Diphenidine

Diphenidine

Diphenidine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(±)-1-(1,2-Diphenylethyl)piperidine
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  YesY
PubChem CID:
ChemSpider
Chemical data
Formula C19H23N
Molecular mass 265.39 g/mol
Physical data
Melting point 210 °C (410 °F)

Diphenidine (1,2-DEP, DPD, DND) is a dissociative anesthetic that has been sold as a research chemical.[1] The synthesis of diphenidine was first reported in 1924, and employed a Bruylants reaction analogous to the one that would later be used to discover phencyclidine in 1956.[1] Shortly after the 2013 UK ban on arylcyclohexylamines, diphenidine and the related compound methoxphenidine became available on the gray market.[1] Anecdotal reports describe high doses of diphenidine producing "bizarre somatosensory phenomena and transient anterograde amnesia."[1] Diphenidine and related diarylethylamines have been studied in vitro as treatments for neurotoxic injury and are antagonists of the NMDA receptor.[2][3][4] Electrophysiological analysis demonstrates that the amplitude of NMDA-mediated fEPSPs are reduced by diphenidine and ketamine to a similar extent, with diphenidine displaying a slower onset of antagonism.[4] The two enantiomers of diphenidine differ greatly in their ability to block the NMDA receptor, with the more potent (S)-enantiomer possessing affinity forty times higher than the (R)-enantiomer.[3] Though vendors of diphenidine have stated the compound "acts on dopamine transport" to date diphenidine has not been screened for affinity at the dopamine transporter.[1] In dogs diphenidine exhibits greater antitussive potency than codeine phosphate.[5]

Since 2014 there have been several published reports of diphenidine being sold in combination with other research chemicals, particularly synthetic cannabinoids and stimulants in Japanese herbal incense blends.[6][7][8] The first reported seizure concerned a Japanese product called "fragrance powder" containing diphenidine and benzylpiperazine.[9] A herbal incense sold in the Shizuoka Prefecture under the name "Aladdin (sic) Spacial Edition" was found to contain diphenidine and 5-fluoro-AB-PINACA at concentrations of 289 mg/g and 55.5 mg/g, respectively.[6] A product called ‘‘Herbal Incense. The Super Lemon’’ containing AB-CHMINACA, 5F-AMB, and diphenidine was implicated in a fatal poisoning.[7] Most recently diphenidine consumed in conjunction with three substituted cathinones, three benzodiazepines, and alcohol was implicated in a fatal ingestion of "bath salt" and "liquid aroma" products in Japan.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e
  2. ^ EP 0346791, Gray NM, Cheng BK, "1,2-diarylethylamines for treatment of neurotoxic injury" 
  3. ^ a b
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