The same is true of the descendants of another Central Asian who settled down in Korea. A Central Asian named Seol Son fled to Korea when the Red Turban Rebellion erupted near the end of the Mongol’s Yuan dynasty. He, too, married a Korean, originating a lineage called the Gyeongju Seol that claims at least 2,000 members in Korea.
SojuSoju was first distilled around the 13th century, during the Mongol invasions of Korea. The Mongols had acquired the technique of distilling Arak from the Muslim World during their invasion of Central Asia and the Middle East around 1256, it was subsequently introduced to Koreans and distilleries were set up around the city of Kaesong. Indeed, in the area surrounding Kaesong, Soju is known as Arak-ju (hangul: 아락주). Under the reign of King Chungryeol, soju quickly became popular drink, while the stationed region of Mongolian troops came to produce high-quality soju, for instance in Andong.
Tripitaka Koreana (팔만대장경) is a Tripitaka with approximately 80,000 Buddhist scripts. The scripts are stored in Haeinsa, South Gyeongsang province. Made in 1251 by Gojong in an attempt to fight away the Mongol invasions by Buddhism. The scripts are kept clean by leaving them to dry outside every year.
The ceramics of Goryeo are considered by some to be the finest small-scale works of ceramics in Korean history. Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish and insects, and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays.
While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered bottles, larger low bowls or shallow smaller bowls, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware. Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.
Lacquerware with mother of pearl inlay
During the Goryeo period, lacquerware with mother-of-pearl inlay reached a high point of technical and aesthetic achievement and was widely used by members of the aristocracy for Buddhist ritual implements and vessels, as well as horse saddles and royal carriages. Inlaid lacquers combine texture, color, and shape to produce a dazzling effect in both large and small objects. Although Korean lacquerware of the Goryeo period was highly prized throughout East Asia, fewer than fifteen examples are known to have survived, one of which is this exquisite box in the Museum's collection. This paucity of material is largely attributable to the fragility of lacquer objects and, to a certain extent, to wars and raids by foreign powers, notably those launched from Japan by Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536–1598) in the late sixteenth century.
More info on Goryeo lacquerware
These ceramics are of a hard porcellaneous body with porcelain stone as one of the key ingredients; however, it is not to be confused with porcelain. The body is low clay, quartz rich, high potassia and virtually identical in composition to the Chinese Yueh ceramics which scholars hypothesize occasioned the first production of celadon in Korea. The glaze is an ash glaze with iron colourant, fired in a reduction atmosphere in a modified Chinese-style 'dragon' kiln. The distinctive blue-grey-green of Korean celadon is caused by the iron content of the glaze with a minimum of titanium contaminant, which modifies the color to a greener cast, as can be seen in Chinese Yueh wares. However, the Goryeo potters took the glaze in a different direction than their Chinese forebears; instead of relying solely on underglaze incised designs, they eventually developed the sanggam technique of inlaying black (magnetite) and white (quartz) which created bold contrast with the glaze. Scholars also theorize that this developed in part to an inlay tradition in Korean metalworks and lacquer, and also to the dissatisfaction with the nearly invisible effect of incising when done under a thick celadon glaze.
In 1234, the world's first metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in Goryeo. Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun were printed with the movable metal type in 1234. Technology in Korea took a big step in Goryeo and strong relation with the Song dynasty contributed to this. In the dynasty, Korean ceramics and paper, which come down to now, started to be manufactured.
During the late Goryeo Dynasty, Goryeo was at the cutting edge of shipboard artillery. In 1356 early experiments were carried out with gunpowder weapons that shot wood or metal projectiles. In 1373 experiments with incendiary arrows and "fire tubes" possibly an early form of the Hwacha were developed and placed on Korean warships. The policy of placing cannons and other gunpowder weapons continued well into the Joseon Dynasty and by 1410, over 160 Joseon warships had cannons on board. Choe Mu-seon, a medieval Korean inventor, military commander and scientist who introduced widespread use of gunpowder to Korea for the first time and creating various gunpowder based weapons.
- List of monarchs
- Family tree of the Kingdom of Goryeo
- List of Korea-related topics
- Names of Korea
- The History of the Koryo Dynasty (高麗史, the 1st source written in Hanja, the file type is PDF.) Seoul National Univ.
- , pp.102-103.
- , p. 89.
- , p. 51f: "From ancient times, Korea has been directly affected by changes occurring in the adjoining part of Asia, and her fate has been intertwined with continental Asiatic affairs. For example, it was during the chaotic period on the continent coinciding with the end of T'ang and the Five Dynasties (907-960) in China that Wang Kŏn was able to found the new dynasty without interference from the continent. But once the unification of Korea was completed, tribute was immediately sent to the various states of the Five Dynasties, and when Sung unified China in 960, Koryŏ rendered tribute to Sung. In each case this was necessary to enhance the authority of the ruler of Korea by the support of the ruler of China. ..."
- , , p. 171, at Google Books: "In the case of the Khitan Liao, two decades of military confrontation ended in 1020 with a negotiated settlement to transfer Goryeo’s vassal status from the Song to the Liao." "Liao forces invaded Goryeo territory in 993. ... the Khitans negotiated a peace that forced Goryeo to adopt the Liao calendar and end tributary relations with Song ... In 1010, on the pretext that the rightful king had been deposed without the approval of the Liao court, the Khitan emperor personally led an attack that culminated in the burning of the Goryeo capital. Several other confrontations followed until Goryeo reaffirmed its tributary relationship with Liao in 1020."
- , p. 106: "the Khitan army attacked Goryeo, who was forced to accept the status of a Liao tributary in 994."
- , pp.63-65. Yun cites Goryeosa 3:27a6–7.
- , p. 52: "In the thirteenth year of the reign of King Sŏngjong (994), Koryŏ submitted to the Khitan and adopted their calendar".
- Simons 1995, p. 95: "In 994, during the reign of King Songjong, Koryo was forced to acknowledged the dominance of Khitan".
- Yun 1998, p.64: "By the end of the negotiation, Sô Hûi had ... ostensibly for the purpose of securing safe diplomatic passage, obtained an explicit Khitan consent to incorporate the land between the Ch’ôngch’ôn and Amnok Rivers into Koryô territory."
- Hyun 2013, p.106: "Even though the Goryeo court agreed to set up tribute exchanges with the Liao court, that same year [=994] it also sent an envoy to the Song court to appeal, but in vain, for military assistance against the Khitan."
- Bowman 2013, p. 203: "Fearful of plots against him, Mokchong summons Kang Cho from his administrative post in the northwest. However, Kang Cho himself engineers a successful coup in which Mokchong is assassinated."
- Bowman 2013, p. 203: "Liao initiates a fresh attack on Koryo's northern border with the ostensible purpose of avenging the murdered Mokchong."
- Ebrey & Walthall 2014, , p. 171, at Google Books: "In 1010, on the pretext that the rightful king had been deposed without the approval of the Liao court, the Khitan emperor personally led an attack that culminated in the burning of the Goryeo capital."
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p. 111.
- Simons 1995, p. 93: "a second Liao incursion resulted in heavy losses, the sacking of Kaesong, and the imposition of Liao suzerainty over the Koryo state." p. 95: "a prelude to more invasions during the reign of King Hyonjong (1010-1031) and the occupation of Kaesong, the Koryo capital."
- Hatada, Smith Jr & Hazard 1969, p. 52: "in the reign of King Hyŏnjong (1010-1031) there were numerous Khitan invasions, and even the capital Kaesŏng was occupied."
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p. 112.
- Hyun 2013, p.10.
- Twitchett & Tietze 1994, p.112: "When in 1031 Hyǒnjong died, his son and successor Wang Hǔm (Tǒkchong; r. 1031-4) was invested as king by the Liao court. From this date until almost the end of the Liao, Koryǒ remained a loyal vassal, and peace prevailed between the two states."
- Song-nae Pak, 《Science and Technology in Korean History:Excursions, Innovations, and Issues》, Jain Publishing Company, 2005. ISBN 0895818388 pp.69-70
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- http://enc.daum.net/dic100/contents.do?query1=b18a0209a |Daum Encyclopædia Britannica
- Djun Kil Kim, 《The History of Korea: 2nd edition》, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610695828, p.76
- Kyong-suk Kang, 《Korean Ceramics》, Korea Foundation, 2008. ISBN 8986090309 p.97
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- Khubilai, who became khan of the Mongols and emperor of China in 1260, did not impose direct rule over most of Goryeo. Goryeo Korea, in contrast to Song China, was treated more like an Inner Asian power. The dynasty was allowed to survive, and intermarriage with Mongols was encouraged, even with the Mongol imperial family, while the marriage between Chinese and Mongols was strictly forbidden when the Song dynasty was ended.
- 국방부 군사편찬연구소, 고려시대 군사 전략 (2006) (The Ministry of National Defense, Military Strategies in Goryeo)
- Ed. Morris Rossabi - China among equals: the Middle Kingdom and its neighbors, 10th-14th centuries, p.244
- The Mongols Co-opt the Turks to Rule All under Heaven: Crippled the Dual-System and Expelled by Chinese Rebellion by Wontack Hong
- Baasanjavyin Lkhagvaa-Solongos, Mongol-Solongosyin harilstaanii ulamjlalaas, p.172
- Hyun 2013, p.3: "The Goryeo ... sent tributary missions to the Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han and Later Zhou successively, which Goryeo officials recognized as proper successors of the Tang, the new "centers" of China."
- Franke 1994, p. 229: "the king of Koryŏ declared himself a vassal of Chin in the summer of 1126."
- Ebrey & Walthall 2014, , p. 171, at Google Books: "In the case of the Jurchen Jin, the [Goryeo] court decided to transfer its tributary relationship from the Liao to Jin before serious violence broke out." Also p.172: "Koryŏ enrolled as a Jin tributary".
- Vermeersch, Sem. (2008). The Power of the Buddhas: the Politics of Buddhism during the Koryŏ Dynasty (918-1392), p. 3.
- Lee seung-yeon, 《On the formation of the Upper Monastic Area of Seon Buddhist Temples from Korea's Late Silla to the Goryeo Era》, Sungkyunkwan University, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. ISBN 3319000535 pp.7-9
- Hee-sung Keel, 《Chinul:The Founder of the Korean Son Tradition》, Jain Publishing Company, 1978. ISBN 0895811553. pp.6-10
- Shin ki-seop, 《Korea Annual》, Hapdong News Agency, p.76
- Djun Kil Kim, 《The History of Korea: 2nd edition》, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610695828, p.9
- Pyong-jo Chong, 《History of Buddhism》, Jimoondang, 2007. ISBN 8988095243 p.83
- Madhusudan Sakya, 〈Current Perspectives in Buddhism: Buddhism today / issues&global dimensions〉, Cyber Tech Publications, 2011. ISBN 8178847337. p.108
- Alexander Wynee, 《Buddhism: An Introduction》, I.B. Tauris, 2015. ISBN 1848853971 p.236
- Damien Keown, Charles S.Prebish, 《Encyclopedia of Buddhism》, Routledge, 2013. ISBN 1136985883 p.226
- Steven Heine, 《Like Cats and Dogs:Contesting the Mu Koan in Zen Buddhism》, OUP USA, 2013. ISBN 0199837309 p.82
- Sonja Vegdahl, Ben Hur, 《CultureShock! Korea: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette》, Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd, 2008. ISBN 9814408948 p.9
- John H.T., 〈Korea:Korean Cultural Insights〉, Korean National Tourism Organization, 2000. p.25
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- (Miya 2006; Miya 2007)
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- Sok-pong So, 《Brother Nations, Korea and Turkey:a history of Turkish soldiers' participation in the Korean War》, Ministry of Patriots & Veterans Affairs, 2007. p.31
- 〈Harvard Asia Quarterly〉, Vol.10 1-2, Harvard Asia Law Society, Harvard Asia Business Club and Asia at the Graduate school of Design, 2006. p.27
- National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage, 〈Sul, Korean Alcoholic Beverages〉, 2013. ISBN 892990176X, p.25
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- Wood, Nigel. "Technological Parallels between Chinese Yue wares and Korean celadons." in Papers of the British Association for Korean Studies (BAKS Papers), vol 5. Gina Barnes and Beth McKillop, eds. London: British Association for Korean Studies, 1994; pp. 39-64.
- The official history of Koryo, is printed by woodblock 1580.
- Vermeersch, Sem. (2008). The Power of the Buddhas: the Politics of Buddhism during the Koryǒ Dynasty (918-1392). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674031883; OCLC 213407432