European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Member states that have signed and ratified in dark green, those that have signed but not ratified in light green, those that have neither signed nor ratified white, non-member states of the Council of Europe grey. Source: the list of signatories at the Council of Europe website.
|Signed||5 November 1992|
|Effective||1 March 1998|
|Condition||Ratification by 5 States|
|Depositary||Secretary General of the Council of Europe|
|Languages||English and French|
|European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages at Wikisource|
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. The preparation for the charter was undertaken by the predecessor to the current Congress of Local and Regional Authorities, the Standing Conference of Local and Regional Authorities of Europe because involvement of local and regional government was essential. The actual charter was written in the Parliamentary Assembly based on the Congress' Recommendations. It only applies to languages traditionally used by the nationals of the State Parties (thus excluding languages used by recent immigrants from other states, see immigrant languages), which significantly differ from the majority or official language (thus excluding what the state party wishes to consider as mere local dialects of the official or majority language) and that either have a territorial basis (and are therefore traditionally spoken by populations of regions or areas within the State) or are used by linguistic minorities within the State as a whole (thereby including such languages as Yiddish and Romani, which are used over a wide geographic area).
Languages that are official within regions, provinces or federal units within a State (for example Catalan in Spain) are not classified as official languages of the State and may therefore benefit from the Charter. On the other hand, Ireland has not been able to sign the Charter on behalf of the Irish language (although a minority language) as it is defined as the first official language of the state. The United Kingdom has ratified the Charter in respect to (among other languages) Welsh in Wales and Irish in Northern Ireland. France, although a signatory, has been constitutionally blocked from ratifying the Charter in respect to the languages of France.
The charter provides a large number of different actions state parties can take to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages. There are two levels of protection—all signatories must apply the lower level of protection to qualifying languages. Signatories may further declare that a qualifying language or languages will benefit from the higher level of protection, which lists a range of actions from which states must agree to undertake at least 35.
Languages protected under the Charter
Countries that have ratified the Charter, and languages for which the ratification was made:
Armenia ratification: 25 January 2002
Bosnia and Herzegovina ratification: 21 September 2010
Croatia ratification: 5 November 1997
Cyprus ratification: 26 August 2002
Czech Republic ratification: 15 November 2006
Finland ratification: 9 November 1994
Hungary ratification: 26 April 1995
Liechtenstein ratification: 18 November 1997
Luxembourg ratification: 22 June 2005
Montenegro ratification: 15 February 2006
Netherlands ratification: 2 May 1996
Part II applied to:
Part III applied to:
Slovakia ratification: 5 September 2001
Slovenia ratification: 4 October 2000
Spain ratification: 9 April 2001
Sweden ratification: 9 February 2000
Switzerland ratification: 23 December 1997
Ukraine ratification: 19 September 2005
Ukraine does not specify languages by name, but rather ratifies on behalf of "the languages of the following ethnic minorities of Ukraine": Not counted are Rusyns (Ruthenians), because Ukraine (unlike neighboring countries) denies them separate ethnic and linguistic status.
United Kingdom ratification : 27 March 2001
All languages are ratified as applicable to the territory of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, except Manx, which is ratified on behalf of the Crown dependency of the Isle of Man.
- European languages
- Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities
- Languages of the European Union
- Language policy in France
- Linguistic rights
- List of Linguistic Rights in Constitutions (Europe)
- Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights
Notes and references
- Austria has ratified the Charter for each language in respect of specific Länder
- Notes Verbales accompanying the Danish ratification specified that, whilst the Charter was not going to be ratified in respect of the two languages, Faroese and Greenlandic are each official in their respective territories
- Germany has ratified the Charter for each language in respect of specific Länder
- "Report of the Committee of Experts on Luxembourg, December 2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-01-30.
- Report clarifying Norway's implementation of the Charter
- "List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. 148". Conventions.coe.int.
- Romanian law no. 282/2007
- Ratified as Serbia and Montenegro on December 22, 2005
-  Aplicación de la Carta en España, Segundo ciclo de supervisión. Estrasburgo, 11 de diciembre de 2008. A.1.3.28 pag 7 ; A.2.2.5 pag 107
- As of July 2007, Ukraine's entry on the Council of Europe site states the following Ukraine declares that the provisions of the Charter shall apply to the languages of the following ethnic minorities of Ukraine : Byelorussian, Bulgarian, Gagauz, Greek, Jewish, Crimean Tatar, Moldavian, German, Polish, Russian, Romanian, Slovak and Hungarian.
- European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages text
- More information on the treaty
- Charter website
- Eurolang (News agency about minority languages in Europe)
- Explanatory Report on the Charter
- lexpress.fr (French)
- Application of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages,Doc. 12881