Gentianaceae

Gentianaceae

Gentian family
Gentiana acaulis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Gentianaceae
Juss.[1]
Type genus
Gentiana
L.

Gentianaceae is a family of flowering plants of 87 genera and about 1600 species.[2]

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • Distribution 2
  • Characteristics 3
  • Ecology 4
  • Uses 5
  • Taxonomy 6
    • Tribes 6.1
    • Genera 6.2
  • Phylogeny 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Etymology

The family takes its name from the genus Gentiana, named after the Illyrian king Gentius.

Distribution

Distribution is cosmopolitan.

Characteristics

The family consists of trees, shrubs and herbs showing a wide range of colours and floral patterns. Flowers are actinomorphic and bisexual with fused sepals and petals. The stamens are attached to the inside of the petals (epipetalous) and alternate with the corolla lobes. There is a glandular disk at the base of the gynoecium, and flowers have parietal placentation. The inflorescence is cymose, with simple or complex cymes. The fruits are dehiscent septicidal capsules splitting into two halves, rarely some species have a berry. Seeds are small with copiously oily endosperms and a straight embryo. The habit varies from small trees, pachycaul shrubs to (usually) herbs, with ascending, erect or twining stems. Plants are usually rhizomatous. Leaves opposite, less often alternate or in some species whorled, simple in shape, with entire edges and bases connately attached to the stem. Stipules are absent. Plants usually accumulate bitter iridoid substances; bicollateral bundles are present. Ecologically, partial myco-heterotrophy is common among species in this family with a few genera such as Voyria and Voyriella lacking chlorophyll and being fully myco-heterotrophic.

Ecology

Some of these plants have limited ranges and are protected under governmental oversight. For example, Gentianella uliginosa (Dune Gentian), which occurs in some limited areas of Wales and Scotland, is a priority species under the Biodiversity Action Plan of the United Kingdom.

Uses

Economically, some species are cultivated ornamental plants and many species yield bitter principles used medicinally and in flavorings.

Taxonomy

The family was described for the first time by Antoine Laurent de Jussieu in 1789.

Tribes

  • tribe G.Don) Endl.
    • subtribe Canscorinae Thiv & Kadereit
    • subtribe Chironiinae G.Don
    • subtribe Coutoubeinae G.Don
  • tribe Exaceae Colla
  • tribe Gentianeae Colla
    • subtribe Gentianinae G.Don
    • subtribe Swertiinae (Griseb.) Rchb.
  • tribe Helieae Gilg
  • tribe Potalieae Rchb.
    • subtribe Faroinae Struwe & V.A.Albert
    • subtribe Lisianthiinae G.Don
    • subtribe Potaliinae (Mart.) Progel
  • tribe Saccifolieae (Maguire & Pires) Struwe, Thiv, V.A.Albert & Kadereit
  • incertae sedis Voyria

Genera

Phylogeny

Gentianaceae

Saccifolieae



Exaceae



Chironieae



Helieae


Potalieae


Gentianeae





References

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121.  
  2. ^ Struwe L, Albert VA (2002). Gentianaceae: systematics and natural history. Cambridge University Press.  

External links

  • Gentian Research Network