Iproniazid

Iproniazid

Iproniazid
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N'-isopropylisonicotinohydrazide
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com
Pregnancy
category
  • ?
Legal status
  • ?
Routes of
administration
?
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism ?
Biological half-life ?
Excretion ?
Identifiers
CAS Registry Number  Y
ATC code N06
PubChem CID:
DrugBank  Y
ChemSpider  Y
UNII  Y
KEGG  Y
ChEMBL  Y
Chemical data
Formula C9H13N3O
Molecular mass 179.219 g/mol
 Y   

Iproniazid (Marsilid, Rivivol, Euphozid, Iprazid, Ipronid, Ipronin) is a non-selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class.[1][2] It was discontinued in most of the world in the 1960s, but remained in use in France up until fairly recently.[3]

Iproniazid was originally developed for the treatment of tuberculosis,[1] but in 1952, its antidepressant properties were discovered when researchers noted that patients given isoniazid became inappropriately happy.[1] Subsequently N-isopropyl addition led to development as an antidepressant and was approved for use in 1958.[1] It was withdrawn a few years later in 1961 due to a high incidence of hepatitis, and was replaced by less hepatotoxic drugs such as phenelzine and isocarboxazid.[1]

Although iproniazid was one of the first antidepressants ever marketed, amphetamine (marketed as Benzedrine from 1935, for "mild depression", amid other indications)[4] predates it; and frankincense has been marketed traditionally for millennia for, among other things, altering mood, although it was not until 2012 that one of the components of its smoke was found to have antidepressant effects in mice.[5] [6] [7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Robert A. Maxwell, Shohreh B. Eckhardt (1990). Drug discovery. Humana Press. pp. 143–154.  
  2. ^ Fagervall I, Ross SB (April 1986). "Inhibition of monoamine oxidase in monoaminergic neurones in the rat brain by irreversible inhibitors".  
  3. ^ Maille F, Duvoux C, Cherqui D, Radier C, Zafrani ES, Dhumeaux D (October 1999). "[Auxiliary hepatic transplantation in iproniazid-induced subfulminant hepatitis. Should iproniazid still be sold in France?]". Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol. (in French) 23 (10): 1083–5.  
  4. ^ Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ (June 2013). "Amphetamine, past and present – a pharmacological and clinical perspective". J. Psychopharmacol. 27 (6): 479–96.  
  5. ^ Moussaieff, Arieh; Rimmerman, Neta; Bregman, Tatiana; Straiker, Alex; Felder, Christian C.; Shoham, Shai; Kashman, Yoel; Huang, Susan M.; Lee, Hyosang; Shohami, Esther; Mackie, Ken; Caterina, Michael J.; Walker, J. Michael; Fride, Ester; Mechoulam, Raphael (August 2008). "Incensole acetate, an incense component, elicits psychoactivity by activating TRPV3 channels in the brain" 22 (8). The FASEB Journal. pp. 3024–3034.  
  6. ^ Moussaieff, A; Gross, M; Nesher, E; Tikhonov, T; Yadid, G; Pinhasov, A (2012). "Incensole acetate reduces depressive-like behavior and modulates hippocampal BDNF and CRF expression of submissive animals". J Psychopharmacol. 26 (12).  
  7. ^ Drahl, Carmen (22 December 2008). "Frankincense And Myrrh". Chemical & Engineering News 86 (51): 38.