Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham

The Most Honourable
The Marquess of Rockingham
KG PC
Prime Minister of Great Britain
In office
27 March 1782 – 1 July 1782
Monarch George III
Preceded by Lord North
Succeeded by The Earl of Shelburne
In office
13 July 1765 – 30 July 1766
Monarch George III
Preceded by George Grenville
Succeeded by The Earl of Chatham
Personal details
Born (1730-05-13)13 May 1730
Wentworth, Yorkshire, England
Died 1 July 1782(1782-07-01) (aged 52)
Wimbledon, Surrey, England
Political party Whig
Spouse(s) Mary Bright
Religion Church of England[1]

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, KG PC (13 May 1730 – 1 July 1782), styled The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth before 1733, Viscount Higham between 1733 and 1746, Earl of Malton between 1746 and 1750 and The Marquess of Rockingham in 1750, was a British Whig statesman, most notable for his two terms as Prime Minister of Great Britain. He became the patron of many Whigs, known as the Rockingham Whigs, and served as a leading Whig grandee. He served in only two high offices during his lifetime (Prime Minister and Leader of the House of Lords), but was nonetheless very influential during his one and a half years of service.

Contents

  • Early life: 1730–1751 1
  • Early political career: 1751–65 2
  • Prime Minister: 1765–1766 3
  • Opposition: 1766–1782 4
  • Prime Minister: 1782 5
  • Legacy 6
  • Rockingham's First Government, July 1765 – July 1766 7
  • Rockingham's Second Government, March – July 1782 8
  • Titles 9
  • Ancestry 10
  • Notes 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14

Early life: 1730–1751

A descendant of the Young Pretender".[3] Rockingham's sister Mary wrote to him from London, saying the King "did not doubt but that you was as good a colonel as he has in his army" and his other sister Charlotte wrote that "you have gained immortal honour and I have every day the satisfaction of hearing twenty handsome things said of the Blues and their Collonel".[4] The march of the Jacobite army into northern England caused the Wentworth household to flee to Doncaster and Rockingham rode from Wentworth to Carlisle to join the Duke of Cumberland in pursuit of the "Young Pretender". Rockingham did this without parental consent and Cumberland wrote to Rockingham's father, saying that his "zeal on this occasion shows the same principles fix't that you yourself have given such strong proofs of".[4] Rockingham wrote to his father that Cumberland "blamed me for my disobedience, yet as I came with a design of saving my King and country...it greatly palliated my offence".[4] Rockingham's mother wrote to his father: "Though I hope you won't tell it him, never any thing met with such general applause, in short he is the hero of these times, and his Majesty talks of this young Subject, in such terms, as must please you to hear...in the Drawing Room[5] no two people talk together, but he makes part of the discourse".[6]

In April 1746 Rockingham's father was made a marquis (remaining the only marquis in the British peerage for quite some time) and Rockingham himself assumed the courtesy title of Earl of Malton. These honours came about due to the patronage of


Court offices
Preceded by
New government
Lord of the Bedchamber
1760–1762
Succeeded by
The Duke of Manchester
Political offices
Preceded by
George Grenville
Prime Minister of Great Britain
13 July 1765 – 30 July 1766
Succeeded by
The Earl of Chatham
Preceded by
Unknown
Leader of the House of Lords
1765–1766
Succeeded by
The Duke of Grafton
Preceded by
Lord North
Prime Minister of Great Britain
27 March 1782 – 1 July 1782
Succeeded by
The Earl of Shelburne
Preceded by
Unknown
Leader of the House of Lords
1782
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Marquess of Rockingham
Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire
1751–1762
Succeeded by
The Earl of Holderness
Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1751–1763
Succeeded by
The Earl of Huntingdon
Preceded by
Sir Conyers Darcy
as Vice-Admiral of the North Riding
Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire
1755–1763
Succeeded by
The Earl of Holderness
Preceded by
The Viscount of Irvine
as Vice-Admiral of the East Riding
Preceded by
The Earl of Huntingdon
Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding of Yorkshire
1765–1782
Succeeded by
Earl of Surrey
Preceded by
The Earl of Holderness
Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire
1765–1782
Succeeded by
The Earl Fauconberg
Vice-Admiral of Yorkshire
1776–1782
Vacant
Title next held by
The Duke of Leeds
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Thomas Watson-Wentworth
Marquess of Rockingham
1750–1782
Extinct
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
New Creation
Earl Malton
1750–1782
Extinct
  • More about Charles Wentworth, Marquess of Rockingham
  • genealogics.com
  • thepeerage.com

External links

  • C. Collyer, ‘The Rockinghams and Yorkshire politics, 1742–61’, The Thoresby Miscellany, 12, Thoresby Society, 41 (1954), pp. 352–82.
  • A. Cox and A. Cox, Rockingham Pottery and Porcelain, 1745–1842 (1983).
  • G. H. Guttridge, The Early Career of Lord Rockingham, 1730–1765 (University of California, 1952).
  • R. J. Hopper, ‘The second marquis of Rockingham, coin collector’, Antiquaries Journal, 62 (1982), pp. 316–46.
  • G. Thomas, earl of Albemarle [G. T. Keppel], Memoirs of the Marquis of Rockingham and His Contemporaries, 2 vols. (1852).
  • R. B. Wragg, ‘The Rockingham mausoleum (1784–1793)’, Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 52 (1980), pp. 157–66.

Further reading

  • W. M. Elofson, The Rockingham Connection and the Second Founding of the Whig Party, 1768–1773 (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996).
  • S. M. Farrell, ‘Wentworth, Charles Watson-, second marquess of Rockingham (1730–1782)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edn, January 2008, accessed 17 October 2009.
  • Ross J. S. Hoffman, The Marquis. A Study of Lord Rockingham, 1730–1782 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1973).
  • Paul Langford, The First Rockingham Administration. 1765–1766 (Oxford University Press, 1973).
  • Paul Langford, A Polite and Commercial People. England. 1727–1783 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989).
  • Frank O'Gorman, The Rise of Party in England. The Rockingham Whigs. 1760–1782 (George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1975).

References

  • Farrell, S. M. "Wentworth, Charles Watson, second marquess of Rockingham". . RockODNB; cited as (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)  
  1. ^ [2]
  2. ^ J. M. Rigg, 'Watson-Wentworth, Charles, second Marquis of Rockingham (1730–1782)', Dictionary of National Biography, 1899, has him attending St John's College, Cambridge. However, there is no mention of him in Alumni Cantabrigienses, and the DNB is not followed in this detail by the Oxford DNB.
  3. ^ Ross J. S. Hoffman, The Marquis. A Study of Lord Rockingham, 1730–1782 (New York: Fordham University Press, 1973), p. 3.
  4. ^ a b c Hoffman, p. 3.
  5. ^ The British royal morning receptions that the French called levées were called "drawing rooms", with the sense originally that the privileged members of court would gather in the drawing room outside the king's bedroom, where he would make his first formal public appearance of the day.
  6. ^ a b Hoffman, p. 4.
  7. ^ Hoffman, pp. 5–9.
  8. ^ Hoffman, p. 8.
  9. ^ Hoffman, p. 9.
  10. ^ a b Hoffman, p. 10.
  11. ^ a b Hoffman, p. 11.
  12. ^ : Wentworth, Mary Watson- [née Mary BrightDictionary of National Biography, marchioness of Rockingham]
  13. ^ Hoffman, p. 20.
  14. ^ a b Hoffman, p. 21.
  15. ^ Hoffman, p. 37.
  16. ^ Hoffman, pp. 43–44.
  17. ^ Hoffman, p. 45.
  18. ^ Paul Langford, The First Rockingham Administration. 1765–1766 (Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 8–11.
  19. ^ Hoffman, p. 113.
  20. ^ W. M. Elofson, The Rockingham Connection and the Second Founding of the Whig Party, 1768–1773 (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1996), pp. 119–120.
  21. ^ Frank O'Gorman, The Rise of Party in England. The Rockingham Whigs. 1760–1782 (George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1975), p. 401.
  22. ^ See Samuel Lewis (editor) (1848). "Fenton – Fersfield". A Topographical Dictionary of England. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 25 October 2012.  e.g. Fenton Kirk and Ferensby
  23. ^ Paul Langford, A Polite and Commercial People. England. 1727–1783 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989), pp. 557–558.
  24. ^ www.number10.gov.uk, www.number10.gov.uk. "Past British Prime Ministers". British Government. 
  25. ^ RockODNB.
  26. ^ Hoffman, p. 383.
  27. ^ Hoffman, p. 385.
  28. ^ T. B. Macaulay, ‘The Earl of Chatham’, Edinburgh Review (October, 1844).

Notes

Ancestry

  • The Hon. Charles Watson-Wentworth (1730–1733)
  • Viscount Higham (1733–1746)
  • Earl of Malton (1746–1750)
  • The Rt. Hon. The Earl Malton (1750–1750)
  • The Most Hon. The Marquess of Rockingham (1750–1761)
  • The Most Hon. The Marquess of Rockingham, KG (1761–1765)
  • The Most Hon. The Marquess of Rockingham, KG, PC (1765–1782)

Titles

Rockingham's Second Government, March – July 1782

  • October 1765 — The Duke of Cumberland dies.
  • May 1766 — The Duke of Grafton resigns from the cabinet. Henry Seymour Conway succeeds him as Northern Secretary, and the Duke of Richmond succeeds Conway as Southern Secretary.

Changes

Rockingham's First Government, July 1765 – July 1766

United States
Canada
They were men worthy to have charged by the side of [28]

The Whig historian Thomas Babington Macaulay was an admirer of Rockingham and his Whig faction:

Rockingham's estates, but not his marquisate, passed to his nephew William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam. Burke wrote to him on 3 July 1782: "You are Lord Rockingham in every thing. ... I have no doubt that you will take it in good part, that his old friends, who were attached to him by every tie of affection, and of principle, and among others myself, should look to you, and should not think it an act of forwardness and intrusion to offer you their services".[26] On 7 July 150 supporters of Rockingham met at Fitzwilliam's house and decided to withdraw support for Lord Shelburne's administration. The old Rockingham party fragmented, with Fox and the Duke of Portland leading a coalition of Whigs. The Whig party further split over the French Revolution, with Burke writing to Fitzwilliam on 4 January 1797: "As to our old friends, they are so many individuals, not a jot more separated from your Lordship, than they are from one another. There is no mutual affection, communication, or concert between them".[27]

Legacy

Rockingham was buried in York Minster in Yorkshire.[25]

Rockingham's second term was short-lived, for Lord Rockingham died fourteen weeks later at the beginning of July from an Influenza epidemic. He was replaced as Prime Minister by Lord Shelburne, who was more reluctant to accept the total independence of America and proposed a form of Dominion status, however by April 1783 succeeded in securing peace with America and this feat remains his legacy.[24]

Paul Langford has claimed that the Rockingham administration "represented a landmark in constitutional history. The ministerial changes of 1782 involved a more extensive upheaval among office-holders than any since 1714, virtually replacing one administration with another drawn from opposition".[23]

Due to rising unemployment, in this second premiership, Rockingham's administration saw the passage of Gilbert's Act, the Relief of the Poor Act 1782, after 17 years of opposing Thomas Gilbert's ideas, this saw the creation of unions of civil parishes, later officially called unions under Gilbert's Act, to provide outdoor relief and set up workhouses.[22]

In 1782 he was appointed Prime Minister for a second time (with Charles James Fox and Lord Shelburne as Secretaries of State) and, upon taking office, pushed for an acknowledgement of the independence of the United States, initiating an end to British involvement in the American War of Independence.

Prime Minister: 1782

Rockingham was recruited to hunt down the Cragg Vale Coiners. He had thirty Coiners arrested by Christmas Day 1769.

Rockingham wrote to Edmund Burke on 14 February 1771: "I fear indeed the future struggles of the people in defence of their Constitutional Rights will grow weaker and weaker. It is much too probable that the power and influence of the Crown will increase rapidly. We live at the period when for the first time since the Revolution, the power and influence of the Crown is held out, as the main and chief and only support of Government. If we...do not exert now, we may accelerate the abject state to which the Constitution may be reduced".[20] Rockingham wrote to Augustus Keppel on 3 November 1779, saying that he believed the war against America could not be won, that the government was corrupt but not unpopular, and that the longer this continued the greater the danger to the liberties and the constitution of Britain: "Perhaps a total change of men and measures, & system in the Government: of this country might have effect on the councils of some foreign countries...who might think that it was no longer a Court system to combat, but that the whole nation wd; united & make the utmost efforts".[21]

Rockingham spent the next sixteen years in opposition. He was a keen supporter of constitutional rights for colonists.

Opposition: 1766–1782

However, internal dissent within the cabinet led to his resignation and the appointment of Lord Chatham as Prime Minister (the Duke of Grafton was appointed First Lord of the Treasury, one of the few cases in which those two offices were separate).

Rockingham's administration was dominated by the American issue. Rockingham wished for repeal of the Stamp Act 1765 and won a Commons vote on the repeal resolution by 275 to 167 in 1766.[19] However Rockingham also passed the Declaratory Act, which asserted that the British Parliament had the right to legislate for the American colonies in all cases whatsoever.

The king's dislike, as well as Grenville's general lack of parliamentary support, led to his dismissal in 1765, and, following negotiations conducted through the medium of the king's uncle, the Duke of Cumberland, Lord Rockingham was appointed Prime Minister.[18] Rockingham recovered the honours of which he had been deprived in 1762. Rockingham appointed his allies Henry Seymour Conway and the Duke of Grafton as secretaries of state. Also at this time, Edmund Burke, the Irish statesman and philosopher, became his private secretary and would remain a lifelong friend, political ally and advisor until Rockingham's premature death in 1782.

Prime Minister: 1765–1766

Over the next several years, Rockingham gradually became the leader of those of Newcastle's supporters who were unwilling to reconcile themselves to the premierships of Bute and his successor, George Grenville.

Rockingham resigned as Lord of the Bedchamber on 3 November 1762 in protest at the King's policies and other Whigs associated with the Duke of Newcastle did the same.[16] The next month the King removed Rockingham from the office of Lord Lieutenant of the West Riding, Lord Lieutenant of the city and county of York, as custos rotulorum of the North and West Riding, as custos rotulorum of the city and county of York and as Vice Admiral of York city and county.[17]

[15] In 1760, George II died, and his grandson ascended the throne as

and the King consented. Order of the Garter Rockingham asked in 1760 to be made a knight of the [14], wrote to him: "You are the only instance of a Lord lieutenant's exerting the civil authority upon these occasions".Lord Barrington, Secretary at War in 1756 Rockingham raised a volunteer militia at his own expense and when rioting broke out against Army enlistments Rockingham restored order without the use of military force in Sheffield. The invasion scare During a French [14] In 1755 the King appointed him to the honorary office of Vice Admiral of the North.[13] In 1753 the Rockingham Club was formed, containing the first Rockingham Whigs. Rockingham hired [12] In 1752, Rockingham was appointed Lord of the Bedchamber to George II and married Mary Bright.

Charles Watson-Wentworth married Mary Bright (pictured) in 1752.

Rockingham's maiden speech was on 17 March 1752 in support of the Bill which disposed of Scottish lands confiscated in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745. He wanted the lands cultivated by people "employed in husbandry & handicrafts" who repudiated "plunder, rapine & rebellion". He said "the highlanders have remained in their ancient state, prolific, bold, idle, & consequently hives of rebellion". He compared his favoured policy with the policy which his ancestor Lord Strafford had used in Ireland. Rockingham's speech was not well received, with Horace Walpole criticising him for venturing into "a debate so much above his force".[11] Rockingham's uncle William Murray, the Solicitor-General, believed him to be poorly educated so he employed Quarme as Rockingham's tutor again. Rockingham was for four months to study Demosthenes for oratory, to learn the histories of the Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Roman empires along with modern history. Murray wanted Rockingham to take after Sir Walter Raleigh.[11]

On 13 May 1751 (his 21st birthday), Rockingham inherited his father's estates. The rents from the land in Yorkshire, Northamptonshire and Ireland gave him an annual income of £20,000. He also controlled both of the borough parliamentary seats of Malton and one seat for the single-member borough of Higham Ferrers (Northants), along with twenty-three livings and five chaplaincies in the church.[10] In July he was appointed Lord Lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the West Riding in Yorkshire, Lord Lieutenant of York city, and custos rotulorum of York city and county. In 1751–52 Rockingham joined White's, the Jockey Club and the Royal Society.[10]

A young Rockingham.

Early political career: 1751–65

In September 1750, two months before his father's death, he was raised to the Peerage of Ireland in his own right as Baron Malton and Earl Malton. [9]