Hallucinogenic fish

Hallucinogenic fish

Ingesting the dreamfish Sarpa salpa can result in hallucinations that last for several days. They were used as a recreational drug during the Roman Empire.[1]

Hallucinogenic fish are certain species of fish, found mainly in the tropics, that can produce vivid auditory and visual hallucinations if their flesh is ingested. They are also called dreamfish or dream fish.

Sarpa salpa, a species of sea bream, is commonly claimed to be hallucinogenic.[2] These widely distributed coastal fish are normally found in the Mediterranean and around Spain, and along the west and south coasts of Africa.[3] Occasionally they are found in British waters.[4] They can induce LSD-like hallucinations if eaten.[5] In 2006, two men who apparently ate the fish experienced hallucinations lasting for several days.[1][6] The likelihood of hallucinations depends on the season.[7][8][9] Sarpa salpa was used as a recreational drug during the Roman Empire, and is known as "the fish that makes dreams" in Arabic.[1]

Other species commonly claimed to be capable of producing hallucinations include several species of sea chub from the genus Kyphosus.[1] It is unclear whether the toxins are produced by the fish themselves or by marine algae in their diet. Other hallucinogenic fish are Siganus spinus,[10] called "the fish that inebriates" in Reunion Island, and Mulloides flavolineatus (formerly Mulloidichthys samoensis),[11] called "the chief of ghosts" in Hawaii.[12]

Contents

  • Cause of hallucinations 1
  • Hallucinogenic species 2
  • Ichthyoallyeinotoxism 3
  • Psychedelic fish 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Cause of hallucinations

Some fish may become hallucinogenic after grazing on Caulerpa prolifera, a species of green alga that forms dense beds on shallow sandy areas.
Also implicated is Posidonia oceanica, a seagrass that lives in meadows along the Mediterranean coast.

The active agent(s) that cause hallucinations in humans, and the origin of these agents, are not clear. Some authors think they could come from toxins associated with macroalgae that accumulate in the flesh of the fish. Toxins from the green algae Caulerpa prolifera in the Mediterranean Sea appear to be implicated,[13] as is the seagrass Posidonia oceanica.[7] When herbivores eat seagrass leaves they ingest algal epiphytes and toxic dinoflagellates that live on the seagrass leaves.[14] The German anthropologist Christian Rätsch thinks that dreamfish might contain the hallucinogen DMT.[15]

"A few reporters have eaten the dream fish and described their strange effects. The most famous user is Joe Roberts, a photographer for the National Geographic magazine. He broiled the dream fish in 1960. After eating the delicacy, he experienced intense hallucinations with a science-fiction theme that included futuristic vehicles, images of space exploration, and monuments marking humanity's first trips into space."[15]

Hallucinogenic species

Fish species reported as hallucinogenic
Diet Family Image Species Common name Max length Reported locations[1] Notes Other sources
Herbivores Clown and damselfishes Abudefduf septemfasciatus Banded sergeant
23 cm
Gilbert Islands[16] [17][18]
Rabbitfish Siganus argenteus Streamlined spinefoot
40 cm
Mauritius[19] [20][21]
Siganus corallinus Blue-spotted spinefoot
35 cm
Mauritius[19] [22][23]
Siganus luridus Dusky spinefoot
30 cm
Israel[24][25] [26][27]
Siganus rivulatus Marbled spinefoot
27 cm
Mauritius[19]
Israel (suspected)[28]
[29][30]
Siganus spinus Little spinefoot
28 cm
Réunion island[31] [32][10]
Sea breams Sarpa salpa Salema
51 cm
Tunisia[33]
France[34]
Israel[28][35]
[36][3]
Sea chub Kyphosus cinerascens Blue sea chub
50 cm
Hawaii[37] [38][39]
Kyphosus vaigiensis Brassy chub
70 cm
Hawaii[37] [40][41]
Kyphosus bigibbus Brown chub
75 cm
Norfolk Island[42] Formerly Kyphosus fuscus [43][44]
Surgeon fish Acanthurus triostegus Convict surgeonfish
27 cm
Hawaii[37] [45][46]
Omnivores Goatfish Mulloides flavolineatus Yellowstripe goatfish
43 cm
Hawaii[47][48][49] Formerly Mulloidichthys samoensis.[50]
Called "the chief of ghosts" in Hawaii[51][12]
[52][11]
Upeneus taeniopterus Finstripe goatfish
33 cm
Hawaii[47][48][49] Formerly Upeneus arge [53][54]
Mullet Mugil cephalus Flathead grey mullet
100 cm
Hawaii[47] [55][56]
Neomyxus leuciscus Acute-jawed mullet
46 cm
Hawaii[47] Formerly Neomyxus chaptalli [57][58]
Carnivores Groupers Epinephelus corallicola Coral grouper
49 cm
Gilbert Islands[16] [59][60]

Ichthyoallyeinotoxism

Ichthyoallyeinotoxism, or hallucinogenic fish inebriation, is a clinical syndrome that refers to a hallucinogenic inebriation of a distressing nature that can arise from consuming hallucinogenic fish. It is characterised by "psychologic disturbances of hallucination and depression. Gastrointestinal disturbance may occur".[61] "Ichthyoallyeinotoxism is a kind of ichthysarcotoxism (fish flesh poisoning) responsible of an unusual clinical feature: it is the unique case of central nervous system ichthyotoxicity. The most frequent signs are dizziness, loss of co-ordination and hallucinations."[13]

Ichthyoallyeinotoxism may result from eating the flesh or the head of the fish where the poison is reputedly concentrated. This biotoxication is sporadic and unpredictable in its occurrence. The poison affects primarily the central nervous system. The symptoms may develop within a few minutes to 2 hours and persist for 24 hours or longer. Symptoms are dizziness, loss of equilibrium, lack of motor coordination, hallucinations and mental depression. A common complaint of the victim is that "someone is sitting on my chest", or there is a sensation of a tight construction around the chest. The conviction that he is going to die, or some other frightening phantasy, is a characteristic part of the clinical picture. Other complaints consist of itching, burning of the throat, muscular weakness and abdominal distress. No fatalities have been reported, and in comparison with other forms of ichthyosarcotoxism, hallucinogenic fish poisoning is relatively mild... Ordinary cooking procedures do not destroy the poison.[62]

Psychedelic fish

Hallucinogenic fish can be contrasted with psychedelic fish. Psychedelic fish do not usually produce hallucinations if eaten, but look as if they were the product of a psychedelic hallucination.[63][64][65]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e de Haro, L.; Pommier, P. (2006). "Hallucinatory fish poisoning (ichthyoallyeinotoxism): two case reports from the Western Mediterranean and literature review". Clinical Toxicology (Philadelphia) 44 (2): 185–8.  
  2. ^ Sarpa Salpa Mahalo
  3. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Sarpa salpa in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  4. ^ Fish that triggers hallucinations found off British coast The Telegraph, 13 May 2009.
  5. ^ 'Hallucination' fish netted in Channel The Guardian, 13 May 2009.
  6. ^ Clarke, Matt (19 April 2006). "Men hallucinate after eating fish". Practical Fishkeeping. Retrieved 31 March 2010. 
  7. ^ a b Bellassoued K, A Hamza, A Abdelmouleh, FA Makni, JV Pelt and A Elfeki (2012) from the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia, Eastern Mediterranean Sea)"Sarpa salpa"Toxicity assessment of dreamfish Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 10 (2): 1308–1313.
  8. ^ Haro L, Jouglard DE, Thomas MJ and David JM (1994) "Intoxications de type ciguatera after eating the Sparidae in Mediterranean". In Boudoresque, CF, Meinsez A and Gravez V. (Eds) First International Workshop on Caulerpa taxifolia GIS Posidonie Publ., France, pp. 271–274. ISBN 9782905540195.
  9. ^ Bellassoued K, Hamza A, Abdelmouleh A, Pelt JV and El Feki A (2011) : Interseasonal correlations with the diet"Sarpa salpa"Antioxidant response in the salema J. Food. Agric. Environ., 9 (1): 730–733.
  10. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Siganus spinus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  11. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Mulloides flavolineatus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  12. ^ a b Thomas, Craig, M.D. and, Susan Scott (1 Jun 1997). All Stings Considered: First Aid and Medical Treatment of Hawai'i's Marine Injuries. Hawaii: University of Hawai'i Press. p. 120.  
  13. ^ a b de Haro, L., Prost, N., Arditti, J., David, J. M., & Jouglard, J. (1998) "Ichthyoallyeinotoxism: a rare pathology" Toxicon, 36 (12): 1738–1739.
  14. ^ Kitting CL, Fry B and Morgan MD (1984) "Detection of inconspicuous epiphytic algae supporting food webs in seagrass meadows" Oecologia, 62 :145–149.
  15. ^ a b Pickover, Clifford A (2005) [ Sex, Drugs, Einstein, and Elves] Chapter 1, page 9, Smart Publications. ISBN 9781890572174.
  16. ^ a b Cooper MJ (1964) "Ciguatera and other marine poisoning in the Gilbert Islands", Pacific Science, 18 (4): 411–440.
  17. ^ : Sevenband DamselfishAbudefduf septemfasciatus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  18. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Abudefduf septemfasciatus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  19. ^ a b c Halstead BW, Cox KM (1973) "An investigation on fish poisoning in Mauritius", Proc Roy Soc Arts Sci Mauritius, 4 (2): 1–26.
  20. ^ : Yellowspotted SpinefootSiganus argenteus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  21. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Siganus argenteus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  22. ^ : Blue-spotted spinefootSiganus corallinus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  23. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Siganus corallinus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  24. ^ Raikhlin-Eisenkraft B and Bentur Y (2002) "Rabbitfish ("Aras"). An unusual source of ciguatera poisoning" Israeli Medical Association Journal, 4: 28–30.
  25. ^ Herzberg A (1973) (Ruppell) on the Mediterranean Coast of Israël"Siganus luridus"Toxicity of Aquaculture, 2: 89–91.
  26. ^ : Squaretail RabbitfishSiganus luridus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  27. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Siganus luridus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  28. ^ a b Spanier E, Finkelstein Y and Raikhlin-Eisenkraft B (1989) (Linnaeus, 1758), on the Mediterranean coast of Israel"Sarpa salpa"Toxicity of the saupe, Journal of Fish Biology, 34: 635–636. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1989.tb03342.x
  29. ^ : Squaretail RabbitfishSiganus rivulatus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  30. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Siganus rivulatus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  31. ^ Lebeau A (1979) "La ciguatera dans l’Océan Indien: étude des poissons vénéneux des bancs de l’archipel des Mascareignes et de la crète centrale de l’Océan Indien Rev Trav Inst Pêches Marit, 42 (4): 325–345.
  32. ^ : Little spinefootSiganus spinus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  33. ^ Chevaldonne P (1990) (L.), in the Mediterranean: a possible misinterpretation"Sarpa salpa"Ciguatera and the saupe, Journal of fish biology, 37: 503–504. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb05883.x
  34. ^ de Haro L, Treffot MJ, Jouglard J and Perringué C (1993) "Trois cas d'intoxication de type ciguatérique après ingestion de Sparidae de Méditerranée", Ictyophysiologica Acta, 16: 133–146.
  35. ^ Raikhlin-Eisenkraft B, Finkelstein Y, Spanier E (1988) "Ciguatera-like poisoning in the Mediterranean" Vet Hum Toxicol, 30 (6): 582–583.
  36. ^ : Salema porgySarpa salpa Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  37. ^ a b c Helfrich P (1963) "Fish Poisoning in Hawaii Hawaii Medical Journal, 22 (5): 361–372.
  38. ^ : Blue SeachubKyphosus cinerascens Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  39. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Kyphosus cinerascens in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  40. ^ : Lowfinned DrummerKyphosus vaigiensis Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  41. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Kyphosus vaigiensis in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  42. ^ Roughly TC, Roberts BJ (1960) "Bounty descendant live on remote Norfolk Island" National Geographic Magazine, 116 (6): 575.
  43. ^ : Striped DrummerKyphosus bigibbus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  44. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Kyphosus bigibbus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  45. ^ : Convict TangAcanthurus triostegus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  46. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Acanthurus triostegus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  47. ^ a b c d Helfrich P, Banner A. (1960) "Hallucinatory mullet poisoning" Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 1: 86–89.
  48. ^ a b Jordan DS, Evermann BW and Tanaka S (1927) "Notes on new or rare fishes from Hawaii", Proceedings of the California Academy of Science, 16 (20): 649–680.
  49. ^ a b Randall JE (1958) "A review of ciguatera, tropical fish poisoning, with tentative explanation of its cause", Bulletin of Marine Science Gulf Caribbean, 8 (3): 236–267.
  50. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2009). "Mulloidichthys samoensis in FishBase. October 2009 version.
  51. ^ Titcomb, Margaret (1951) "Memoir: Native use of fish in Hawaii" Journal of the Polynesian Society, 60" 1–146.
  52. ^ : Yellowstripe goatfishMulloides flavolineatus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  53. ^ : Bandtail GoatfishUpeneus arge Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  54. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Upeneus taeniopterus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  55. ^ : Striped MulletMugil cephalus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  56. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Mugil cephalus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  57. ^ : Brown MulletNeomyxus leuciscus Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  58. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Neomyxus leuciscus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  59. ^ : Malabar GrouperEpinephelus corallicola Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
  60. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Epinephelus corallicola in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  61. ^ Report of the Seminar on Ichthyosarcotoxism Papeete 1968, South Pacific Commission.
  62. ^ R Bagnis R, F Berglund, PS Elias, GJ van Esch, BW Halstead and K Kojima (1970) "Problems of Toxicants in Marine Food Products: 1. Marine biotoxins" Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 42: 69–88.
  63. ^ "Psychedelic" fish picture: New Species Bounces on Reef National Geographic, 25 February 2009.
  64. ^ The Psychedelic mandarin Practical fishkeeping, 4 May 2011.
  65. ^ Department of Defense (2000) Coral Reef Protection Implementation Plan Diane Publishing. ISBN 9781428911260.
  66. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Histiophryne psychedelica in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  67. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Synchiropus picturatus in FishBase. October 2013 version.
  68. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2013). "Synchiropus splendidus in FishBase. October 2013 version.

External links

  • Dolphins 'getting high' on puffer fish, zoologist Rob Pilley says news.com.au, 30 December 2013.