Centrioles

Centrioles

Template:Plain image Template:Cell biology A centriole is a cylindrical cell structure[1] composed mainly of tubulin that is found in most eukaryotic cells. Centrioles are absent from Pinophyta, flowering plants and most fungi and are only present in the male gametes of charophytes, bryophytes, seedless vascular plants, Cycads, and Gingko.[2][3]

An associated pair of centrioles, surrounded by an amorphous mass of dense material, called the pericentriolar material, or PCM, makes up a compound structure called a centrosome.[1]

Most centrioles are made up of nine sets of microtubule triplets, arranged in a cylinder. Deviations from this structure include crabs and Drosophila melanogaster embryos, with nine doublets, and Caenorhabditis elegans sperm cells and early embryos, with nine singlets.[4][5]

Edouard van Beneden and Theodor Boveri made the first observation and identification of centrioles in 1883 and 1888 respectively,[6][7] while the pattern of centriole duplication was first worked out independently by Etienne de Harven and Joseph G. Gall circa 1950 [8][9]

Cell division

Centrioles are involved in the organization of the mitotic spindle and in the completion of cytokinesis.[10] Centrioles were previously thought to be required for the formation of a mitotic spindle in animal cells. However, more recent experiments have demonstrated that cells whose centrioles have been removed via laser ablation can still progress through the G1 stage of interphase before centrioles can be synthesized later in a de novo fashion.[11] Additionally, mutant flies lacking centrioles develop normally, although the adult flies' cells lack flagella and cilia and as a result, they die shortly after birth.[12]

Cellular organization

Centrioles are a very important part of


Ciliogenesis

In organisms with flagella and cilia, the position of these organelles is determined by the mother centriole, which becomes the basal body. An inability of cells to use centrioles to make functional cilia and flagella has been linked to a number of genetic and developmental diseases. In particular, the inability of centrioles to properly migrate prior to ciliary assembly has recently been linked to Meckel-Gruber syndrome.[16]

Animal development

Proper orientation of cilia via centriole positioning toward the posterior of embryonic node cells is critical for establishing left–right asymmetry during mammalian development.

Centriole duplication

Cells in G0 and G1 usually contain two complete centrioles. The older of the two centrioles in a pair is termed the mother centriole, whereas the younger is termed the daughter centriole. During the cell division cycle, a new centriole grows from the side of each of the existing "mother" centrioles. After centriole duplication, the two pairs of centrioles remain attached to each other in an orthogonal configuration until mitosis, when the mother and daughter centrioles separate in a manner dependent upon the enzyme separase.[17]

The two centrioles in the centrosome are connected to each other by unidentified proteins. The mother centriole has radiating appendages at the distal end of its long axis and is attached to the daughter centriole at the other proximal end. Each daughter cell formed after cell division will inherit one of these pairs (one older and one newer centriole). Duplication of centrioles starts at the time of the G1/S transition and ends before the onset of mitosis.[10]

Origin

The last common ancestor of all eukaryotes was a ciliated cell with centrioles. Some lineages of eukaryotes, such as land plants, do not have centrioles except in their motile male gametes. Centrioles are completely absent from all cells of conifers and flowering plants, which do not have ciliate or flagellate gametes.[18] It is unclear if the last common ancestor had one[19] or two cilia.[20] Important genes required for centriole growth, like centrins, are only found in eukaryotes and not in bacteria or archaeans.[19]

References

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