Crafoord Prize
The Crafoord Prize  

Awarded for  in astronomy and mathematics, biosciences, geosciences or polyarthritis research, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 
Country  Sweden 
Presented by  Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 
First awarded  1982 
Official website 
.se 
The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife AnnaGreta Crafoord. Administered by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the prize is awarded in four categories: astronomy and mathematics; geosciences; biosciences, with particular emphasis on ecology; and polyarthritis, the disease from which Holger severely suffered in his last years. According to the Academy, "these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded".^{[1]} Only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics; then geosciences; then biosciences.^{[1]} A Crafoord Prize is only awarded when a special committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made.^{[1]} The recipient of the Crafoord Prize is announced each year in midJanuary; on Crafoord Day in April, the prize is presented by the King of Sweden, who also presents the Nobel Prizes at the ceremony in December.^{[1]}^{[2]} The prize money, which as of 2015 is 4,000,000 kr (or US$500,000), is intended to fund further research by the winner.
The inaugural winners, Vladimir Arnold and Louis Nirenberg, were cited by the Academy for their work in the field of nonlinear differential equations. The first woman to be awarded the prize was astronomer Andrea Ghez in 2012.
Contents
 Winners 1
 Notes 2
 See also 3
 References 4
 External links 5
Winners
Year  Category  Image  Laureate  Nationality  Work^{[3]} 

1982  Mathematics  Vladimir Arnold  Theory of nonlinear differential equations  
Louis Nirenberg  ^{[A]}  
1983  Geosciences  —  Edward Lorenz  Geophysical hydrodynamics  
Henry Stommel  
1984  Biosciences  Daniel H. Janzen  Coevolution  
1985  Astronomy  Lyman Spitzer  Studies of the interstellar medium  
1986  Geosciences  Claude Allègre  Isotope geochemical relations  
—  Gerald J. Wasserburg  
1987  Biosciences  —  Eugene P. Odum  Ecosystem ecology  
Howard T. Odum  
1988  Mathematics  Pierre Deligne  Algebraic geometry  
Alexander Grothendieck^{[B]}  None  
1989  Geosciences  James Van Allen  Exploration of space, the discovery the Van Allen belts  
1990  Biosciences  Paul R. Ehrlich  Dynamics and genetics of fragmented populations  
Edward Osborne Wilson  Theory of island biogeography  
1991  Astronomy  —  Allan Rex Sandage  Study of galaxies  
1992  Geosciences  —  Adolf Seilacher  Research into evolution of life  
1993  Biosciences  —  W. D. Hamilton  Theories of kin selection and genetic relationship  
Seymour Benzer  Genetical and neurophysiological studies of fruit flies  
1994  Mathematics  Simon Donaldson  Fourdimensional geometry  
ShingTung Yau  ^{[C]}  Nonlinear techniques in differential geometry  
1995  Geosciences  —  Willi Dansgaard  Development of isotope geological analysis methods  
Nicholas Shackleton  
1996  Biosciences  Robert M. May  Ecological research  
1997  Astronomy  —  Fred Hoyle  Study of nuclear processes in stars, stellar evolution  
—  Edwin Salpeter  
1998  Geosciences  Don L. Anderson  Study of the structures and processes in the interior of the Earth  
—  Adam M. Dziewonski  ^{[D]}  
1999  Biosciences  Ernst Mayr  Developing the concept of evolutionary biology  
John Maynard Smith  
—  George C. Williams  
2000  Polyarthritis  —  Marc Feldmann  Definition of TNFalpha  
Ravinder N. Maini  
2001  Mathematics  Alain Connes  Theory of operator algebras, founder of the noncommutative geometry  
2002  Geosciences  —  Dan P. McKenzie  Dynamics of the lithosphere  
2003  Biosciences  Carl Woese  Third domain of life  
2004  Polyarthritis  Eugene C. Butcher  Study of molecular mechanisms concerning white blood cells  
Timothy A. Springer  
2005  Astronomy  James E. Gunn  Understanding the largescale structure of the Universe  
James Peebles  
Martin Rees  
2006  Geosciences  Wallace Smith Broecker  Research into the global carbon cycle  
2007  Biosciences  —  Robert Trivers  Analysis of social evolution  
2008  Astronomy  Rashid Alievich Sunyaev  Contributions to highenergy astrophysics and cosmology  
Mathematics  Maxim Kontsevich  ^{[E]}  Contributions to mathematics from modern theoretical physics  
Edward Witten  
2009  Polyarthritis  Charles Dinarello  Isolation of interleukins, understanding their role in the onset of inflammatory diseases  
Tadamitsu Kishimoto  
Toshio Hirano  
2010  Geosciences  Walter Munk  "for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth’s dynamics".  
2011  Biosciences  Ilkka Hanski  "for his pioneering studies on how spatial variation affects the dynamics of animal and plant populations".  
2012  Astronomy  Reinhard Genzel  "for their observations of the stars orbiting the galactic centre, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole".  
Andrea M. Ghez  
Mathematics  Jean Bourgain  "for their brilliant and groundbreaking work in harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, ergodic theory, number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and theoretical computer science".  
Terence Tao 


2013  Polyarthritis  Peter K. Gregersen  "for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis".  
Lars Klareskog  
Robert J. Winchester  
2014  Geosciences  —  Peter Molnar  "for his groundbreaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on oceanatmosphere circulation and climate".  
2015  Biosciences  —  Richard Lewontin  "for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism".  
—  Tomoko Ohta 
Notes
^{a} Nirenberg was born in Canada.^{[4]}
^{b} Grothendieck was born in Germany, but has spent most of his life in France. Legally, he was a stateless person. He declined his prize.^{[5]}
^{c} ShingTung Yau was born in China.^{[6]}
^{d} Dziewonski was born in Poland.^{[7]}
^{e} Kontsevich was born in Russia.^{[8]}
See also
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} "About the prize". The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 3 July 2009.
 ^ "King of Sweden awards Crafoord Prize to IC researchers". Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. 4 October 2000. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
 ^ "The Crafoord Prize 1982–2009" (PDF). The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
 ^ "Louis Nirenberg Receives National Medal of Science" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. October 1996. p. 1111. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
 ^ Matthews, Robert (20 August 2006). "Mathematics, where nothing is ever as simple as it seems". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
 ^ Overbye, Dennis (17 October 2006). "The Emperor of Math". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
 ^ "Dziewonski Receives 2002 William Bowie Medal". American Geophysical Union. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
 ^ "Kontsevich and Witten Receive 2008 Crafoord Prize in Mathematics" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. May 2008. p. 583. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
External links
 Official website