Easley v. Cromartie

Easley v. Cromartie

Easley v. Cromartie (also known as Hunt v. Cromartie)
Argued November 27, 2000
Decided April 18, 2001
Full case name Michael F. Easley, Governor of North Carolina v. Martin Cromartie, et al.
Citations 532 U.S. 234 (more)
Holding
The District Court's conclusion that the State violated the Equal Protection Clause in drawing the 1997 boundaries is based on clearly erroneous findings.
Court membership
Case opinions
Majority Breyer, joined by Stevens, O'Connor, Souter, Ginsburg
Dissent Thomas, joined by Rehnquist, Scalia, Kennedy

Easley v. Cromartie, 532 US 234 (2001), also known as Hunt v. Cromartie, was a U.S. Supreme Court case. The court's ruling on April 18, 2001 stated that redistricting for political reasons did not violate Federal Civil Rights Law banning race-based gerrymandering. (Case No. 99-1864).

The Supreme Court held in the case that as Southern blacks tend to vote for the Democratic Party, North Carolina's 12th congressional district was drawn based upon voting behavior, instead of upon racial characteristics. The allegedly odd-shaped district was allowed to stand. Critics of this ruling found this to be a case of judicial nitpicking and that the Court had in essence allowed the previously-banned practice of concentrating a racial group into a single district.

See also

Further reading

  • require('Module:No globals')

local function getCatForId( id )

   local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle()
   local namespace = title.namespace
   if namespace == 0 then

return ''

   elseif namespace == 2 and not title.isSubpage then

return ''

   else

return ''

   end

end

local function viafLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^%d+$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'VIAF' )

end

local function kulturnavLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' id' 

end

local function sikartLink( id )

   return '.. id .. '&lng=en ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function tlsLink( id ) local id2 = mw.ustring.gsub(id, '%s', function(s) return mw.uri.encode(s, 'WIKI') end)

   return '.. id2 .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end


local function ciniiLink( id )

   return '.. id .. '?l=en ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function bneLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end


local function uscongressLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function narapersonLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function naraorganizationLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function botanistLink( id ) local id2 = mw.ustring.gsub(id, '%s', function(s) return mw.uri.encode(s, 'PATH') end)

   return '.. id2 .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function mgpLink( id )

   -- TODO Implement some sanity checking regex
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function rslLink( id )

   -- TODO Implement some sanity checking regex
   return '.. id .. '&CON_LNG=ENG ' .. id .. ''

end

local function leonoreLink( id ) -- Identifiants allant de LH/1/1 à LH/2794/54 (légionnaires) -- Identifiants allant de C/0/1 à C/0/84 (84 légionnaires célèbres) -- Identifiants allant de 19800035/1/1 à 19800035/385/51670 (légionnaires décédés entre 1954 et 1977, et quelques dossiers de légionnaires décédés avant 1954)

   if not string.match( id, '^LH/%d%d?%d?%d?/%d%d?%d?$' ) and
      not string.match( id, '^C/0/%d%d?$' ) and
           not string.match( id, '^19800035/%d%d?%d?%d?/%d%d?%d?%d?%d?$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function sbnLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^IT\\ICCU\\%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d$' ) and not string.match( id, '^IT\\ICCU\\%u%u[%d%u]%u\\%d%d%d%d%d%d$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'SBN' )

end

local function nkcLink( id ) return '.. id .. '&CON_LNG=ENG ' .. id .. '' end

local function nclLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^%d+$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. '&CON_LNG=ENG ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function ndlLink( id ) return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' end

local function sudocLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d[%dxX]$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' 

end

local function hlsLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^%d+$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. '.php ' .. id .. ''

end

local function lirLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^%d+$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. '.450.0.html ' .. id .. ''

end

local function splitLccn( id )

   if id:match( '^%l%l?%l?%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d?%d?$' ) then
       id = id:gsub( '^(%l+)(%d+)(%d%d%d%d%d%d)$', '%1/%2/%3' )
   end
   if id:match( '^%l%l?%l?/%d%d%d?%d?/%d+$' ) then
        return mw.text.split( id, '/' )
   end
   return false

end

local function append(str, c, length)

   while str:len() < length do
       str = c .. str
   end
   return str

end

local function lccnLink( id )

   local parts = splitLccn( id )
   if not parts then
       return false
   end
   local lccnType = parts[1] ~= 'sh' and 'names' or 'subjects'
   id = parts[1] .. parts[2] .. append( parts[3], '0', 6 )
   return '.. lccnType .. '/' .. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'LCCN' )

end

local function mbLink( id )

   -- TODO Implement some sanity checking regex
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'MusicBrainz' )

end

--Returns the ISNI check digit isni must be a string where the 15 first elements are digits local function getIsniCheckDigit( isni )

   local total = 0
   for i = 1, 15 do
       local digit = isni:byte( i ) - 48 --Get integer value
       total = (total + digit) * 2
   end
   local remainder = total % 11
   local result = (12 - remainder) % 11
   if result == 10 then
       return "X"
   end
   return tostring( result )

end

--Validate ISNI (and ORCID) and retuns it as a 16 characters string or returns false if it's invalid --See http://support.orcid.org/knowledgebase/articles/116780-structure-of-the-orcid-identifier local function validateIsni( id )

   id = id:gsub( '[ %-]', ):upper()
   if not id:match( '^%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d[%dX]$' ) then
       return false
   end
   if getIsniCheckDigit( id ) ~= string.char( id:byte( 16 ) ) then
       return false
   end
   return id

end

local function isniLink( id )

   id = validateIsni( id )
   if not id then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id:sub( 1, 4 ) .. ' ' .. id:sub( 5, 8 ) .. ' '  .. id:sub( 9, 12 ) .. ' '  .. id:sub( 13, 16 ) .. '' .. getCatForId( 'ISNI' )

end

local function orcidLink( id )

   id = validateIsni( id )
   if not id then
       return false
   end
   id = id:sub( 1, 4 ) .. '-' .. id:sub( 5, 8 ) .. '-'  .. id:sub( 9, 12 ) .. '-'  .. id:sub( 13, 16 )
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'ORCID' )

end

local function gndLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'GND' )

end

local function selibrLink( id ) if not string.match( id, '^%d+$' ) then

       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'SELIBR' )

end

local function bnfLink( id )

   --Add cb prefix if it has been removed
   if not string.match( id, '^cb.+$' ) then
       id = 'cb' .. id
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. ' .. id .. ' (data)' .. getCatForId( 'BNF' )

end

local function bpnLink( id )

   if not string.match( id, '^%d+$' ) then
       return false
   end
   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'BPN' )

end

local function ridLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'RID' )

end

local function bibsysLink( id )

   return '.. id .. '&feltselect=bs.autid ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'BIBSYS' )

end

local function ulanLink( id )

   return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'ULAN' )

end

local function nlaLink( id ) return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'NLA' ) end

local function rkdartistsLink( id ) return '.. id .. ' ' .. id .. '' .. getCatForId( 'RKDartists' ) end

local function getIdsFromWikidata( item, property )

   local ids = {}
   if not item.claims[property] then
       return ids
   end
   for _, statement in pairs( item.claims[property] ) do
         if statement.mainsnak.datavalue then
          table.insert( ids, statement.mainsnak.datavalue.value )
         end
   end
   return ids

end

local function matchesWikidataRequirements( item, reqs )

   for _, group in pairs( reqs ) do
       local property = 'p' .. group[1]
       local qid = group[2]
       if item.claims[property] ~= nil then
           for _, statement in pairs ( item.claims[property] ) do
                if statement.mainsnak.datavalue ~= nil then
                        if statement.mainsnak.datavalue.value['numeric-id'] == qid then
                        return true
                end
            end
           end
       end
   end
   return false

end

local function createRow( id, label, rawValue, link, withUid )

   if link then
       if withUid then
           return '* ' .. label .. ' ' .. link .. '\n'
       else
           return '* ' .. label .. ' ' .. link .. '\n'
       end
   else

return '* \n'

   end

end

--In this order: name of the parameter, label, propertyId in Wikidata, formatting function local conf = {

   { 'VIAF', 'VIAF', 214, viafLink },
   { 'LCCN', 'LCCN', 244, lccnLink },
   { 'ISNI', 'ISNI', 213, isniLink },
   { 'ORCID', 'ORCID', 496, orcidLink },
   { 'GND', 'GND', 227, gndLink },
   { 'SELIBR', 'SELIBR', 906, selibrLink },
   { 'SUDOC', 'SUDOC', 269, sudocLink },    
   { 'BNF', 'BNF', 268, bnfLink },
   { 'BPN', 'BPN', 651, bpnLink },
   { 'RID', 'ResearcherID', 1053, ridLink },
   { 'BIBSYS', 'BIBSYS', 1015, bibsysLink },
   { 'ULAN', 'ULAN', 245, ulanLink },
   { 'HDS', 'HDS', 902, hlsLink },
   { 'LIR', 'LIR', 886, lirLink },
   { 'MBA', 'MusicBrainz', 434, mbLink },
   { 'MGP', 'MGP', 549, mgpLink },    
   { 'NLA', 'NLA', 409, nlaLink },
   { 'NDL', 'NDL', 349, ndlLink },
   { 'NCL', 'NCL', 1048, nclLink },
   { 'NKC', 'NKC', 691, nkcLink },
   { 'Léonore', 'Léonore', 640, leonoreLink }, 
   { 'SBN', 'ICCU', 396, sbnLink },     
   { 'RLS', 'RLS', 947, rslLink },
   { 'Botanist', '