Forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock. Historically, the term forage has meant only plants eaten by the animals directly as pasture, crop residue, or immature cereal crops, but it is also used more loosely to include similar plants cut for fodder and carried to the animals, especially as hay or silage. The term forage fish refers to small schooling fish that are preyed on by larger aquatic animals.
While the term forage has a broad definition, the term forage crop is used to define crops, annual or biennial, which are grown to be utilized by grazing or harvesting as a whole crop.
Common forages 1
- Grasses 1.1
- Herbaceous legumes 1.2
- Tree legumes 1.3
- Silage 1.4
- Crop residue 1.5
- See also 2
- References 3
Grass forages include:
- Agrostis spp. – bentgrasses
- Andropogon hallii – sand bluestem
- Arrhenatherum elatius – false oat-grass
- Bothriochloa bladhii – Australian bluestem
- Bothriochloa pertusa – hurricane grass
- Brachiaria decumbens – Surinam grass
- Brachiaria humidicola – koronivia grass
- Bromus spp. – bromegrasses
- Cenchrus ciliaris – buffelgrass
- Chloris gayana – Rhodes grass
- Cynodon dactylon – bermudagrass
- Dactylis glomerata – orchard grass
- Echinochloa pyramidalis – antelope grass
- Entolasia imbricata – bungoma grass
- Festuca spp. – fescues
- Heteropogon contortus – black spear grass
- Hymenachne amplexicaulis – West Indian marsh grass
- Hyparrhenia rufa – jaragua
- Leersia hexandra – southern cutgrass
- Lolium spp. – ryegrasses
- Megathyrsus maximus – Guinea grass
- Melinis minutiflora – molasses grass
- Paspalum dilatatum – dallisgrass
- Phalaris arundinacea – reed canarygrass
- Phleum pratense – timothy
- Poa spp. – bluegrasses, meadow-grasses
- Setaria sphacelata – African bristlegrass
- Themeda triandra – kangaroo grass
- Thinopyrum intermedium – intermediate wheatgrass
Herbaceous legume forages include:
- Arachis pintoi – pinto peanut
- Chamaecrista rotundifolia – roundleaf sensitive pea
- Clitoria ternatea – butterfly-pea
- Lotus corniculatus – bird's-foot trefoil
- Macroptilium atropurpureum – purple bush-bean
- Macroptilium bracteatum – burgundy bean
- Medicago spp. – medics
- Melilotus spp. – sweetclovers
- Neonotonia wightii – perennial soybean
- Onobrychis viciifolia – common sainfoin
- Stylosanthes spp. – stylo
- Trifolium spp. – clovers
- Vicia spp. – vetches
- Vigna parkeri – creeping vigna
Tree legume forages include:
- Acacia aneura – mulga
- Albizia spp. – silk trees
- Albizia canescens – Belmont siris
- Albizia lebbeck – lebbeck
- Enterolobium cyclocarpum – earpodtree
- Leucaena leucocephala – leadtree
Silage may be composed by the following:
Crop residues used as forage include:
- Corn or soybean stover
- Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 595.
- Fageria, N.K. (1997). Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. NY,NY: Marcel Dekker. p. 583.
- Karpouzi V, R Watson and D Pauly (2006) "Forage fish consumption by marine mammals and seabirds" Fisheries Centre Research Reports, 14 (3): 33–46.
- Givens, D. Ian (2000). Forage evaluation in ruminant nutrition. CABI. p. 1.
- Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. pp. 19–20.
- Murphy, B. (1998). Greener Pastures On Your Side of the Fence. Colchester, Vermont: Arriba Publishing. p. 20.
- George, J. R. (1994). Extension Publications: Forage and Grain Crops. Dubuque,Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. p. 152.