Carla Anderson Hills

Carla Anderson Hills

Carla Hills
5th Chairwoman of the Council on Foreign Relations
Assumed office
June 2007
Serving with Robert Rubin
President Richard Haass
Preceded by Peter Peterson
10th United States Trade Representative
In office
February 16, 1989 – January 20, 1993
President George H. W. Bush
Preceded by Clayton Yeutter
Succeeded by Mickey Kantor
5th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
In office
March 10, 1975 – January 20, 1977
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by James Lynn
Succeeded by Patricia Harris
Personal details
Born Carla Anderson
(1934-01-03) January 3, 1934
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Roderick Hills
Children 4
Alma mater Stanford University
St Hilda's College, Oxford
Yale Law School

Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and a public figure. She served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the Gerald Ford administration, and as U.S. Trade Representative. She was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the third woman to serve as a cabinet officer.[1]


  • Early life and education 1
  • Career 2
    • U.S. Trade Representative 2.1
  • North American community 3
  • Affiliations 4
  • Awards and honors 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Early life and education

Born Carla Anderson in Los Angeles, she received her B.A. degree from Stanford University, after studying at Oxford University. She earned her LL.B. degree from Yale Law School in 1958 and married Roderick M. Hills the same year.[2]


Hills was admitted to the California bar in 1959, and served as an Assistant United States Attorney in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1961. From 1962 to 1974, she was a partner at Munger, Tolles, Hills, and Rickershauser in Los Angeles. In 1972, she was an adjunct professor at UCLA.[3] An authority on federal practice and anti-trust law, Mrs. Hills wrote of Federal Civil Practice and Antitrust Advisor.[4] She is a former president of the National Association of Women Lawyers.

She was an United States Assistant Attorney General heading the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice before being named as the secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Elliot L. Richardson sought to appoint her as assistant U.S. Attorney General in 1973, but he resigned shortly thereafter during the Watergate scandal. The offer was renewed by his successor, William B. Saxbe, in 1974.

Hills' lack of relevant experience was somewhat controversial during the hearings for her nomination to head the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. From 1978 through 1989, she was again a practicing attorney, and she served as chairwoman of the Urban Institute from 1983 through 1988.

U.S. Trade Representative

Hills served as U.S. Trade Representative under [1]

An advocate of free trade, she was the primary U.S. negotiator of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In 2000, Hills was awarded the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle (La Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca), which is the highest honor awarded to non-citizens by the Mexican government.[5] In fact, it was the first time Mexican-Americans were awarded this award since November 12, 1990 when the union leader, Cesar Chavez, received it.[6]

President George H.W. Bush's administration's priority was to hammer out the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in the Uruguay Round, where Hills was known as a strong negotiator. "Delegations from 97 countries [sought] ways to notch down everyone's tariffs and remove other obstacles to trade." "The 97 signatories to GATT account for two-thirds of the $3 trillion in merchandise traded each year. Since the original agreement in 1947, GATT has been altered six times..." but, "after the last GATT revision – the Tokyo Round, which started in 1976 – many American industries were outclassed by others".[1]

Since 1993, she has worked as a consultant and a public speaker through Hills & Company International Consultants, which advises on investment, trade and risks abroad. She was one of the founders of the Forum for International Policy where she is a trustee.[7] Carla stepped down from Rolls Royce as well as the board of the U.S.-China Business Council.[9][10]

In 2008, Yale University granted her an honorary degree. She has also received honorary degrees from other institutions.[11]

North American community

In 2005, Hills participated in the Task Force on the Future of North America. The Task Force produced a controversial report called Building a North American Community sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. The reported advocated strengthening trading relationships between the U.S., Canada and Mexico by making trade more efficient, building infrastructure in North America, fast tracking borders and integrating language. For example, it recommended assisting "elementary and secondary schools in teaching about North America.” (page 29) “Develop teacher exchange and training programs for elementary and secondary school teachers. This would assist in removing language barriers and give some students a greater sense of a North American identity. Greater efforts should also be made to recruit Mexican language teachers to teach Spanish in the United States and Canada.”[12]


Awards and honors

In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Hills's name and picture.[16]

In 1993, Hills received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.[17]

See also


  1. ^ a b c  
  2. ^ "Carla Anderson Hills". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  3. ^ "International Crisis Group – Carla A. Hills". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  4. ^ Hills, Carla A. (1978). Antitrust Advisor: 1984 Cumulative Supplement. Colorado Springs: Shepard's, Inc.  
  5. ^ "Hills Program on Governance, Roderick M. & Carla A. Hills". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  6. ^ Hamm, Patricia H. (July 1, 1996). "Chicanos, NAFTA and U.S.-Mexico Relations: A 1988-1993 Chronology" (PDF). Center for Research on Latinos in a Global Society (University of California, Irvine). p. 8. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  7. ^ a b "The Forum for International Policy, trustees". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  8. ^ "Ted Turner and Carla A. Hills to Step Down from Time Warner's Board of Directors". February 24, 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  9. ^ "Carla A. Hills Profile –". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  10. ^
  11. ^ Yale University gives ex-Beatle honorary doctorate in music RepublicanAmerican, 2008-05-26, retrieved 2008-05-26
  12. ^ Pastor, Robert A.; Hills, Carla A.; Jones, James R.; Manley, John P.; Niles, Thomas M.T.; Cunningham, Nelson W.; Weld, William F.; Yzaguirre, Raul H. (May 2005). Building a North American Community (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations Press. pp. 29–30.  
  13. ^ Board of Directors, Council on Foreign Relations, retrieved 2008-05-26
  14. ^ [2], National Committee on United States-China Relations, retrieved 2008-07-04
  15. ^ Inter-American Dialogue BoD, dead as of 2008-05-26 Archived May 6, 2007 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 2008-05-26
  16. ^ Wulf, Steve (2015-03-23). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  17. ^

External links

  • Author biography
  • A Few Good Women... Carla Anderson Hills
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
Political offices
Preceded by
James Lynn
United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
Succeeded by
Patricia Harris
Preceded by
Clayton Yeutter
United States Trade Representative
Succeeded by
Mickey Kantor