Dependent personality disorder
|Dependent personality disorder|
|Classification and external resources|
|Cluster A (odd)|
|Cluster B (dramatic)|
|Cluster C (anxious)|
Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. This personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend on others to meet their emotional and physical needs, with only a minority achieving normal levels of independence.
The difference between a 'dependent personality' and a 'dependent personality disorder' is somewhat subjective, which makes diagnosis sensitive to cultural influences such as gender role expectations.
A study in 2012 estimated the heritability of DPD to be between 55% and 72%.
- American Psychiatric Association 1.1
- World Health Organization 1.2
- Millon's subtypes 1.3
- Differential diagnosis 1.4
- See also 2
- Notes 3.1
- Sources 3.2
- External links 4
Dependent personality disorder occurs in about 0.6% of the general population. The disorder is diagnosed more often in females than males; however, research suggests that this is largely due to behavioural differences in interviews and self-reporting rather than a difference in prevalence between the sexes. A 2004 twin study suggests a heritability of .81 for developing dependent personality disorder. Because of this, there is significant evidence that this disorder runs in families.  Children and adolescents with a history of anxiety disorders and physical illnesses are more susceptible to acquiring this disorder.
American Psychiatric Association
The DSM-IV-TR contains a Dependent Personality Disorder diagnosis. It refers to a pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of which leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation. This begins by early adulthood and can present in a variety of contexts.
World Health Organization
The ICD-10 lists dependent personality disorder as F60.7 Dependent personality disorder:
It is characterized by at least 3 of the following:
Associated features may include perceiving oneself as helpless, incompetent, and lacking stamina. Includes:
- encouraging or allowing others to make most of one's important life decisions;
- subordination of one's own needs to those of others on whom one is dependent, and undue compliance with their wishes;
- unwillingness to make even reasonable demands on the people one depends on;
- feeling uncomfortable or helpless when alone, because of exaggerated fears of inability to care for oneself;
- preoccupation with fears of being abandoned by a person with whom one has a close relationship, and of being left to care for oneself;
- limited capacity to make everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reassurance from others.
- asthenic, inadequate, passive, and self-defeating personality (disorder)
It is a requirement of ICD-10 that a diagnosis of any specific personality disorder also satisfies a set of general personality disorder criteria.
Psychologist Theodore Millon identified five adult subtypes of dependent personality disorder. Any individual dependent may exhibit none or one of the following:
|Disquieted||Including avoidant features||Restlessly perturbed; disconcerted and fretful; feels dread and foreboding; apprehensively vulnerable to abandonment; lonely unless near supportive figures.|
|Selfless||Including masochistic features||Merges with and immersed into another; is engulfed, enshrouded, absorbed, incorporated, willingly giving up own identity; becomes one with or an extension of another.|
|Immature||Variant of “pure” pattern||Unsophisticated, half-grown, unversed, childlike; undeveloped, inexperienced, gullible, and unformed; incapable of assuming adult responsibilities.|
|Accommodating||Including histrionic features||Gracious, neighborly, eager, benevolent, compliant, obliging, agreeable; denies disturbing feelings; adopts submissive and inferior role well.|
|Ineffectual||Including schizoid features||Unproductive, gainless, incompetent, useless, meritless; seeks untroubled life; refuses to deal with difficulties; untroubled by shortcomings.|
The following conditions commonly coexist (comorbid) with dependent personality disorder:
- mood disorders
- anxiety disorders
- adjustment disorder
- borderline personality disorder
- avoidant personality disorder
- histrionic personality disorder
- Gjerde et al. 2012.
- Bornstein, Robert F. (1996-01-01). "Sex Differences in Dependent Personality Disorder Prevalence Rates". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 3 (1).
- Coolidge, F.L., Thede, L., Jang, K.L. "Are personality disorders psychological manifestations of executive function deficits? Bivariate heritability evidence from a twin study. Behavior Genetics (2004), pp. 34, 75-84, cited in Nolan-Hoeksema, Abnormal Psychology (6th. ed.), pp. 273, McGraw Hill Education (2014)".
- Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan (2014). Abnormal Psychology (6th. ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
- "Dependent Personality Disorder".
- Dependent personality disorder - International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10)
- Millon et al. 2004.
- Millon 2006.
- Beck, Aaron T; Freeman, Arthur (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.
- Millon, Theodore; Davis, Roger Dale (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM-IV and Beyond. New York: Wiley.
- Millon, Theodore (1981). Disorders of Personality: DSM-III, Axis II. New York: Wiley.
- Perry, J. C. (1996). "Dependent personality disorder". In Gabbard, Glen O.; Atkinson, Sarah D. Synopsis of Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. American Psychiatric Press. pp. 995–8.
- Gjerde, L. C.; Czajkowski, N.; Røysamb, E.; Ørstavik, R. E.; Knudsen, G. P.; Østby, K.; Torgersen, S.; Myers, J.; Kendler, K. S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2012). "The heritability of avoidant and dependent personality disorder assessed by personal interview and questionnaire". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 126 (6): 448–57.
- Millon, Theodore; Millon, Carrie M.; Meagher, Sarah; Grossman, Seth; Ramnath, Rowena (2004). Personality Disorders in Modern Life. Wiley.
- Millon, Theodore (2006). "Personality Subtypes".
- Kantor, Martin (1992). Diagnosis and Treatment of the Personality Disorders. Ishiyaku EuroAmerica.
- Ellison, J. M.; Adler, D. A. (1990). "A strategy for the pharmacotherapy of personality disorders". In Adler, David A. Treating Personality Disorders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 43–63.
- Adler, David A., ed. (1990). Treating Personality Disorders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Richards, Henry Jay (1993). Therapy of the Substance Abuse Syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson.
- Zimmerman, Mark (1994). Diagnosing DSM-IV-R Psychiatric Disorders in Primary Care Settings: An Interview Guide for the Nonpsychiatrist Physician. Psych Products.
- Ekleberry, Sharon (2014). "Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)". Treating Co-Occurring Disorders. p. 63–4.
- Oldham, John M.; Morris, Lois B. (1990). The Personality Self-portrait: Why You Think, Work, Love, and Act the Way You Do. Bantam.
- Sperry, Len (1995). Psychopharmacology and Psychotherapy: Strategies for Maximizing Treatment Outcomes. Psychology Press.
- Stone, Michael H. (1993). Abnormalities of Personality: Within and Beyond the Realm of Treatment. Norton.
- Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1993). Interpersonal Diagnosis and Treatment of Personality Disorders. Guilford Press.
- Benjamin, Lorna Smith (1996). "Dependent Personality Disorder". Interpersonal Diagnosis and Treatment of Personality Disorders. Guilford Press. pp. 221–39.
- J. Christopher Perry, M.P.H., M.D., 2005 (Dependent Personality Disorder)
- Diagnostic Features, Complications, Prevalence, Associated Laboratory Findings
- MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Dependent personality disorder