Country Joe and the Fish
|Country Joe and the Fish|
Country Joe and the Fish in 1967
|Origin||Berkeley, California, U.S.|
|Years active||1965–70, sporadically thereafter|
Country Joe McDonald
Barry "The Fish" Melton
Gary "Chicken" Hirsh
David Bennett Cohen
John Francis Gunning
Gregory Leroy Dewey
Country Joe and the Fish was an American acid rock.
The band self-produced two EPs that drew attention on the underground circuit before signing to Vanguard Records in 1966. Their debut album, Electric Music for the Mind and Body, followed in 1967, and contained their only nationally charting single "Not So Sweet Martha Lorraine", and their most experimental arrangements. When their second album, I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die, was released in the latter part of the year, its title track, with its dark humor and satire, became their signature tune, and is among the era's most recognizable protest songs. Further success followed, including McDonald's appearance at Woodstock, but the group's lineup underwent changes until their disbandment in 1970. Members of the band continue in the music industry as solo recording artists and sporadically reconvene.
- Formation (1965) 1.1
- Electric music (1966–68) 1.2
- Lineup changes and Woodstock (1969–70) 1.3
- Aftermath and reunions 1.4
- Singles 2.1
- EPs 2.2
- Studio albums 2.3
- Live album 2.4
- Compilations 2.5
- References 3
- External links 4
The first line-up of Country Joe and the Fish formed in mid-1965, when washboard, kazoo), Bill Steele (bass guitar), and Mike Beardslee (vocals), out of both necessity of a recording alias and political device, to self-produce an extended play.
ED Denson the co-publisher of Rag Baby, introduced McDonald to Chris Strachwitz, who owned Arhoolie Recording Studios, to self-produce the EP. Sensing the band's potential, Denson assumed management control, and was responsible for coining the group's moniker—a reference to Josef Stalin and to Mao Zedong's quote describing a revolutionary, "the fish who swim in the sea of the people". McDonald, who possessed recording experience, began utilizing Arhoolie Recording Studios to record four songs split equally between the band and local folk musician, Peter Krug. It was during this time at Arhoolie Records that Country Joe and the Fish's folk sound and political protest prowess—an amalgam of their own Guthrie-influenced material and their folk music roots—began to emerge. The band's side of the EP featured two originals by McDonald, an acoustic version of "I Feel Like I'm Fixin' to Die Rag" (also known as "The Fish Cheer"), and "Superbird". According to McDonald, "The Fish Cheer" was written in 30 minutes, with a purpose of expressing satiric and dark commentary on the US's involvement in the Vietnam conflict. In October 1965, 100 copies of the EP, titled Rag Baby Talking Issue No. 1, were distributed on McDonald's independent label at a Teach-in in UC Berkeley and underground shops selling Rag Baby magazine.
For a brief period, McDonald and Melton performed together as a duo throughout the Northwest at college campuses on behalf of keyboards was limited to having played piano at a semi-professional capacity at the Jabberwock, but, nonetheless, he quickly adapted to the qualities of the instrument. Melton describes the change of the group: "Once we hit into the electric medium and into the rock medium, we were pandering to the public taste. We became extraordinarily popular. The little folk club where we used to play once every two weeks, we played every single night for a month, or something like that, and filled it. And after a while we filled two shows every single night".
Electric music (1966–68)
As Country Joe and the Fish's popularity grew, the band relocated to San Francisco in early 1966 and became popular fixtures at koto-like guitar picking rivaled the Paul Butterfield Blues Band's East West as the finest psychedelic instrumental ever". Within three months, airplay of the EP spread across the new so-called "progressive" radio stations, reaching as far as New York City, and cementing Country Joe and the Fish as a nationally relevant musical act.
Through connections that Cohen had with record producer Samuel Charters, the group signed a recording contract with Vanguard Records in December 1966 just as the label, which was responsible for releasing folk music material, was attempting to branch out into the growing psychedelic rock scene. While the band waited to record their debut album, they were present at the Human Be-In, along with other influential San Francisco musical acts including Jefferson Airplane, Big Brother and the Holding Company, and Quicksilver Messenger Service. The event was a prelude to the Summer of Love and helped publicize counterculture ideals such as ecology, free-love and the use of illicit drugs.
In February 1967, Country Joe and the Fish entered Sierra Sound Laboratories to record their debut album, Electric Music for the Mind and Body, with Charters and Denson overseeing the process. Prior to their studio work, Armstrong left the group as a conscientious objector, and began a two-year alternative assignment, driving a truck for Goodwill Industries. Francis-Gunning was involved in the beginnings of the album's development, but stormed out when the rest of the band had complaints about his drumming technique and was subsequently replaced by Gary "Chicken" Hirsh. The next recording session was postponed for three days as the most recognizable lineup of Country Joe and the Fish rehearsed with their new drummer at the Barn, in Santa Cruz. Hirsh's abilities were immediately distinguishable on the album as he demonstrated an acute and articulate drum beat that music critic Bruce Eder enthused was "some of the best drumming on a psychedelic record this side of the late Spencer Dryden".
On May 11, 1967, Electric Music for the Mind and Body was released. Much of the album's material continued to expand upon the band's new psychedelic medium, with it embracing all facets of the members' influences, which ranged from their folk roots,
- Official website
- Country Joe McDonald's Website
- Barry "The Fish" Melton's Homepage
- Country Joe & the Fish Legacy
- Eder, Bruce. "Country Joe and the Fish – Biography". allmusic.com. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "The Berkeley String Quartet". countryjoe.com. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- James, Gary. "Gary James' Interview With "Country" Joe McDonald". classicbands.com. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "Collectors Items: The First Three EP's (CD booklet)". One Way Records. 1994.
- "Interview with Country Joe McDonald". cincygroove.com. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "ED Denson – Biography". allmusic.com. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
- Harris, Craig. "Country Joe McDonald – Biography". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 3, 2015.
- "How I Wrote the Rag". countryjoe.com. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- "Rag Baby EP 1: Talking Issue". deaddisc.com. Retrieved July 4, 2015.
- "Country Joe Shows". chickenonaunicycle.com. Retrieved July 6, 2015.
- Childs, Marti; March, Jeff (2011). "Echoes of the Sixties". EditPros LLC.
- Unterberger, Richie (2003). "Eight Miles High: Folk-rock's Flight from Haight-Ashbury to Woodstock". Backbeat Books. pp. 26–30.
- "Country Joe & The Fish interview with David Bennett Cohen". It's Psychedelic Baby Magazine. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Planer, Lindsay. – Review"Collector's Items: The First Three EPs". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- Cabral, Ron (2004). "Country Joe & Me". 1st Books Library. pp. 73–74.
- "Country Joe McDonald, Biography". countryjoe.com. Retrieved July 12, 2015.
- "Country Joe McDonald: No Ordinary Joe". The Independent. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- Viscounti, Tony (2014). "1,001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die...And 10,001 You Must Download" (4th ed.). New York, NY: Universe Publishing. p. 902.
- Eder, Bruce. "Gary "Chicken" Hirsh – Biography". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- Palao, Alex (2013). "Electric Music for the Mind and Body (CD booklet)". Ace Vanguard Masters.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Electric Music for the Mind and Body – Review". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "Country Joe and the Fish interview with Joe McDonald". It's Psychedelic Baby Magazine. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- Belmount, Bill. "A History". well.com. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "The Notorious Cheer". countryjoe.com. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Torn, Luke. "Country Joe & The Fish – Electric Music For The Mind And Body". uncut.co.uk. Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Barry Melton Interview for Turn! Turn! Turn!/Eight Miles High". cjfishlegacy.com. Retrieved July 15, 2015.
- "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-To-Die". acerecords.co.uk. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Perone, James E. (2001). "Songs of the Vietnam Conflict". Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 40.
- "Readers' Poll: The 10 Best Protest Songs of All Time". rollingstone.com. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Unterberger, Richie. "I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die – Review". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- Andresen, Lee (2000). "Battle Notes: Music of the Vietnam War". Superior: Savage Press. p. 62.
- Ruhlmamn, William. "Together – Review". allmusic.com. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
- Farber, David (1988). "Chicago '68". University of Chicago Press. pp. 177–178.
- Trager, Oliver (1997). "The American Book of the Dead". Simon & Schuster Inc. p. 249.
- Johnson, Phil. "Feel Like I'm Fixin' for a Comeback". independent.co.uk. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Country Joe and the Fish, the Greatest Song of the '60s? (Interview)". rockcellarmagazine.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Country Joe McDonald's Tribute to Woody Guthrie". countryjoe.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Country Joe McDonald, Woodstock XXX". countryjoe.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Barry "The Fish" Melton". counterculture.net. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "Singular Fish". cjfishlegacy.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- "The Original Country Joe Band". countryjoe.com. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Country Joe and the Fish at AllMusic: Discography
- Greatest Hits, Vanguard (1969)
- The Life and Times of Country Joe and the Fish, Vanguard (1971)
- Collector's Items: The First 3 EPs, Rag Baby (1980)
- Collected Country Joe and the Fish, Vanguard (1987)
- Time Flies By. Rag Baby (2012)
- Live! Fillmore West 1969 (1994)
- Electric Music for the Mind and Body (1967)
- I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die (1967)
- Together (1968)
- Here We Are Again (1969)
- CJ Fish (1970)
- Reunion (1977)
- Talking Issue #1, Rag Baby (1965)
- Country Joe and the Fish, Rag Baby (1966)
- "Not So Sweet Martha Lorraine" b/w "Masked Marauder" (1967) (#95 Billboard Hot 100)
- "Janis" b/w "Janis" (instrumental) (1967)
- "Who Am I?" b/w "Thursday" (1968)
- "Rock and Soul Music Part 1" b/w "Rock and Soul Music Part 2" (1968)
- "Here I Go Again" b/w "Baby You're Driving Me Crazy" (1969)
- "I Feel Like I'm Fixin' to Die Rag" b/w "Janis" (1969)
- "Hang On" b/w "Hand of Man" (1971)
McDonald pursued his solo recording career, which spans over 30 albums, and remains an active anti-war campaigner. He has also appeared in every Woodstock reunion festival since 1979. Melton performed solo as well, under the moniker "The Fish", and later became a member of the Bay Area supergroup, the Dinosaurs, in the 1980s. Since 1982, Melton was able to practice law in California and became a Public Defender of Yolo County, California until his retirement in June 2009. Country Joe and the Fish members sporadically reconvene, most notably when the classic 1967 lineup recorded Reunion in 1977. The lineup, except Hirsh, came together again as the Country Joe Band in 2004. In the same year, the group resumed touring, released the Barthol-penned single, "Cakewalk to Baghdad", and the live album Live in Berkeley. Though the Country Joe Band disbanded in 2006, some of the members still occasionally tour together.
Aftermath and reunions
However, when McDonald reassembled the band for a last-minute scheduling at the Woodstock Festival, another personnel change resulted in the group's final lineup, which included recruits Mark Kapner on keyboards, Doug Metzner on bass, and Greg Dewey on drums. Among the festival's most memorable moments was McDonald's unexpected solo performance on August 16, 1969, which included "The Fuck Cheer" as a finale. The audience receptively responded by chanting along with McDonald. McDonald's rendition of "The Fuck Cheer" propelled the song into the mainstream culture in the U.S., and was featured on the Woodstock film, which was released on March 26, 1970. Radio stations regularly played both versions of the cheer, though the opposition to "The Fuck Cheer" limited its exposure to underground stations. In December 1969, McDonald began his own career outside the band, releasing cover versions of Guthrie-penned songs on Thinking of Woody Guthrie, and country standards on Tonight I'm Singing Just For You. All the while, the group looked to capitalize on the momentum from Woodstock and their appearance in the film, Zachariah, by releasing their fifth album, CJ Fish, in May 1970. The album was a moderate success, reaching number 111 nationally. However the band members lacked the motivation from touring and recording, which led to their disbandment in mid-1970.
Between January 9 and 11, 1969, the band performed at the Fillmore West as a farewell to the group's most famous lineup, with Jack Casady of Jefferson Airplane standing in at bass. Country Joe and the Fish was also accompanied by Jerry Garcia, Jorma Kaukonen, Steve Miller, and Mickey Hart for the 38-minute finale, "Donavan's Reef Jam". Recordings from the concerts were later assembled on the live album, Live! Fillmore West 1969 on March 12, 1996. Hirsh and Cohen left soon after recording their next album, Here We Are Again, and a new lineup was configured with Casady and David Getz, who formerly played drums with Big Brother and the Holding Company. The group released Here We Are Again in the spring of 1969. It charted at number 48, and saw Country Joe and the Fish moving to a pop-oriented approach. Country Joe and the Fish's personnel remained relatively stable for the next six months, though Peter S. Albin, also an alumnus of Big Brother and the Holding Company, replaced Casady at bass.
In September 1968, Barthol exited the band, just prior to their fourth album. His departure was due to the rest of the band's unwillingness to partake in the Fesitval for Life, an event established by the Youth International Party in Chicago that was intended to have the participation of several well-known musicians attract thousands of spectators for the 1968 Democratic National Convention. However, the city refused to issue any permits, and the band members, by majority vote, decided to withdraw out of fear that their equipment would be damaged. After the festival resulted in riots and violent clashes between demonstrators and the police, Barthol's conviction that Country Joe and the Fish should have held a larger role precipitated his departure from the group and move to England.
Lineup changes and Woodstock (1969–70)
The song met unprecedented exposure among the band's young audience after a performance at the Schaefer Music Festival in New York City, in the summer of 1968. Hirsh suggested that instead of the opening chorus spelling "fish", it would spell "fuck", giving birth to the infamous "Fuck Cheer". The crowd of young teenagers and college students applauded the act; however executives from The Ed Sullivan Show barred Country Joe and the Fish from their scheduled appearance on the program, and any other possible events. Though Hirsh has never explained his reasoning as to why he recommended the lyrical change, the act is seen as a social and political statement advocating free speech. The recorded version of "The Fish Cheer" was receiving airplay, even on mainstream radio stations, which contributed to the band's third album, Together, becoming their most commercially successful. The album was released in August 1968, featured a collective songwriting effort from all of the band members, and charted at number 23 nationally.
The band returned to the studio, this time at Vanguard Studios in New York City, between July and September 1967. When "Superbird", a tune mocking president Lyndon Johnson, was not banned from radio promotion, the band was given the go-ahead to record "The Fish Cheer", which saw the group moving away from the original folk composition toward electric instrumentals more synthesized toward psychedelia. The song became the title track for Country Joe and the Fish's second album, I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixin'-to-Die, when it was released in November 1967. The album itself was not as successful as its predecessor, but still managed to chart at number 67. The composition represented growing anti-war sentiment expressed by those opposing the Vietnam War, and is often considered one of the most recognized and celebrated protest songs of the era. "The Fish Cheer" was also pivotal in communicating the attitude against the war, but was set apart from other anti-war songs for its use of sarcastic humor and satire on the controversial conflict. Writer Lee Andresen reflects on the song's meaning, saying, "the happy beat and insouciance of the vocalist are in odd juxtaposition to the lyrics that reinforce the sad fact that the American public was being forced into realizing that Vietnam was no longer a remote place on the other side of the world, and the damage it was doing to the country could no longer be considered collateral, involving someone else."
Electric Music for the Mind and Body was a success upon release, charting at number 39 on the Billboard 200, and remains one of the most enduring psychedelic works of the counterculture era. A single, "Not So Sweet Martha Lorraine", was distributed a month prior to the album, and became the only Country Joe and the Fish single to chart, peaking at number 98 on the Billboard Hot 100, in large part a culmination of its airplay on FM broadcasting and college stations. A reworked version of "The Fish Cheer" was intended to be released as a track on the album. However, Charters vetoed the decision to see whether the controversial song, "Superbird", would face a radio ban. Nonetheless, the band was considered forerunners in the emerging music scene in San Francisco, exhibiting one of the more polished debuts, just as its contemporaries were still refining their own sound. Melton attributes the album's success, particularly in San Francisco, to the band's appearance at the Monterey Pop Festival in June 1967. Subsequently, the group toured the east coast with an elaborate psychedelic light show.
 after the instrumentals were completed.overdubbed was among the most complex works to date, it possessed the quality that several other San Francisco acts shared of being recorded relatively live, with only the vocals being Electric Music for the Mind and Body Though , who McDonald admired.John Fahey, and love, augmented by satirical humor, clearly introduced the band's orientation and message. The compositional structures followed discrete movement patterns emulating the style of recreational drug use, political protest In addition, McDonald's lyrical content, which brazenly pronounced topics of