Caldwell catalogue

Caldwell catalogue

Montage of Caldwell Catalogue objects.

The Caldwell Catalogue is an astronomical catalog of 109 star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies for observation by amateur astronomers. The list was compiled by Patrick Moore as a complement to the Messier Catalogue.[1]

While the Messier Catalogue is used by amateur astronomers as a list of deep-sky objects for observation, Moore noted that Mesier's list did not include many of the sky's brightest deep-sky objects,[1] such as the Hyades, the Double Cluster (NGC 869 and NGC 884), and the Sculptor Galaxy (NGC 253). Moore also observed that since Messier compiled his list from observations in Paris, it did not include bright deep-sky objects visible in the Southern Hemisphere, such as Omega Centauri, Centaurus A, the Jewel Box, and 47 Tucanae.[1][2] Moore compiled a list of 109 objects – to match the commonly accepted number of Messier objects (110 minus the duplicate 102 acknowledged by Méchain)[1] – and the list was published in Sky & Telescope in December 1995.[3]

Moore used his other surname (Caldwell) to name the list, as the first letter of "Moore" is already used for the Messier Catalogue.[1][4] Entries in the catalogue are designated with a "C" and the catalogue number (1 to 109).

Unlike objects in the Messier catalogue, which are listed roughly in the order of discovery by Messier and his colleagues,[5] the Caldwell catalogue is ordered by declination, with C1 being the most northerly and C109 being the most southerly,[1] although two objects (NGC 4244 and the Hyades) are listed out of sequence.[1] Other errors in the original list have since been corrected: it incorrectly identified the S Norma Cluster (NGC 6087) as NGC 6067 and incorrectly labelled the Lambda Centauri Cluster (IC 2944) as the Gamma Centauri Cluster.[1]

Contents

  • Caldwell Star Chart 1
  • Number of objects by type in the Caldwell catalogue. 2
  • Caldwell objects 3
    • Key 3.1
    • 1–10 3.2
    • 11–20 3.3
    • 21–30 3.4
    • 31–40 3.5
    • 41–50 3.6
    • 51–60 3.7
    • 61–70 3.8
    • 71–80 3.9
    • 81–90 3.10
    • 91–100 3.11
    • 101–109 3.12
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Caldwell Star Chart

Caldwell Star Chart

Number of objects by type in the Caldwell catalogue.

Dark nebulae 1
Galaxy 35
Globular clusters 18
Nebulae 9
Star Clusters 25
Star Clusters and Nebulae 6
Planetary Nebulae 13
Supernova remnant 2
Total 109

Caldwell objects

Key

Star cluster
Nebula
Galaxy

1–10

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C1 NGC 188   Open Cluster 4.8 Cepheus 8.1
C2 NGC 40 Bow-Tie Nebula Planetary Nebula 3.5 Cepheus 11
C3 NGC 4236   Galaxy 7,000 Draco 9.7
C4 NGC 7023 Iris Nebula Open Cluster and Nebula 1.4 Cepheus 7
C5 IC 342   Galaxy 10,000 Camelopardalis 9
C6 NGC 6543 Cat's Eye Nebula Planetary Nebula 3 Draco 9
C7 NGC 2403   Galaxy 14,000 Camelopardalis 8.4
C8 NGC 559   Open Cluster 3.7 Cassiopeia 9.5
C9 Sh2-155 Cave Nebula Nebula 2.8 Cepheus 7.7
C10 NGC 663   Open Cluster 7.2 Cassiopeia 7.1

11–20

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C11 NGC 7635 Bubble Nebula Nebula 7.1 Cassiopeia -
C12 NGC 6946 Fireworks Galaxy Galaxy 18,000 Cepheus 8.9
C13 NGC 457 Owl Cluster, E.T. Cluster Open Cluster - Cassiopeia 6.4
C14 NGC 869 & NGC 884 Double Cluster, H & χ Persei Open Cluster 7.3 Perseus 4
C15 NGC 6826 Blinking Planetary Planetary Nebula 2.2 Cygnus 10
C16 NGC 7243   Open Cluster 2.5 Lacerta 6.4
C17 NGC 147   Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.3
C18 NGC 185   Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.2
C19 IC 5146 Cocoon Nebula Open Cluster and Nebula 3.3 Cygnus 7.2
C20 NGC 7000 North America Nebula Nebula 1.8 Cygnus 4

21–30

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C21 NGC 4449   Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 9.4
C22 NGC 7662 Blue Snowball Planetary Nebula 3.2 Andromeda 9
C23 NGC 891   Galaxy 31,000 Andromeda 10
C24 NGC 1275 Perseus A Galaxy 230,000 Perseus 11.6
C25 NGC 2419   Globular Cluster 275 Lynx 10.4
C26 NGC 4244   Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 10.2
C27 NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula Nebula 4.7 Cygnus 7.4
C28 NGC 752   Open Cluster 1.2 Andromeda 5.7
C29 NGC 5005   Galaxy 69,000 Canes Venatici 9.8
C30 NGC 7331   Galaxy 47,000 Pegasus 9.5

31–40

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C31 IC 405 Flaming Star Nebula Nebula 1.6 Auriga -
C32 NGC 4631 Whale Galaxy Galaxy 22,000 Canes Venatici 9.3
C33 NGC 6992 East Veil Nebula Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C34 NGC 6960 West Veil Nebula Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C35 NGC 4889   Galaxy 300,000 Coma Berenices 11.4
C36 NGC 4559   Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.9
C37 NGC 6885   Open Cluster 1.95 Vulpecula 6
C38 NGC 4565 Needle Galaxy Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.6
C39 NGC 2392 Eskimo Nebula/Clown Face Nebula Planetary Nebula 4 Gemini 10
C40 NGC 3626     Galaxy 86,000 Leo 10.9

41–50

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C41 Mel 25 Hyades Open Cluster 0.151 Taurus 0.5
C42 NGC 7006   Globular Cluster 135 Delphinus 10.6
C43 NGC 7814   Galaxy 49,000 Pegasus 10.5
C44 NGC 7479   Galaxy 106,000 Pegasus 11
C45 NGC 5248   Galaxy 74,000 Boötes 10.2
C46 NGC 2261 Hubble's Variable Nebula Nebula 2.5 Monoceros -
C47 NGC 6934   Globular Cluster 57 Delphinus 8.9
C48 NGC 2775   Galaxy 55,000 Cancer 10.3
C49 NGC 2237 Rosette Nebula Nebula 4.9 Monoceros 9.0
C50 NGC 2244   Open Cluster 4.9 Monoceros 4.8

51–60

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C51 IC 1613   Galaxy 2,300 Cetus 9.3
C52 NGC 4697     Galaxy 76,000 Virgo 9.3
C53 NGC 3115 Spindle Galaxy Galaxy 22,000 Sextans 9.2
C54 NGC 2506     Open Cluster 10 Monoceros 7.6
C55 NGC 7009 Saturn Nebula Planetary Nebula 1.4 Aquarius 8
C56 NGC 246   Planetary Nebula 1.6 Cetus 8
C57 NGC 6822 Barnard's Galaxy Galaxy 2,300 Sagittarius 9
C58 NGC 2360   Open Cluster 3.7 Canis Major 7.2
C59 NGC 3242 Ghost of Jupiter Planetary Nebula 1.4 Hydra 9
C60 NGC 4038 Antennae Galaxies Galaxy 83,000 Corvus 10.7

61–70

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C61 NGC 4039 Antennae Galaxies Galaxy 83,000 Corvus 13
C62 NGC 247   Galaxy 6,800 Cetus 8.9
C63 NGC 7293 Helix Nebula Planetary Nebula 0.522 Aquarius 7.3
C64 NGC 2362   Open Cluster and Nebula 5.1 Canis Major 4.1
C65 NGC 253 Sculptor Galaxy Galaxy 9,800 Sculptor 7.1
C66 NGC 5694     Globular Cluster 113 Hydra 10.2
C67 NGC 1097   Galaxy 47,000 Fornax 9.3
C68 NGC 6729 R CrA Nebula Nebula 0.424 Corona Australis -
C69 NGC 6302 Bug Nebula Planetary Nebula 5.2 Scorpius 13
C70 NGC 300   Galaxy 3,900 Sculptor 9

71–80

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C71 NGC 2477   Open Cluster 3.7 Puppis 5.8
C72 NGC 55   Galaxy 4,200 Sculptor 8
C73 NGC 1851   Globular Cluster 39.4 Columba 7.3
C74 NGC 3132 Eight Burst Nebula Planetary Nebula 2 Vela 8
C75 NGC 6124   Open Cluster 1.5 Scorpius 5.8
C76 NGC 6231   Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Scorpius 2.6
C77 NGC 5128 Centaurus A Galaxy 16,000 Centaurus 7
C78 NGC 6541   Globular Cluster 22.3 Corona Australis 6.6
C79 NGC 3201   Globular Cluster 17 Vela 6.8
C80 NGC 5139 Omega Centauri Globular Cluster 17.3 Centaurus 3.7

81–90

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C81 NGC 6352   Globular Cluster 18.6 Ara 8.2
C82 NGC 6193   Open Cluster 4.3 Ara 5.2
C83 NGC 4945   Galaxy 17,000 Centaurus 9
C84 NGC 5286   Globular Cluster 36 Centaurus 7.6
C85 IC 2391 Omicron Velorum Cluster Open Cluster 0.5 Vela 2.5
C86 NGC 6397   Globular Cluster 7.5 Ara 5.7
C87 NGC 1261   Globular Cluster 55.5 Horologium 8.4
C88 NGC 5823   Open Cluster 3.4 Circinus 7.9
C89 NGC 6087[note 1] S Norma Cluster Open Cluster 3.3 Norma 5.4
C90 NGC 2867   Planetary Nebula 5.5 Carina 10
  1. ^ C89 was mistakenly written as NGC 6067 in the original, but its description is that of NGC 6087.

91–100

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C91 NGC 3532 Wishing Well Cluster Open Cluster 1.6 Carina 3
C92 NGC 3372 Eta Carinae Nebula Nebula 7.5 Carina 3
C93 NGC 6752   Globular Cluster 13 Pavo 5.4
C94 NGC 4755 Jewel Box Open Cluster 4.9 Crux 4.2
C95 NGC 6025   Open Cluster 2.5 Triangulum Australe 5.1
C96 NGC 2516 Open Cluster 1.3 Carina 3.8
C97 NGC 3766 Pearl Cluster Open Cluster 5.8 Centaurus 5.3
C98 NGC 4609   Open Cluster 4.2 Crux 6.9
C99 - Coalsack Nebula Dark Nebula 0.61 Crux -
C100 IC 2944 Lambda Centauri Nebula Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Centaurus 4.5

101–109

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C101 NGC 6744   Galaxy 34,000 Pavo 9
C102 IC 2602 Theta Car Cluster Open Cluster 0.492 Carina 1.9
C103 NGC 2070 Tarantula Nebula Open Cluster and Nebula 170 Dorado 8.2
C104 NGC 362   Globular Cluster 27.7 Tucana 6.6
C105 NGC 4833   Globular Cluster 19.6 Musca 7.4
C106 NGC 104 47 Tucanae Globular Cluster 14.7 Tucana 4
C107 NGC 6101   Globular Cluster 49.9 Apus 9.3
C108 NGC 4372   Globular Cluster 18.9 Musca 7.8
C109 NGC 3195   Planetary Nebula 5.4 Chamaeleon 11.6

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h O'Meara, Stephen James (2002). The Caldwell Objects.  
  2. ^ "Caldwell Club Introduction". Retrieved 2006-09-08. 
  3. ^ Moore, Patrick (December 1995). "Beyond Messier: The Caldwell Catalog" (subscription required).  
  4. ^  
  5. ^ Glyn Jones, Kenneth (1991). "Introduction". Messier's Nebulae & Star Clusters. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–8.  

External links

  • The Caldwell Catalogue at SEDS
  • The Caldwell Club
  • Caldwell Star Charts, Images and more
  • Searchable Caldwell Catalogue list
  • Clickable Caldwell Object table