The family of Sigmund Freud, the pioneer of psychoanalysis, lived in Austria and Germany until the 1930s before emigrating to England, Canada and the United States. Several of Freud's descendants have become well known in different fields.
- Freud's parents and siblings 1
- Persecution and emigration 2
- Freud's children and descendants 3
- References 4
- Bibliography 5
- External links 6
Freud's parents and siblings
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) was born to Jewish Galician parents in the Moravian town of Příbor (German: Freiberg), which was then in the Austrian Empire, now in the Czech Republic. He was the eldest child of Jacob Freud (1815–1896), a wool merchant, and his third wife Amalia Nathansohn (1835–1930). Jacob Freud had two children from his first marriage to Sally Kanner (1829–1852):
- Emanuel (1833–1914)
- Philipp (1836–1911)
Jacob's second marriage (1852–1855) to Rebecca (origin uncertain) was childless. With Amalia he had eight children:
- Sigmund (birth name Sigismund Schlomo; 6 May 1856–23 September 1939)
- Julius (October 1857–15 April 1858)
- Anna (31 December 1858–11 March 1955)
- Regina Debora (nickname Rosa; born 21 March 1860, deported 23 September 1942)
- Marie (nickname Mitzi; born 22 March 1861, deported 23 September 1942)
- Esther Adolfine (nickname Dolfi; 23 July 1862–5 February 1943, deported)
- Pauline Regine (nickname Pauli; born 3 May 1864, deported 23 September 1942)
- Alexander Gotthold Ephraim (19 April 1866–23 April 1943)
Julius Freud died in infancy. Anna married Ely Bernays (1860–1921), the brother of Sigmund's wife Martha. There were four daughters: Judith (b. 1885), Lucy (b. 1886), Hella (b. 1893), Martha (b. 1894) and one son, Edward (1891–1995). In 1892 the family moved to the United States where Edward Bernays became a major influence in modern public relations.
Rosa (Regina Deborah Graf-Freud) married a doctor, Heinrich Graf (1852–1908). Their son, Hermann (1897-1917) was killed in the First World War; their daughter, Cacilie (1899-1922), committed suicide after an unhappy love affair.
Mitzi (Maria Moritz-Freud) married her cousin Moritz Freud (1857–1922). There were three daughters: Margarethe (b. 1887), Lily (b. 1888), Martha (1892-1930) and one son, Theodor (b. 1904) who died in a drowning accident aged 23. Martha, who was known as Tom and dressed as a man, worked as a children’s book illustrator. After the suicide of her husband, Jakob Seidman, a journalist, she took her own life. Lily became an actress and in 1917 married the actor Arnold Marlé.
Dolfi (Esther Adolfine Freud) did not marry and remained in the family home to care for her parents.
Pauli (Pauline Regine Winternitz-Freud) married Valentine Winternitz (1859–1900) and emigrated to the United States where their daughter Rose Beatrice was born in 1896. After the death of her husband she and her daughter returned to Europe.
Alexander Freud married Sophie Sabine Schreiber (b. 1878). Their son, Harry, born in 1909, emigrated to the United States and died in 1968.
Both Freud’s half-brothers emigrated to Manchester, England, shortly before the rest of the Freud family moved from Leipzig to Vienna in 1860.
Emanuel and Marie Freud (1836–1923) married in Freiberg where their first two children were born: John (b. 1856, disappeared pre-1919), the "inseparable playmate" of Freud’s early childhood; and Pauline (1855–1944). Two children were born in Manchester: Bertha (1866–1940) and Samuel (1870–1945). Freud kept in touch with his British relatives through a regular correspondence with Samuel. They would eventually meet for the first time in London in 1938.
Philipp Freud married Bloomah Frankel (b. 1845 Birmingham, d.1925 Manchester). There were two children: Pauline (1873–1951) who married Fred Hartwig (1881–1958); and Morris (b. 1875 Manchester, d.1938 Port Elizabeth, South Africa).
Persecution and emigration
The Holocaust had a profound effect on the family. Four of Freud's five sisters died in concentration camps: Rosa in Auschwitz, Mitzi in Theresienstadt, Dolfi and Paula in Treblinka. Freud's brother, Alexander, escaped with his family to Switzerland shortly before the Anschluss and they subsequently emigrated to Canada. Freud's sons Oliver, a civil engineer, and Ernst Ludwig, an architect, lived and worked in Berlin until Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933 after which they fled with their families to France and London respectively. Oliver Freud and his wife later emigrated to the United States. Their daughter, Eva, remained in France with her fiance where she died of influenza in 1944.
Freud and his remaining family left Nazi-occupied Vienna in 1938 after Ernest Jones, the then President of the International Psychoanalytic Association, secured immigration permits for them to move to Britain. Permits were also secured for Freud’s housekeeper and maid, his doctor, Max Schur and his family, as well as a number of Freud's colleagues and their families. Freud's grandson, Ernst Halberstadt, was the first to leave Vienna, initially for Paris, before going on to London where after the war he would adopt the name Ernest Freud and train as a psychoanalyst. Next to leave for Paris were Esti, Sophie and Walter Freud, the wife and children of Freud's eldest son, Martin. Mother and daughter remained in France and subsequently emigrated to the United States, whilst Walter joined his father in London. Freud’s sister-in-law, Minna Bernays, was the first to leave for London early in May 1938. She was followed by his son, Martin, on 14 May and then his daughter Mathilde and her husband, Robert Hollitscher, on 24 May. Freud, his wife and daughter, Anna, left Vienna on 4 June, accompanied by their household staff and a doctor. Their arrival at Victoria Station, London on 6 June attracted widespread press coverage. Freud’s Vienna consulting room was replicated in faithful detail in the new family home, 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead, North London.
Two Freuds were to return to Austria as members of the allied forces. Walter Freud was parachuted behind enemy lines as a member of the SOE in April 1945. Advised to change his name in case of capture, he refused, declaring “I want the Germans to know a Freud is coming back”. He narrowly survived capture after separation from his comrades and single-handedly secured the surrender of the strategically important Zeltweg aerodrome in southern Austria. Alexander Freud’s son, Harry, returned to post-war Vienna as a US army officer to investigate the fate of his aunts and to bring before the courts Anton Sauerwald, the Nazi appointed official who took control of Freud’s assets and those of the International Psychoanalytic Association.
Freud's children and descendants
Sigmund Freud married Martha Bernays (1861–1951) in 1886. Martha was the daughter of Berman Bernays (1826–1879) and Emmeline Philipp (1830–1910). Her grandfather, Isaac Bernays (1792–1849), was a Chief Rabbi of Hamburg. Her sister, Minna Bernays (1865-1941), became a permanent member of the Freud household after the death of her fiancé in 1895.
Sigmund and Martha Freud had six children and eight grandchildren:
- Mathilde Freud (1887–1978) married Robert Hollitscher (1875–1959), and had no children
Jean-Martin Freud (1889–1967, known as Martin Freud) married Esti Drucker (1896–1980), and had 2 children:
Anton Walter Freud (1921–2004) married Annette Krarup (1925–2000); 3 children
David Freud (born 1950, later Lord Freud), married and had 3 children:
- Andrew Freud
- Emily Freud
- Juliet Freud
- Ida Freud (born 1952), married N. Fairbairn
- Caroline Freud (born 1955), married N. Penney
Sophie Freud (born 1924) married Paul Loewenstein (born 1921), and had 3 children:
- Andrea Freud Loewenstein
- Dania Loewenstein, married N. Jekel
Oliver Freud (1891–1969) married Henny Fuchs (1892–1971), and had 1 child:
- Eva Freud (1924–1944)
Ernst Ludwig Freud (1892–1970) married Lucie Brasch (1896–1989), and had 3 children:
Stephan Freud (born 1921, known as Stephen Freud) married (i) Lois Blake (born 1924); (ii) Christine Ann Potter (born 1927). From his marriage to Lois Blake he had 1 child:
- Dorothy Freud
Lucian Freud (1922–2011) married (i) Kathleen Garman (1926–2011), 2 children; (ii) Lady Caroline Blackwood (1931–1996). He also had 4 children by Suzy Boyt, 4 by Katherine McAdam (died 1998), 2 by Bernardine Coverley (died 2011), 1 by Jacquetta Eliot, Countess of St Germans and 1 by Celia Paul. His children include:
- Annie Freud (born 1948)
- Annabel Freud (born 1952)
- Alexander Boyt (born 1957)
- Jane McAdam Freud (born 1958)
- Paul McAdam Freud (born 1959)
- Rose Boyt
- Lucy McAdam Freud (born 1961) married Peter Everett; 2 children
- Bella Freud (born 1961) married James Fox; 1 child
- Isobel Boyt (born 1961)
- Esther Freud (born 1963) married David Morrissey; 3 children
- David McAdam Freud (born 1964), 4 children. Partner of Debbi Mason
- Susie Boyt (born 1969) married to Tom Astor; 2 children
- Francis Michael Eliot (born 1971)
- Frank Paul (born 1984)
Clement Freud (1924–2009, later Sir Clement Freud) married June Flewett (stage name Jill Raymond) in 1950 and had 5 children:
Nicola Freud, who had 3 children:
- Tom Freud (born 1973)
- Jack Freud, married to Kate Melhuish
- Martha Freud
- Dominic Freud (born 1956) married to Patty Freud, and had 3 children (Nicholas, 21, Joshua, 19, and Sophie, 17)
- Emma Freud (born 1962) partner of Richard Curtis, and had 4 children
- Matthew Freud (born 1963) married: (i) Caroline Hutton, and had 2 children; (ii) Elisabeth Murdoch, and had 2 children
- Ashley Freud (adopted nephew)
Sophie Freud (1893–1920) married Max Halberstadt (1882–1940), and had 2 sons:
Ernst Halberstadt (1914–2008, also known as Ernest Freud) married Irene Chambers (born 1920), and had 1 child:
- Colin Peter Freud (1956–1987)
- Heinz Halberstadt (1918–1923, also known as Heinele)
- Anna Freud (1895–1982)
- Gresser, Moshe (1994). Dual Allegiance: Freud As a Modern Jew. SUNY Press. p. 225.
- Hergenhahn, B. R. (2005). An introduction to the history of psychology. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 475.
- "Amalia Malka Freud-Nathanson". Answers.
- Young-Bruehl 2008, p. 96
- Arnold Marlé at the Internet Movie Database
- Cohen 2009, pp. 205–207, 233
- "Register of Harry Freud's papers". Library of Congress. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Jones 1953, p. 9
- Cohen 2009, p. 176
- Young-Bruehl 2008, p. 279
- Fry 2009, p. 93
- Fry 2009, pp. 143, 161–163
- Cohen 2009, p. 2
- Clark 1980, pp. 1–2
- "Walter Freud obituary". The Guardian. 9 March 2004. Retrieved 24 April 2009.
- "Freudian split".
- "Freud's offspring lead noted lives".
- Adam Lusher (12 July 2008). "Stephen Freud Interview". Telegraph. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- "Did Lucian Freud love his art more than his children?". Daily Mail. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- "My life as Lucian Freud's love child". Daily Telegraph. 20 June 2011. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
- Jill Raymond at the Internet Movie Database
- "Meet the Freuds". Evening Standard. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2009.
- "People, Jun. 10, 1974".
- "A multi-talented miserabilist". Daily Express. 17 April 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- Benveniste, Daniel (December 2008). "Obituary: W. Ernest Freud (1914–2008)". International Psychoanalysis 17.
- Clark, Ronald W. (1980). Freud: the Man and His Cause. London: Jonathan Cape.
- Cohen, David (2009). The Escape of Sigmund Freud. London: JR Books.
- Fry, Helen (2009). Freuds' War. Stroud: The History Press.
- Jones, Ernest (1953, 1955, 1957). Sigmund Freud: Life and Work (3 vols.). London: Hogarth Press.
- Young-Bruehl, Elizabeth (2008). Anna Freud. Yale University Press.
- Maria Helena Rowell: Sigmund Freud and his Family at the Wayback Machine (archived October 27, 2009)
- Sigmund Freud and his Family on Rodovid