorde 2. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Places | Pubs". My Brighton and Hove. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Sussex University: ''Why Sussex''". Sussex.ac.uk. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Atkinson, Clive. Matthews, David. Savile , Andrew. Tunna , Robert. Weighill , Tim. Macdonald, Ken (1990). A Guide to the Buildings of Brighton. The Theatre Royal - reference to date and description (McMillan Martin Ltd). p. 32 – 1G.
- "Brighton & Hove City Council – school contact information". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Communications Division Facts and Figures 2003–04". Archived from the original on 17 June 2007. Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "University of Sussex/". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Top European Universities 2012-2013/". The World University Rankings/. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Facts and figures – University of Brighton". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "South-east England, maps and directions – University of Brighton". Retrieved 30 March 2009.
- "Brighton State Schools/". Brighton Scene. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
- "Brighton Rugby Club – Sussex, south of England". Retrieved 11 April 2007.
- "B&H Hockey Club". Brightonandhovehockeyclub.net. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- "Brighton Ultimate frisbee team website".
- "Brighton and Hove Pétanque Club".
- "Brighton Swimming Club".
- "Brighton Dolphin Swimming Club".
- "Transport Project Will Cut Journey Times". Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- "Brighton and Hove City Council – Major Scheme Business Case – Rapid Transport System" (PDF). Retrieved 25 April 2007.
- Brighton Borough Council 1985, p. 49.
- Collis 2010, p. 48.
- Brighton Borough Council 1985, p. 10.
- Collis 2010, p. 273.
- Vowles, Neil (6 November 2013). "Commuting effect means Brighton and Hove population drops by 2.5% every working day".
- Dolan, Siobhan (2 April 2005). "Bedside the seaside".
- Brighton Borough Council 1985, pp. 48, 50.
- "All About Us".
- Ridgway, Tim (13 August 2012). "Could Brighton and Hove buses get their own 'tube map'?".
- "Park & Ride". Brighton & Hove City Council. 2013. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013.
- Ridgway, Tim (6 August 2013). "Woodingdean being turned into unofficial "park and ride" claim residents".
- "Airport History".
- "Airport plans focus on terminal".
- Middleton, Kimberly (5 March 2013). "Cross channel flights take off from Brighton tomorrow".
- Antram, Nicholas; Morrice, Richard (2008). Brighton and Hove.
- Brighton Borough Council (1985). Borough of Brighton Residents' Handbook (2nd ed.). Wallington: Home Publishing Co. Ltd.
- Carder, Timothy (1990). The Encyclopaedia of Brighton. Lewes: East Sussex County Libraries.
- Collis, Rose (2010). The New Encyclopaedia of Brighton. (based on the original by Tim Carder) (1st ed.). Brighton: Brighton & Hove Libraries.
- Dale, Antony (1976). Brighton Town and Brighton People. Chichester: Phillimore & Co.
- Dale, Antony (1986) . About Brighton: A Guide to the Buildings and Byways of Brighton and Hove (2nd Revised ed.). Brighton: The Regency Society of Brighton and Hove.
- Gwynne, Peter (1990). A History of Crawley (1st ed.). Chichester: Phillimore & Co.
- Leslie, Kim (ed.); Short, Brian (ed.) (1999). An Historical Atlas of Sussex. Chichester: Phillimore & Co.
- Mawer, A.; Stenton, F.M.; Gover, J.E.B. (1930). The Place-Names of Sussex 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Musgrave, Clifford (1981). Life in Brighton. Rochester: Rochester Press.
- Robinson, L.J. (1966). The Lanes of Brighton: a Brief Account of the Origins of the Ancient Town of Brighthelmstone. Brighton: The Southern Publishing Co.
- Sampson, Mark (1994). Brighton: History and Guide. Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing.
- Brighton at DMOZ
- "Brighton & Hove City Council". Retrieved 20 August 2007.
- "Brighton from Space – Satellite image of Brighton courtesy of Google Maps". Retrieved 20 August 2007.