Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg.
Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies.
Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production. The European Union recently banned battery husbandry of chickens.
- History 1
- Varieties 2
Anatomy and characteristics 3
- Air cell 3.1
- Shell 3.2
- Membrane 3.3
- White 3.4
- Abnormalities 3.5.1
Culinary properties 4
- Types of dishes 4.1
- Cooking 4.2
- Flavor variations 4.3
- Storage 4.4
- Preservation 4.5
- Cooking substitutes 4.6
- Nutritional value 4.7
Health risks 5
- Cholesterol and fat 5.1
- Type 2 diabetes 5.2
- Cardiovascular risk 5.3
- Contamination 5.4
- Food allergy 5.5
Farming issues 6
- Grading by quality and size 6.1
- Washing and refrigeration 6.2
- Color of eggshell 6.3
- Living conditions of birds 6.4
- Killing of male chicks 6.5
- Cultural significance 7
- See also 8
- References 9
- External links 10
Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated. The chicken was probably domesticated for its eggs from jungle fowl native to tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia and India before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, and arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, Egypt, the tomb of Haremhab, built about 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods, and meals often started with an egg course. The Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness. The word mayonnaise possibly was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub.
The dried egg industry developed in the 19th century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process. The production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies.
In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper.
Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken. Duck and goose eggs, and smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient in western countries, are common everyday food in many parts of East Asia such as China and Vietnam. The largest bird eggs, from ostriches tend to be used only as special luxury food. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries, particularly in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are commonly seen in marketplaces, especially in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are perfectly edible, but less widely available. Sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. In many countries, wild birds’ eggs are protected by laws which prohibit collecting or selling them, or permit collection only during specific periods of the year.
See also fish eggs.
Anatomy and characteristics
The shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other, with cylindrical symmetry along the long axis.
An egg is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Inside, the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae (from the Greek word χάλαζα, meaning hailstone or hard lump).
The larger end of the egg contains the air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A very fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA. As the size of the air cell increases, and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of testing the age of an egg: as the air cell increases in size due to air being drawn through pores in the shell as water is lost, the egg becomes less dense and the larger end of the egg will rise to increasingly shallower depths when the egg is placed in a bowl of water. A very old egg will actually float in the water and should not be eaten.
Egg shell color is caused by pigment deposition during egg formation in the oviduct and can vary according to species and breed, from the more common white or brown to pink or speckled blue-green. In general, chicken breeds with white ear lobes lay white eggs, whereas chickens with red ear lobes lay brown eggs. Although there is no significant link between shell color and nutritional value, there is often a cultural preference for one color over another (see 'Color of eggshell', below).
White is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg. In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the egg. It forms around either fertilized or unfertilized yolks. The primary natural purpose of egg white is to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition for the growth of the embryo.
Egg white consists primarily of about 90% water into which is dissolved 10% proteins (including albumins, mucoproteins, and globulins). Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and the carbohydrate content is less than 1%. Egg white has many uses in food, and many others, including the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza.
The yolk in a newly laid egg is round and firm. As the yolk ages, it absorbs water from the albumen, which increases its size and causes it to stretch and weaken the vitelline membrane (the clear casing enclosing the yolk). The resulting effect is a flattened and enlarged yolk shape.
Yolk color is dependent on the diet of the hen; if the diet contains yellow/orange plant pigments known as xanthophylls, then they are deposited in the yolk, coloring it. Lutein is the most abundant pigment in egg yolk. A colorless diet can produce an almost colorless yolk. Yolk color is, for example, enhanced if the diet includes products such as yellow corn and marigold petals. In the US, the use of artificial color additives is forbidden.
Shell-less or thin-shelled eggs can be caused by egg drop syndrome.
Types of dishes
Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory, including many baked goods. Some of the most common preparation methods include scrambled, fried, hard-boiled, soft-boiled, omelettes and pickled. They can also be eaten raw, though this is not recommended for people who may be especially susceptible to salmonellosis, such as the elderly, the infirm, or pregnant women. In addition, the protein in raw eggs is only 51% bioavailable, whereas that of a cooked egg is nearer 91% bioavailable, meaning the protein of cooked eggs is nearly twice as absorbable as the protein from raw eggs.
The albumen, or egg white, contains protein, but little or no fat, and can be used in cooking separately from the yolk. The proteins in egg white allow it to form foams and aerated dishes. Egg whites may be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency, and are often used in desserts such as meringues and mousse.
Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver calcium. Every part of an egg is edible, although the eggshell is generally discarded. Some recipes call for immature or unlaid eggs, which are harvested after the hen is slaughtered or cooked while still inside the chicken.
Cookinggelify, or solidify, when it reaches temperatures between about 63 and 70 °C (145 and 158 °F). Egg white gels at slightly higher temperatures, about 60 to 80 °C (140 to 176 °F)- the white contains ovalbumin that sets at the highest temperature. However, in practice, in many cooking processes the white gels first because it is exposed to higher temperatures for longer.
Salmonella is killed instantly at 71 °C (160 °F), but is also killed from 54.5 °C (130.1 °F) if held there for sufficiently long time periods. To avoid the issue of salmonella, eggs can be pasteurised in-shell at 57 °C (135 °F) for an hour and 15 minutes. Although the white is slightly milkier, the eggs can be used in normal ways. Whipping for meringue takes significantly longer, but the final volume is virtually the same.
If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk due to the iron and sulfur compounds in the egg. It can also occur with an abundance of iron in the cooking water. The green ring does not affect the egg's taste; overcooking, however, harms the quality of the protein. Chilling the egg for a few minutes in cold water until it is completely cooled may prevent the greenish ring from forming on the surface of the yolk.
Although the age of the egg and the conditions of its storage have a greater influence, the bird's diet does affect the flavor of the egg. For example, when a brown-egg chicken breed eats rapeseed or soy meals, its intestinal microbes metabolize them into fishy-smelling triethylamine, which ends up in the egg. The unpredictable diet of free-range hens will produce unpredictable eggs. Duck eggs tend to have a flavor distinct from, but still resembling, chicken eggs.
Eggs can also be soaked in mixtures to absorb flavor. Tea eggs are steeped in a brew from a mixture of various spices, soy sauce, and black tea leaves to give flavor.
Careful storage of edible eggs is extremely important, as an improperly handled egg can contain elevated levels of Salmonella bacteria that can cause severe food poisoning. In the US, eggs are washed, and this cleans the shell, but erodes the cuticle. The USDA thus recommends refrigerating eggs to prevent the growth of Salmonella.
Refrigeration also preserves the taste and texture. However, uncracked eggs can be left unrefrigerated for several months without spoiling. In Europe, eggs are not usually washed, and the shells are dirtier, however the cuticle is undamaged, and they do not require refrigeration. In the UK in particular, hens are immunised against salmonella, and the eggs are generally safe for 21 days.
The simplest method to preserve an egg is to treat it with salt. Salt draws water out of bacteria and molds, which prevents their growth. The Chinese salted duck egg is made by immersing duck eggs in brine, or coating them individually with a paste of salt and mud or clay. The eggs stop absorbing salt after about a month, having reached osmotic equilibrium. Their yolks take on an orange-red color and solidify, but the white remains liquid. They are boiled before consumption, and are often served with rice congee.
Another method is to make pickled eggs, by boiling them first and immersing them in a mixture of vinegar, salt, and spices, such as ginger or allspice. Frequently, beetroot juice is added to impart a red color to the eggs. If the eggs are immersed in it for a few hours, the distinct red, white, and yellow colors can be seen when the eggs are sliced. If marinated for several days or more, the red color will reach the yolk. If the eggs are marinated in the mixture for several weeks or more, the vinegar will dissolve much of the shell's calcium carbonate and penetrate the egg, making it acidic enough to inhibit the growth of bacteria and molds. Pickled eggs made this way will generally keep for a year or more without refrigeration.
For those who do not consume eggs, alternatives used in baking include other rising agents or binding materials, such as ground flax seeds or potato starch flour. Tofu can also act as a partial binding agent, since it is high in lecithin due to its soy content. Applesauce can be used, as well as arrowroot and banana. Extracted soybean lecithin, in turn, is often used in packaged foods as an inexpensive substitute for egg-derived lecithin.
Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and fat content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals, as well as vegetable-based emulsifiers and thickeners such as xanthan gum or guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition and several culinary properties of real eggs, making possible foods such as Hollandaise sauce, custard, mayonnaise, and most baked goods with these substitutes.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||647 kJ (155 kcal)|
|Aspartic acid||1.264 g|
|Glutamic acid||1.644 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||
For edible portion only.
Refuse: 12% (shell).
One large egg is 50 grams.
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Chicken eggs are the most commonly eaten eggs. They supply all essential amino acids for humans (a source of 'complete protein'), and provide several vitamins and minerals, including retinol (vitamin A), riboflavin (vitamin B2), folic acid (vitamin B9), vitamin B6, vitamin B12, choline, iron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Although not as abundant as red meats, eggs are a source of Coenzyme Q10 depending on how they are prepared.
All of the egg's vitamins A, D, and E are in the egg yolk. The egg is one of the few foods to naturally contain vitamin D. A large egg yolk contains approximately 60 calories (250 kilojoules); the egg white contains about 15 calories (60 kilojoules). A large yolk contains more than two-thirds of the recommended daily intake of 300 mg of cholesterol (although one study indicates the human body may not absorb much cholesterol from eggs). The yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg. It contains all of the fat, slightly less than half of the protein, and most of the other nutrients. It also contains all of the choline, and one yolk contains approximately half of the recommended daily intake. Choline is an important nutrient for development of the brain, and is said to be important for pregnant and nursing women to ensure healthy fetal brain development.
The diet of the laying hens can greatly affect the nutritional quality of the eggs. For instance, chicken eggs that are especially high in omega 3 fatty acids are produced by feeding laying hens a diet containing polyunsaturated fats and kelp meal. Pasture-raised free-range hens which forage largely for their own food also tend to produce eggs with higher nutritional quality in having less cholesterol and fats while being several times higher in vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids than standard factory eggs. Focusing on the protein and crude fat content, a 2010 USDA study determined there were no significant differences of these two macronutrients in consumer chicken eggs.
Cooked eggs are easier to digest, as well as having a lower risk of salmonellosis.
Cholesterol and fat
More than half the calories found in eggs come from the fat in the yolk; a large (50 gram) chicken egg contains approximately 5 grams of fat. People on a low-cholesterol diet may need to reduce egg consumption; however, only 27% of the fat in egg is saturated fat (palmitic, stearic and myristic acids). The egg white consists primarily of water (87%) and protein (13%) and contains no cholesterol and little, if any, fat.
There is debate over whether egg yolk presents a health risk. Some research suggests dietary cholesterol increases the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol and, therefore, adversely affects the body's cholesterol profile; whereas other studies show that moderate consumption of eggs, up to one a day, does not appear to increase heart disease risk in healthy individuals. Harold McGee argues that the cholesterol in the yolk is not what causes a problem, because fat (in particular, saturated) is much more likely to raise cholesterol levels than the actual consumption of cholesterol.
Type 2 diabetes
Studies have shown conflicting results about a possible connection between egg consumption and type two diabetes. A 1999 prospective study of over 117,000 people by the Harvard School of Public Health concluded, in part, that "The apparent increased risk of CHD associated with higher egg consumption among diabetic participants warrants further research." A 2008 study by the Physicians' Health Study I (1982–2007) and the Women's Health Study (1992–2007) determined the “data suggest that high levels of egg consumption (daily) are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.” However, a study published in 2010 found no link between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes. A meta-analysis from 2013 finds that each 4 eggs per week that are added to the diet increase the risk of diabetes by 29%. Another meta-analysis from 2013 also supported the idea that egg consumption may lead to an increased incidence of type two diabetes mellitus.
Eggs are one of the largest sources of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the human diet. A study published in the scientific journal Nature showed that dietary phosphatidylcholine is digested by bacteria in the gut and eventually converted into the compound TMAO, a compound linked with increased heart disease.
The 1999 Harvard School of Public Health study of 37,851 men and 80,082 women concluded that its "findings suggest that consumption of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women." In a study of 4,000 people published in the New England Journal of Medicine, scientists found that eating eggs lead to significantly increased levels of TMAO in the blood of study participants and that this in turn led to significantly higher risk of heart attack and stroke after three years of follow-up.
A 2007 study of nearly 10,000 adults demonstrated no correlation between moderate (six per week) egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or strokes, except in the subpopulation of diabetic patients who presented an increased risk of coronary heart disease. One potential alternative explanation for the null finding is that background dietary cholesterol may be so high in the usual Western diet that adding somewhat more has little further effect on blood cholesterol. Other research supports the idea that a high egg intake increases cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. A 2009 prospective cohort study of over 21,000 individuals suggests that "egg consumption up to 6/week has no major effect on the risk of CVD and mortality and that consumption of 7+/week is associated with a modest increased risk of total mortality" in males, whereas among males with diabetes, "any egg consumption is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and there was suggestive evidence for an increased risk of MI and stroke". A meta-analysis published in the British Medical Journal in 2013 found no association between egg consumption and heart disease or stroke. A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found no association between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality.
On the other hand, another meta-analysis from 2013 finds that each 4 eggs per week that are added to the diet increase the risk of cardiovascular disease by 6%.
A health issue associated with eggs is contamination by pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella enteritidis. Contamination of eggs exiting a female bird via the cloaca may also occur with other members of the Salmonella genus, so care must be taken to prevent the egg shell from becoming contaminated with fecal matter. In commercial practice in the US, eggs are quickly washed with a sanitizing solution within minutes of being laid. The risk of infection from raw or undercooked eggs is dependent in part upon the sanitary conditions under which the hens are kept.
Health experts advise people to refrigerate washed eggs, use them within two weeks, cook them thoroughly, and never consume raw eggs. As with meat, containers and surfaces that have been used to process raw eggs should not come in contact with ready-to-eat food.
A study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 (Risk Analysis April 2002 22(2):203-18) suggests the problem is not as prevalent as once thought. It showed that of the 69 billion eggs produced annually, only 2.3 million are contaminated with Salmonella—equivalent to just one in every 30,000 eggs—thus showing Salmonella infection is quite rarely induced by eggs. However, this has not been the case in other countries, where Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections due to egg consumptions are major concerns. Egg shells act as hermetic seals that guard against bacteria entering, but this seal can be broken through improper handling or if laid by unhealthy chickens. Most forms of contamination enter through such weaknesses in the shell. In the UK, the British Egg Industry Council award the lions stamp to eggs that, among other things, come from hens that have been vaccinated against Salmonella.
One of the most common food allergies in infants is eggs. Infants usually have the opportunity to grow out of this allergy during childhood, if exposure is minimized. Allergic reactions against egg white are more common than reactions against egg yolks.
In addition to true allergic reactions, some people experience a food intolerance to egg whites.
Food labeling practices in most developed countries now include eggs, egg products and the processing of foods on equipment that also process foods containing eggs in a special allergen alert section of the ingredients on the labels.
Most commercially farmed chicken eggs intended for human consumption are unfertilized, since the laying hens are kept without roosters. Fertile eggs can be eaten, with little nutritional difference to the unfertilized. Fertile eggs will not contain a developed embryo, as refrigeration temperatures inhibit cellular growth for an extended time. Sometimes an embryo is allowed to develop but eaten before hatching as with balut.
Grading by quality and size
The US Department of Agriculture grades eggs by the interior quality of the egg (see Haugh unit) and the appearance and condition of the egg shell. Eggs of any quality grade may differ in weight (size).
U.S. Grade AA
- Eggs have whites that are thick and firm; yolks that are high, round, and practically free from defects; and clean, unbroken shells.
- Grade AA and Grade A eggs are best for frying and poaching, where appearance is important.
U.S. Grade A
- Eggs have characteristics of Grade AA eggs except the whites are "reasonably" firm.
- This is the quality most often sold in stores.
U.S. Grade B
- Eggs have whites that may be thinner and yolks that may be wider and flatter than eggs of higher grades. The shells must be unbroken, but may show slight stains.
- This quality is seldom found in retail stores because they are usually used to make liquid, frozen, and dried egg products, as well as other egg-containing products.
Chicken eggs are also graded by size for the purpose of sales. Some maxi eggs can have double-yolk and some farms separate out double-yolk eggs for special sale.
Comparison of an egg and a maxi egg with a double-yolk - Closed (1/2)
Comparison of an egg and a maxi egg with a double-yolk - Opened (2/2)
Double-yolk egg - Opened
Washing and refrigeration
In North America, legislation requires eggs to be washed and refrigerated before being sold to consumers. This is to remove natural farm contaminants present in the cleanest farms and to prevent the growth of bacteria. In Europe legislation requires the opposite. Washing removes the natural protective cuticle on the egg and refrigeration causes condensation which may promote bacteria growth.
Color of eggshell
Although egg color is a largely cosmetic issue, with no effect on egg quality or taste, it is a major issue in production due to regional and national preferences for specific colors, and the results of such preferences on demand. For example, in most regions of the United States, chicken eggs are generally white. In some parts of the northeast of that country, particularly New England, where a television jingle for years proclaimed "brown eggs are local eggs, and local eggs are fresh!", brown eggs are more common. Local chicken breeds, including the Rhode Island Red, lay brown eggs. Brown eggs are also preferred in Costa Rica, Ireland, France, and the United Kingdom. In Brazil and Poland, white chicken eggs are generally regarded as industrial, and brown or reddish ones are preferred. Small farms and smallholdings, particularly in economically advanced nations, may sell eggs of widely varying colors and sizes, with combinations of white, brown, speckled (red), green, and blue eggs in the same box or carton, while the supermarkets at the same time sell mostly eggs from the larger producers, of the color preferred in that nation or region.
These cultural trends have been observed for many years. The New York Times reported during the Second World War that housewives in Boston preferred brown eggs and those in New York preferred white eggs. In February 1976, the British New Scientist magazine, in discussing issues of chicken egg color, stated "Housewives are particularly fussy about the colour of their eggs, preferring even to pay more for brown eggs although white eggs are just as good". As a result of these trends, brown eggs are usually more expensive to purchase in regions where white eggs are considered 'normal', due to lower production. In France and the United Kingdom it is very difficult to buy white eggs, with most supermarkets supplying only the more popular brown eggs. By direct contrast, in Egypt it is very hard to source brown eggs, as demand is almost entirely for white ones, with the country's largest supplier describing white eggs as "table eggs" and packaging brown eggs for export.
Research conducted in France in the 1970s demonstrated blue chicken eggs (as laid by certain breeds, including araucanas, heritage skyline, and cream legbar) can be stronger and more resilient to breakage, yet an article in New Scientist magazine (contemporary with that research) stated there was little to no demand for blue-colored eggs from housewives, despite the clear advantages.
Research at Nihon University, Japan in 1990 revealed a number of different issues were important to Japanese housewives when deciding which eggs to buy; however, color was a distinct factor, with most Japanese housewives preferring the white color.
Egg producers carefully consider cultural issues, as well as commercial ones, when selecting the breed or breeds of chicken used for production, as egg color varies between breeds. Among producers and breeders, brown eggs are often referred to as "tinted", while the speckled eggs preferred by some consumers are often referred to as being "red" in color.
Living conditions of birds
Commercial factory farming operations often involve raising the hens in small, crowded cages, preventing the chickens from engaging in natural behaviors, such as wing-flapping, dust-bathing, scratching, pecking, perching and nest-building. Such restrictions can lead to pacing and escape behavior.
Many hens confined to battery cages, and some raised in cage-free conditions, are debeaked to prevent harming each other and cannibalism. According to critics of the practice, this can cause hens severe pain to the point where some may refuse to eat and starve to death. Some hens may be force molted to increase egg quality and production level after the molting. Molting can be induced by extended feed withdrawal, water withdrawal or controlled lighting programs.
Laying hens are often slaughtered between 100 and 130 weeks of age, when their egg productivity starts to decline. Due to modern selective breeding, laying hen strains differ from meat production strains. As male birds of the laying strain do not lay eggs and are not suitable for meat production, they are generally killed soon after they hatch.Free-range eggs are considered by some advocates to be an acceptable substitute to factory-farmed eggs. Free-range laying hens are given outdoor access instead of being contained in crowded cages. Questions on the actual living conditions of free-range hens have been raised in the United States of America, as there is no legal definition or regulations for eggs labeled as free-range in that country.
|Top five Chicken eggs (in shell) producers (2012, in tonnes)|
In the United States, increased public concern for
- British Egg Industry and the Lion Mark
- Henderson's Chicken Breed Chart
- Fact Sheet on FDA's Proposed Regulation: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production
- 4-H Embryology and EGG Cam University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County
- How long it takes to boil an egg at different temperatures and altitudes.
- Egg Safety U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2011)
- Shell Eggs from Farm to Table United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (2011)
- Egg Basics for the Consumer: Packaging, Storage, and Nutritional Information. (2007) University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. Accessed 23 May 2014.
- Kenneth F. Kiple, A Movable Feast: Ten Millennia of Food Globalization (2007), p. 22.
- Agricultural Marketing Service. "How to Buy Eggs". Home and Garden Bulletin (United States Department of Agriculture (
- Howe, Juliette C.; Williams, Juhi R.; Holden, Joanne M. (March 2004). "USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods". United States Department of Agriculture (
-  WATT Ag Net – Watt Publishing Co
- McGee, Harold (2004). McGee on Food and Cooking. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 70.
- Brothwell, Don R.; Patricia Brothwell (1997). Food in Antiquity: A Survey of the Diet of Early Peoples.
- Montagne, Prosper (2001).
- Stadelman, William (1995). Egg Science and Technology. Haworth Press. pp. 221–223.
- Easterday, Jim (21 April 2005). "The Coyle Egg-Safety Carton". Hiway16 Magazine. Retrieved 21 April 2008.
- Li Chunmei (李春梅 lǐ chūn méi) and Liu Jia (刘佳 liú jiā) (213). 舌尖上的中国 - 中国美食全典 (in Chinese).
- Roux, Michel; Martin Brigdale (2006). Eggs. Wiley. p. 8.
- Stadelman, William (1995). Egg Science and Technology. Haworth Press. p. 1.
- "Information on chicken breeds" (PDF). Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- Wong, M.; Hendrix, M.J.; van der Mark, K.; Little, C.; Stern, R. (July 1984). "Collagen in the egg shell membranes of the hen". Dev Biol 104 (1): 28–36.
- Ornithology, Volume 1994 By Frank B. Gill p. 361
- F. Karadas et al., Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition. Br Poult Sci. 2006 Oct;47(5):561-6. Karadas, F.; Grammenidis, E.; Surai, P. F.; Acamovic, T.; Sparks, N. H. C. (2006). "Effects of carotenoids from lucerne, marigold and tomato on egg yolk pigmentation and carotenoid composition". British Poultry Science 47 (5): 561–566.
- Shell eggs from farm to table. USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, (2011).
- Evenepoel, P., Geypens, B., Luypaerts, A., Hiele, M., Ghoos, Y., & Rutgeerts, P. (1998). Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope Techniques. The Journal of Nutrition, 128 (10), 1716–1722. abstract
- Anne Schaafsma, Gerard M Beelen (1999). "Eggshell powder, a comparable or better source of calcium than purified calcium carbonate: piglet studies". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79 (12): 1596–1600.
- Marian Burros, "What the Egg Was First", The New York Times, 7 February 2007
- "Important Cooking Temperatures". Edinformatics.com. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- Vega, César; Mercadé-Prieto, Ruben (2011). "Culinary Biophysics: On the Nature of the 6X°C Egg". Food Biophysics 6 (1): 152–9.
- Schuman JD, Sheldon BW, Vandepopuliere JM, Ball HR (October 1997). "Immersion heat treatments for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis with intact eggs". Journal of Applied Microbiology 83 (4): 438–44.
- Why American Eggs Would Be Illegal In A British Supermarket, And Vice Versa
- How to Store Fresh Eggs Mother Earth News, November/December (1977)
- Stadelman, William (1995). Egg Science and Technology. Haworth Press. pp. 479–480.
- "Food and Agriculture Organization article on eggs". Fao.org. Archived from the original on 7 March 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Vitamin A, RAE Content of Selected Foods per Common Measure, sorted by nutrient content". United States Department of Agriculture (
- "Natural Sources Of Coenzyme Q10 In Foods". Livestrong.Com. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "University Science article on eggs and cholesterol". Unisci.com. 29 October 2001. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Eggs and fetal brain development". Pdrhealth.com. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- Long, Cheryl; Alterman, Tabitha (October–November 2007). "Meet Real Free-Range Eggs". Mother Earth News
- Jones, Deana; Musgrove, Michael; Anderson, K. E.; Thesmar, H. S. (2010). "Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs". Poultry Science 89 (3): 582–587.
- Evenepoel, P; Geypens B, Luypaerts A et al. (October 1998). "Digestibility of cooked and raw egg protein in humans as assessed by stable isotope techniques". The Journal of Nutrition 128 (10): 1716–1722.
- "Eggs – No Yolking Matter." Nutrition Action Health Letter, July/August 1997.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2007. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 20. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
- Weggemans RM, Zock PL, Katan MB (2001). "Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73 (5): 885–91.
- Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, et al. (1999). "A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women". JAMA 281 (15): 1387–94.
- Hu, Frank; Stampfer, Meir; Rimm, Eric; Manson, JoAnn; Ascherio, Alberto; Colditz, Graham; Rosner, Bernard; Spiegelman, Donna et al. (21 April 1999). "A prospective study of egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease in men and women.". JAMA (Boston: Harvard School of Public Health) 281 (15): 1387–1394.
- Djoussé, L; Gaziano, JM; Buring, JE; Lee, IM (2009). "Egg Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Men and Women". Diabetes Care (Biowizard.com) 32 (2): 295–300.
- "Egg consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults". American Society for Nutrition. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
- Li, Y; Zhou, C; Zhou, X; Li, L (2013). "Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis". Atherosclerosis 229 (2): 524–530.
- Shin JY, Xun P, Nakamura Y, He K (July 2013). "Egg consumption in relation to risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Am J Clin Nutr 98 (1): 146–59.
- Patterson, Kristine. "USDA Database for the Choline Content of Common Foods". U.S. Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
- Wang, Zeneng (7 April 2011). "Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease". Nature 472 (7341): 57–65.
- Willyard, Cassandra (30 January 2013). "Pathology: At the heart of the problem". Nature 493.
- Tang, W.H. Wilson (25 April 2013). "Intestinal Microbial Metabolism of Phosphatidylcholine and Cardiovascular Risk". New England Journal of Medicine 368 (17): 1575–1584.
- Qureshi AI, Suri FK, Ahmed S, Nasar A, Divani AA, Kirmani JF (2007). "Regular egg consumption does not increase the risk of stroke and cardiovascular diseases". Med. Sci. Monit. 13 (1): CR1–8.
- Schärer M, Schulthess G (2005). "[Egg intake and cardiovascular risk]". Ther Umsch (in German) 62 (9): 611–3.
- Egg Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality The Physicians' Health Study
- Rong, Ying; Chen, Li; Tingting, Zhu; Yadong, Song; Yu, Miao; Shan, Zhilei; Sands, Amanda; Hu, Frank B et al. (2013). "Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies". British Medical Journal 346 (e8539).
- Nathan Gray. "No link between eggs and heart disease or stroke, says BMJ meta-analysis." January 25, 2013.
- Li, Y; Zhou, C; Zhou, X; Li, L (2013). "Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis". Atherosclerosis 229 (2): 524–530.
- Kimura, Akiko C. et al.; Reddy, V; Marcus, R; Cieslak, PR; Mohle-Boetani, JC; Kassenborg, HD; Segler, SD; Hardnett, FP et al. (2004). "Chicken Consumption Is a Newly Identified Risk Factor for Sporadic Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Infections in the United States: A Case-Control Study in FoodNet Sites". Clinical Infectious Diseases 38: S244–S252.
- Little, C.L et al.; Surman-Lee, S; Greenwood, M; Bolton, FJ; Elson, R; Mitchell, RT; Nichols, GN; Sagoo, SK et al. (2007). "Public health investigations of Salmonella Enteritidis in catering raw shell eggs, 2002–2004". Letters in Applied Microbiology (Blackwell Publishing) 44 (6): 595–601.
- Stephens, N. et al.; Sault, C; Firestone, SM; Lightfoot, D; Bell, C (2007). "Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 infections associated with the consumption of products containing raw egg in Tasmania". Communicable diseases intelligence (Blackwell Publishing) 31 (1): 118–24.
- Knowledge Guide, British Egg Information Service. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
- Lion Code of Practice. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
- Farming UK news article. Retrieved 26 February 2010.
- Egg Allergy Brochure, distributed by Royal Prince Alfred Hospital
- "Egg Allergy Facts" Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America
- Arnaldo Cantani (2008). Pediatric Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Berlin: Springer. pp. 710–713.
- "Requirements for the Egg Industry in the 2001 Welfare Code". Retrieved 23 January 2011.
- Merwin, Hugh (25 November 2014). "Noticed November 25, 2014 10:00 a.m. You Can Now Buy Double-Yolk Eggs by the Dozen". Grub Street. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- Arumugam, Nadia (25 October 2012). "Why American Eggs Would Be Illegal In A British Supermarket, And Vice Versa".
- See New York Times historical archive for details – link opens on correct page.
- A Blue Story.
- Evidence cited here .
- El-banna company website, product information, available here .
- Blue eggs, sometimes thought a joke, are a reality, as reported here , for example.
- Results of the study are published here.
- Virtually any on-line chicken supply company will state the egg colour of each breed supplied. This is one example.
- See the egg color chart of the Marans Club – Marans is a chicken breed.
- "Scientists and Experts on Battery Cages and Laying Hen Welfare". Hsus.org. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Eggs and force-moulting". Ianrpubs.unl.edu. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Commercial Egg Production and Processing". Ag.ansc.purdue.edu. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Egg laying and male birds". Vegsoc.org. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Free-range eggs". Cok.net. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Statistics from: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division". UN
- United Egg Producers Certified Program
- "Wondering What The "UEP Certified" Logo Means?". Hsus.org. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Egg Labels". EggIndustry.com. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- The Humane Society of the United States. "A Brief Guide to Egg Carton Labels and Their Relevance to Animal Welfare". Hsus.org. Archived from the original on 18 May 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "EUR-Lex – 31999L0074 – EN". Eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- Vegetarian Society. "Egg Production & Welfare".
- Stewart RM. Durnian JM. Briggs MC; Durnian; Briggs (2006). Here's egg in your eye": a prospective study of blunt ocular trauma resulting from thrown eggs""". Emergency Medicine Journal 23 (10): 756–758.
Although a food item, eggs are sometimes thrown at houses, cars, or people. This act, known commonly as "egging" in the various English-speaking countries, is a minor form of vandalism and, therefore, usually a criminal offense and is capable of damaging property (egg whites can degrade certain types of vehicle paint) as well as causing serious eye injury. On Halloween, for example, trick or treaters have been known to throw eggs (and sometimes flour) at property or people from whom they received nothing. Eggs are also often thrown in protests, as they are inexpensive and nonlethal, yet very messy when broken.
The tradition of a dancing egg is held during the feast of Corpus Christi in Barcelona and other Catalan cities since the 16th century. It consists of an emptied egg, positioned over the water jet from a fountain, which starts turning without falling.
A popular Easter tradition in some parts of the world is the decoration of hard-boiled eggs (usually by dyeing, but often by spray-painting). Adults often hide the eggs for children to find, an activity known as an Easter egg hunt. A similar tradition of egg painting exists in areas of the world influenced by the culture of Persia. Before the spring equinox in the Persian New Year tradition (called Norouz), each family member decorates a hard-boiled egg and sets them together in a bowl.
In battery cage and free-range egg production, unwanted male chicks are killed at birth during the process of securing a further generation of egg-laying hens.
Killing of male chicks
Effective 1 January 2012, the European Union banned conventional battery cages for egg-laying hens, as outlined in EU Directive 1999/74/EC. The EU permits the use of "enriched" furnished cages that must meet certain space and amenity requirements. Egg producers in many member states have objected to the new quality standards while in some countries even furnished cages and family cages are subject to be banned as well. The production standard of the eggs is visible on the mandatory egg marking where the EU egg code begins with 3 for caged chicken to 1 for free-range eggs and 0 for organic egg production.