in vitro ("within the glass"), i.e., in a laboratory environment using test tubes, petri dishes etc. Examples of investigations in vivo include: the pathogenesis of disease by comparing the effects of bacterial infection with the effects of purified bacterial toxins; the development of antibiotics, antiviral drugs, and new drugs generally; and new surgical procedures. Consequently Animal testing and clinical trials are major elements of in vivo research. In vivo testing is often employed over in vitro because it is better suited for observing the overall effects of an experiment on a living subject.
The English microbiologist Professor anthrax toxin through the use of in vivo experiments had a major impact on studies of the pathogenesis of infectious disease.
The maxim in vivo veritas ("in a living thing [there is] truth") is used to describe this type of testing and is a play on in vino veritas, ("in wine [there is] truth") a well-known proverb.
- In vivo vs. ex vivo research 1
- Methods of use 2
- See also 3
- References 4
In vivo vs. ex vivo research
In microbiology in vivo is often used to refer to experimentation done in live isolated cells rather than in a whole organism, for example, cultured cells derived from biopsies. In this situation, the more specific term is ex vivo. Once cells are disrupted and individual parts are tested or analyzed, this is known as in vitro.
Methods of use
According to Christopher in vitro to one that is active in vivo, drug discovery would be as reliable as drug manufacturing."