CAS number
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C29H35N5O7
Molar mass 565.618 g/mol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)

Hemorphin-4 is an endogenous opioid peptide of the hemorphin family which possesses antinociceptive properties and is derived from the β-chain of hemoglobin in the bloodstream.[1][2] It is a tetrapeptide with the amino acid sequence Tyr-Pro-Trp-Thr. Hemorphin-4 has affinities for the μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors that are in the same range as the structurally related β-casomorphins, although affinity to the κ-opioid receptor is markedly higher in comparison.[3] It acts as an agonist at these sites.[4] Hemorphin-4 also has inhibitory effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE),[5] and as a result, may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure.[3] Notably, inhibition of ACE also reduces enkephalin catabolism.[6]

See also


  1. ^ Brantl V, Gramsch C, Lottspeich F, Mertz R, Jaeger KH, Herz A (June 1986). "Novel opioid peptides derived from hemoglobin: hemorphins". European Journal of Pharmacology 125 (2): 309–10.  
  2. ^ Davis TP, Gillespie TJ, Porreca F (1989). "Peptide fragments derived from the beta-chain of hemoglobin (hemorphins) are centrally active in vivo". Peptides 10 (4): 747–51.  
  3. ^ a b Liebmann C, Schrader U, Brantl V (August 1989). "Opioid receptor affinities of the blood-derived tetrapeptides hemorphin and cytochrophin". European Journal of Pharmacology 166 (3): 523–6.  
  4. ^ Erchegyi J, Kastin AJ, Zadina JE (1992). "Isolation of a novel tetrapeptide with opiate and antiopiate activity from human brain cortex: Tyr-Pro-Trp-Gly-NH2 (Tyr-W-MIF-1)". Peptides 13 (4): 623–31.  
  5. ^ Lantz I, Glämsta EL, Talbäck L, Nyberg F (August 1991). "Hemorphins derived from hemoglobin have an inhibitory action on angiotensin converting enzyme activity". FEBS Letters 287 (1-2): 39–41.  
  6. ^ Benuck M, Berg MJ, Marks N (1982). "Separate metabolic pathways for Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin-Arg(6)-Phe(7) degradation by rat striatal synaptosomal membranes". Neurochemistry International 4 (5): 389–96.