|Solubility in water||none|
Std enthalpy of
|−963 kJ mol−1|
Std enthalpy of
|−2828 kJ mol−1|
|EU Index||not listed|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
- Structure and morphology of cellulose by Serge Pérez and William Mackie, CERMAV-CNRS
- Cellulose, by Martin Chaplin, London South Bank University
- Clear description of a cellulose assay method at the Cotton Fiber Biosciences unit of the USDA.
- Cellulose films could provide flapping wings and cheap artificial muscles for robots – TechnologyReview.com
- A list of cellulolytic bacteria
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Cellulose
- Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Langan, Paul; Chanzy, Henri (2002). "Crystal Structure and Hydrogen-Bonding System in Cellulose Iβ from Synchrotron X-ray and Neutron Fiber Diffraction". J. Am. Chem. Soc 124 (31): 9074–82.
- Crawford, R. L. (1981). Lignin biodegradation and transformation. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
- Updegraff DM (1969). "Semimicro determination of cellulose in biological materials". Analytical Biochemistry 32 (3): 420–424.
- Romeo, Tony (2008). Bacterial biofilms. Berlin: Springer. pp. 258–263.
- Klemm, Dieter; Heublein, Brigitte; Fink, Hans-Peter; Bohn, Andreas (2005). "Cellulose: Fascinating Biopolymer and Sustainable Raw Material". Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 44 (22).
- Cellulose. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 11, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
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- Payen, A. (1838) "Mémoire sur la composition du tissu propre des plantes et du ligneux" (Memoir on the composition of the tissue of plants and of woody [material]), Comptes rendus, vol. 7, pp. 1052–1056. Payen added appendices to this paper on December 24, 1838 (see: Comptes rendus, vol. 8, p. 169 (1839)) and on February 4, 1839 (see: Comptes rendus, vol. 9, p. 149 (1839)). A committee of the French Academy of Sciences reviewed Payen's findings in : Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1839) "Rapport sur un mémoire de M. Payen, relatif à la composition de la matière ligneuse" (Report on a memoir of Mr. Payen, regarding the composition of woody matter), Comptes rendus, vol. 8, pp. 51–53. In this report, the word "cellulose" is coined and author points out the similarity between the empirical formula of cellulose and that of "dextrine" (starch). The above articles are reprinted in: Brongniart and Guillemin, eds., Annales des sciences naturelles ..., 2nd series, vol. 11 (Paris, France: Crochard et Cie., 1839), pp. 21–31.
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Cellulose is further used to make hydrophilic and highly absorbent sponges.
Cellulose is the raw material in the manufacture of nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate) which is used in smokeless gunpowder. It is the base material for the celluloid that was used for photographic and movie films until the mid-1930s.
Cellulose can be converted into cellophane, a thin transparent film.
Hydroxyl bonding of cellulose in water produces a sprayable, moldable material as an alternative to the use of plastics and resins. The recyclable material can be made water- and fire-resistant. It provides sufficient strength for use as a building material.
The major combustible component of non-food energy crops is cellulose, with lignin second. Non-food energy crops produce more usable energy than edible energy crops (which have a large starch component), but still compete with food crops for agricultural land and water resources. Typical non-food energy crops include industrial hemp (though outlawed in some countries), switchgrass, Miscanthus, Salix(willow), and Populus (poplar) species.
Cellulose is used in the laboratory as a stationary phase for thin layer chromatography. Cellulose fibers are also used in liquid filtration, sometimes in combination with diatomaceous earth or other filtration media, to create a filter bed of inert material.
Microcrystalline cellulose (E460i) and powdered cellulose (E460ii) are used as inactive fillers in drug tablets and as thickeners and stabilizers in processed foods. Cellulose powder is, for example, used in Kraft's Parmesan cheese to prevent caking inside-of the package.
Cellulose is the main ingredient of textiles made from cotton, linen, and other plant fibers. It can be turned into rayon, an important fiber that has been used for textiles since the beginning of the 20th century. Both cellophane and rayon are known as "regenerated cellulose fibers"; they are identical to cellulose in chemical structure and are usually made from dissolving pulp via viscose. A more recent and environmentally friendly method to produce a form of rayon is the Lyocell process.
|Cellulose ethers||Reagent||Example||Reagent||Group R = H or||Water solubility||Application||E number|
|Alkyl||Halogenoalkanes||Methylcellulose||Chloromethane||-CH3||Cold water soluble||E461|
|Ethylcellulose||Chloroethane||-CH2CH3||Water insoluble||A commercial thermoplastic used in coatings, inks, binders, and controlled-release drug tablets||E462|
|Ethyl methyl cellulose||Chloromethane and chloroethane||-CH3 or -CH2CH3||E465|
|Hydroxyalkyl||Epoxides||Hydroxyethyl cellulose||Ethylene oxide||-CH2CH2OH||Cold/hot water soluble||Gelling and thickening agent|
|Hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC)||Propylene oxide||-CH2CH(OH)CH3||Cold water soluble||E463|
|Hydroxyethyl methyl cellulose||Chloromethane and ethylene oxide||-CH3 or -CH2CH2OH||Cold water soluble||Production of cellulose films|
|Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC)||Chloromethane and propylene oxide||-CH3 or -CH2CH(OH)CH3||Cold water soluble||Viscosity modifier, gelling, foaming and binding agent||E464|
|Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose||Chloroethane and ethylene oxide||-CH2CH3 or—CH2CH2OH||E467|
|Carboxyalkyl||Halogenated carboxylic acids||Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)||Chloroacetic acid||-CH2COOH||Cold/Hot water soluble||Often used as its sodium salt, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC)||E466|
Ether derivatives include:
The cellulose acetate and cellulose triacetate are film- and fiber-forming materials that find a variety of uses. The nitrocellulose was initially used as an explosive and was an early film forming material. With camphor, nitrocellulose gives celluloid.
|Cellulose ester||Reagent||Example||Reagent||Group R|
|Organic esters||Organic acids||Cellulose acetate||Acetic acid and acetic anhydride||H or -(C=O)CH3|
|Cellulose triacetate||Acetic acid and acetic anhydride||-(C=O)CH3|
|Cellulose propionate||Propanoic acid||H or -(C=O)CH2CH3|
|Cellulose acetate propionate (CAP)||Acetic acid and propanoic acid||H or -(C=O)CH3 or -(C=O)CH2CH3|
|Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)||Acetic acid and butyric acid||H or -(C=O)CH3 or -(C=O)CH2CH2CH3|
|Inorganic esters||Inorganic acids||Nitrocellulose (cellulose nitrate)||Nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent||H or -NO2|
|Cellulose sulfate||Sulfuric acid or another powerful sulfuring agent||H or -SO3H|
Ester derivatives include:
The hydroxyl groups (-OH) of cellulose can be partially or fully reacted with various reagents to afford derivatives with useful properties like mainly cellulose esters and cellulose ethers (-OR). In principle, though not always in current industrial practice, cellulosic polymers are renewable resources.
Hemicellulose is a polysaccharide related to cellulose that comprises about 20% of the biomass of most plants. In contrast to cellulose, hemicellulose is derived from several sugars in addition to glucose, especially xylose but also including mannose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose. Hemicellulose consists of shorter chains – around 200 sugar units. Furthermore, hemicellulose is branched, whereas cellulose is unbranched.
The enzymes utilized to cleave the glycosidic linkage in cellulose are glycoside hydrolases including endo-acting cellulases and exo-acting glucosidases. Such enzymes are usually secreted as part of multienzyme complexes that may include dockerins and carbohydrate-binding modules.
Cellulolysis is the process of breaking down cellulose into smaller polysaccharides called termites contain in their hindguts certain flagellate protozoa which produce such enzymes; higher termites contain bacteria for the job. Some termites may also produce cellulase of their own. Fungi, which in nature are responsible for recycling of nutrients, are also able to break down cellulose.
Cellulose is also synthesised by animals, particularly in the tests of ascidians (where the cellulose was historically termed "tunicine") although it is also a minor component of mammalian connective tissue.
Cellulose synthesis requires chain initiation and elongation, and the two processes are separate. CesA glucosyltransferase initiates cellulose polymerization using a steroid primer, sitosterol-beta-glucoside, and UDP-glucose. Cellulose synthase utilizes UDP-D-glucose precursors to elongate the growing cellulose chain. A cellulase may function to cleave the primer from the mature chain.
RTCs contain at least three different cellulose synthases, encoded by CesA genes, in an unknown stoichiometry. Separate sets of CesA genes are involved in primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis.
In vascular plants cellulose is synthesized at the plasma membrane by rosette terminal complexes (RTCs). The RTCs are hexameric protein structures, approximately 25 nm in diameter, that contain the cellulose synthase enzymes that synthesise the individual cellulose chains. Each RTC floats in the cell's plasma membrane and "spins" a microfibril into the cell wall.
In addition, cellulose is represented by the difference between acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL).
Cellulose can be assayed using a method described by Updegraff in 1969, where the fiber is dissolved in acetic and nitric acid to remove lignin, hemicellulose, and xylosans. The resulting cellulose is allowed to react with anthrone in sulfuric acid. The resulting coloured compound is assayed spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of approximately 635 nm.
Given a cellulose-containing material, the carbohydrate portion that does not dissolve in a 17.5% solution of sodium hydroxide at 20 °C is α cellulose, which is true cellulose. Acidification of the extract precipitates β cellulose. The portion that dissolves in base but does not precipitate with acid is γ cellulose.
Cellulose consists of crystalline and amorphous regions. By treating it with strong acid, the amorphous regions can be broken up, thereby producing nanocrystalline cellulose, a novel material with many desirable properties. Recently, nanocrystalline cellulose was used as the filler phase in bio-based polymer matrices to produce nanocomposites with superior thermal and mechanical properties.
Cellulose is soluble in Schweizer's reagent, cupriethylenediamine (CED), cadmiumethylenediamine (Cadoxen), N-methylmorpholine N-oxide, and lithium chloride / dimethylacetamide. This is used in the production of regenerated celluloses (such as viscose and cellophane) from dissolving pulp. Cellulose is also soluble in many kinds of ionic liquids.
Plant-derived cellulose is usually found in a mixture with hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and other substances, while bacterial cellulose is quite pure, has a much higher water content and higher tensile strength due to higher chain lengths.:3384
Many properties of cellulose depend on its chain length or degree of polymerization, the number of glucose units that make up one polymer molecule. Cellulose from wood pulp has typical chain lengths between 300 and 1700 units; cotton and other plant fibers as well as bacterial cellulose have chain lengths ranging from 800 to 10,000 units. Molecules with very small chain length resulting from the breakdown of cellulose are known as cellodextrins; in contrast to long-chain cellulose, cellodextrins are typically soluble in water and organic solvents.
Several different crystalline structures of cellulose are known, corresponding to the location of hydrogen bonds between and within strands. Natural cellulose is cellulose I, with structures Iα and Iβ. Cellulose produced by bacteria and algae is enriched in Iα while cellulose of higher plants consists mainly of Iβ. Cellulose in regenerated cellulose fibers is cellulose II. The conversion of cellulose I to cellulose II is irreversible, suggesting that cellulose I is metastable and cellulose II is stable. With various chemical treatments it is possible to produce the structures cellulose III and cellulose IV.
Compared to starch, cellulose is also much more crystalline. Whereas starch undergoes a crystalline to amorphous transition when heated beyond 60–70 °C in water (as in cooking), cellulose requires a temperature of 320 °C and pressure of 25 MPa to become amorphous in water.
Cellulose is derived from D-glucose units, which condense through β(1→4)-glycosidic bonds. This linkage motif contrasts with that for α(1→4)-glycosidic bonds present in starch, glycogen, and other carbohydrates. Cellulose is a straight chain polymer: unlike starch, no coiling or branching occurs, and the molecule adopts an extended and rather stiff rod-like conformation, aided by the equatorial conformation of the glucose residues. The multiple hydroxyl groups on the glucose from one chain form hydrogen bonds with oxygen atoms on the same or on a neighbor chain, holding the chains firmly together side-by-side and forming microfibrils with high tensile strength. This confers tensile strength in cell walls, where cellulose microfibrils are meshed into a polysaccharide matrix.
Structure and properties
Cellulose was discovered in 1838 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who isolated it from plant matter and determined its chemical formula. Cellulose was used to produce the first successful thermoplastic polymer, celluloid, by Hyatt Manufacturing Company in 1870. Production of rayon ("artificial silk") from cellulose began in the 1890s and cellophane was invented in 1912. Hermann Staudinger determined the polymer structure of cellulose in 1920. The compound was first chemically synthesized (without the use of any biologically derived enzymes) in 1992, by Kobayashi and Shoda.
- History 1
- Structure and properties 2
- Assay 3.1
- Biosynthesis 3.2
- Breakdown (cellulolysis) 3.3
- Hemicellulose 4
- Derivatives 5
- Paper products 6.1
- Fibers 6.2
- Consumables 6.3
- Science 6.4
- Energy crops 6.5
- Biofuel 6.6
- Building material 6.7
- Miscellaneous 6.8
- References 7
- External links 8
Cellulose is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source. Cellulose for industrial use is mainly obtained from wood pulp and cotton.