Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin

rence">[315] In a July 2007 poll, 54% of the Russian youth agreed that Stalin did more good than bad while 46% (of them) disagreed that Stalin was a "cruel tyrant". Half of the respondents, aged from 16 to 19, agreed Stalin was a wise leader.[9]

Ukrainian President Yanukovych and Russian President Medvedev on 17 May 2010 near Memorial to the Holodomor victims in Kiev.

In December 2008, Stalin was voted third in the nationwide television project Name of Russia (narrowly behind 13th-century prince Alexander Nevsky and Pyotr Stolypin, one of Nicholas II's prime ministers). The Communist Party accused the Kremlin in rigging the poll in order to prevent him or Lenin being given first place.[316]

On 3 July 2009, Russia's delegates walked out of an [317] Only eight out of 385 assembly members voted against the resolution.[317]

In a Kremlin video blog posted on 29 October 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev denounced the efforts of people seeking to rehabilitate Stalin's image. He said the mass extermination during the Stalin era cannot be justified.[318]

In a 2013 Q&A session, when asked whether Russia should restore statues of its Soviet-era leaders, Russian President Vladimir Putin replied "What is the essential difference between (Oliver) Cromwell and (Joseph) Stalin? Can you tell me? No difference,...,(Crownwell's) monument is standing, (and) no one is going to remove it. The essence is not in these symbols, but in the need to treat with respect every period of our history."[319][320]

Views on Stalin in other former Soviet states

Georgia

The BBC News reported that "Lasha Bakradze, a professor of Soviet history at [321]

Ukraine
Victims of Stalin's Great Terror in the Bykivnia mass graves, near Kiev, Ukraine

In a poll taken by Kyiv International Institute of Sociology in February 2013 37% of all Ukrainians had "a negative attitude to the figure of Stalin" and 22% "a positive".[322] Positive attitudes prevailed in East Ukraine (36%) and South Ukraine (27%), and negative attitudes in West Ukraine (64%) and Central Ukraine (39%).[322] In the age group 18–29 years 16% had positive feelings towards Stalin.[322]

Early 2010 a Ukrainian court convicted Stalin of genocide against the Ukrainian nation during the Soviet famine of 1932–1933.[323][324]

In the spring of 2010 a new monument in honor of Stalin was erected in Zaporizhia.[324] In late December 2010 the statue had his head cut off by unidentified vandals and the following New Year's Eve it was completely destroyed in an explosion.[325] On 25 February 2011 Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych stated "Ukraine will definitely not revise its negative view" on Stalin.[325] Ukraine and Poland unveiled a memorial (outside Kiev) to the thousands of Ukrainians, Poles and others killed by Stalin's secret police ahead of World War II in September 2012.[326]

Armenia

According to a 2012 study, 72% of Armenians do not want to live in a country led by someone like Stalin.[327]

Personal life

Stalin walking on a Moscow sidewalk in the late 1920s

Origin of name, nicknames and pseudonyms

Stalin's original Georgian name is transliterated as "Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili" (noms de guerre, of which "Stalin" was only the last. "Stalin" is based on the Russian word сталь stal, meaning "steel", and the name as a whole is supposed to mean "man of steel".[328] Prior nicknames included "Koba", "Soselo", "Ivanov" and many others.[329]

Stalin is believed to have started using the name "K. Stalin" sometime in 1912 as a pen name.

During Stalin's reign his nicknames included:

  • "Uncle Joe", by western media, during and after World War II.[330][331]
  • "Kremlin Highlander" (Russian: кремлевский горец), in reference his Caucasus Mountains origin, notably by Osip Mandelstam in his Stalin Epigram.
  • "Vozhd" '​ (Russian: Вождь, "the Chieftain"), a term equivalent to the English word "Leader", or German "Führer".

Appearance

While photographs and portraits portray Stalin as physically massive and majestic (he had several painters shot who did not depict him "right"),[332] he was only 5 feet 4 inches (1.63 m) tall.[332] (President Harry S. Truman, who stood 5 feet 9 inches (1.75 m) himself, described Stalin as "a little squirt".[333]) His mustached face was pock-marked from small-pox during childhood. After a carriage accident in his youth, his left arm was shortened and stiffened at the elbow, while his right hand was thinner than his left and frequently hidden.[332] Bronze casts made in 1990 from plaster death mask and plaster cards of his hands clearly show a normal right hand and a withered left hand.[334] He could be charming and polite, mainly towards visiting statesmen.[332] In movies, Stalin was often played by Mikheil Gelovani and, less frequently, by Aleksei Dikiy.

Marriages and family

Ekaterina "Kato" Svanidze, Stalin's first wife
Stalin and Nadezhda Alliluyeva, Stalin's second wife
Stalin with Beria, Lakoba (obscured) and Stalin's daughter Svetlana

Stalin's son

Political offices
Preceded by
None
People's Commissar of Nationalities of the RSFSR
1917–1923
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
Vyacheslav Molotov
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union
Council of People's Commissars until 1946

1941–1953
Succeeded by
Georgy Malenkov
Preceded by
Semyon Timoshenko
Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union
People's Commissar until 1946

1941–1947
Succeeded by
Nikolai Bulganin
Preceded by
None
Chairman of the State Defense Committee
1941–1945
Succeeded by
None
Party political offices
Preceded by
None
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
1922–1953
Succeeded by
Nikita Khrushchev
Military offices
Preceded by
None
Generalissimo of the Soviet Union
1945–1953
Succeeded by
None
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Adolf Hitler
Time Person of the Year
1939
Succeeded by
Winston Churchill
Preceded by
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Time Person of the Year
1942
Succeeded by
George Marshall
  • and "volume 14")worksStalin Library (with all 13 volumes of Stalin's
  • Library of Congress: Revelations from the Russian Archives
  • Electronic archive of Stalin's letters and presentations
  • Sovetika.ru – A site about the Soviet era (Russian)
  • "The Revolution Betrayed" by Leon Trotsky
  • Stalin and the 'Cult of Personality'
  • Stalin Biography from Spartacus Educational
  • A List of Key Documentary Material on Stalin
  • "Stalin and the Struggle for Democratic Reform, Part One" and "Part Two" by Grover Furr.
  • Stalinka: The Digital Library of Staliniana
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Stalin's Reply to Churchill, 1946
  • Modern History Sourcebook: Nikita S. Khrushchev: The Secret Speech – On the Cult of Personality, 1956
  • The political economy of Stalinism: evidence from the Soviet secret archives / Paul R. Gregory
  • "Demographic catastrophes of the 20th century", chapter from Demographic Modernization in Russia 1900–2000, ed. A. G. Vishnevsky, 2006 ISBN 5-98379-042-0 – estimates of the human cost of Stalin's rule
  • Annotated bibliography for Joseph Stalin from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
  • "Secret documents reveal Stalin was poisoned" study by the Russian paper Pravda of events behind possible death by poisoning
  • Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Current Intelligence. Death of Stalin at the Wayback Machine (archived March 8, 2012), 16 July 1953.
  • How Many Did Stalin Really Murder? by Professor R.J. Rummel
  • Death of the Butcher by Hoover fellow Arnold Beichman
  • A secret revealed: Stalin's police killed Americans (1997 Associated Press article)
  • Stalin giving a speech on YouTube in Russian with English subtitles
  • (1986)The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine
  • Hitler vs. Stalin: Who Was Worse? by Timothy Snyder
  • , 20 June 2004.Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar interview with Simon Sebag Montefiore on BooknotesPart One
    • interview with Montefiore, 27 June 2004.BooknotesPart Two of
  • Untold History: Stalin, the Soviet Union and WWII. Interview with Peter Kuznick on The Real News. 14 January 2013

External links

  • Applebaum, Anne (2003). Gulag: A History. Doubleday.  
  • Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (1998). A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change. Routledge.  
  • Boobbyer, Phillip (2000). The Stalin Era. Routledge.  
  • Brackman, Roman (2001). The Secret File of Joseph Stalin: A Hidden Life. Frank Cass Publishers.  
  • Brent, Jonathan; Naumov, Vladimir (2004). Stalin's Last Crime: The Plot Against the Jewish Doctors, 1948–1953. HarperCollins.  
  • Bullock, Alan (1962). Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. Penguin Books.  
  • Conquest, Robert (1991): Stalin, Breaker of Nations. First American ed. Viking-Penguin. ISBN 0-670-84089-0
  • Fest, Joachim C. (2002). Hitler. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.  
  • Gellately, Robert (2007). Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf.  
  • Henig, Ruth Beatrice (2005). The Origins of the Second World War, 1933–41. Routledge.  
  •  
  •  
  • Montefiore, Simon Sebag (2007). Young Stalin. Weidenfeld & Nicolson.  
  • Murphy, David E. (2006). What Stalin Knew: The Enigma of Barbarossa. Yale University Press.  
  • Overy, R. J. (2004). The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia. W. W. Norton & Company.  
  • Nekrich, Aleksandr Moiseevich; Ulam, Adam Bruno; Freeze, Gregory L. (1997). Pariahs, Partners, Predators: German-Soviet Relations, 1922–1941. Columbia University Press.  
  • Roberts, Geoffrey (1992). "The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi Germany". Soviet Studies (Taylor & Francis, Ltd.) 55 (2): 57–78.  
  • Roberts, Geoffrey (2002). "Stalin, the Pact with Nazi Germany, and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Historiography" 4 (4). 
  • Roberts, Geoffrey (2006). Stalin's Wars: From World War to Cold War, 1939–1953. Yale University Press.  
  • Service, Robert (2004). Stalin:A Biography. London: Macmillan.  
  • Soviet Information Bureau (1948). "Falsifiers of History (Historical Survey)". Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. 272848. 
  • Department of State (1948). "Nazi-Soviet Relations, 1939–1941: Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office". Department of State. 
  • Taubert, Fritz (2003). The Myth of Munich. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.  
  • Tucker, Robert C. (1992). Stalin in Power: The Revolution from Above, 1928–1941. W. W. Norton & Company.  
  • Wettig, Gerhard (2008). Stalin and the Cold War in Europe. Rowman & Littlefield.  

References

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  5. ^ Weinberg, G.L. (1995). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge University Press. p. 264.  
  6. ^ Rozhnov, Konstantin (5 May 2005) Who won World War II?. BBC.
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  14. ^ Montefiore 2007, p. 61.
  15. ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore (2007). "Before the terror". The Guardian. 
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  33. ^ a b Figes, Orlando The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia, 2007, ISBN 0-8050-7461-9
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  38. ^ The exact number of negative votes is unknown. In his memoirs Anastas Mikoian writes that out of 1225 delegates, around 270 voted against Stalin and that the official number of negative votes was given as three, with the rest of ballots destroyed. Following Khrushchev's secret speech in 1956, a commission of the central committee investigated the votes and found that 267 ballots were missing.
  39. ^ Brackman 2001, pp. 205–6.
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  45. ^ The scale of Stalin's purge of Red Army officers was exceptional—90% of all generals and 80% of all colonels were killed. This included three out of five Marshals, 13 out of 15 Army commanders, 57 of 85 Corps commanders, 110 of 195 divisional commanders and 220 of 406 brigade commanders as well as all commanders of military districts: p. 195, Carell, P. (1964) Hitler's War on Russia: The Story of the German Defeat in the East. translated from German by Ewald Osers, B.I. Publications New Delhi, 1974 (first Indian edition)
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  47. ^ Tucker, Robert C. (1999) Stalinism: Essays in Historical Interpretation, , American Council of Learned Societies Planning Group on Comparative Communist Studies, Transaction Publishers, ISBN 0-7658-0483-2, p. 5
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  49. ^ Tzouliadis, Tim (2 August 2008) Nightmare in the workers paradise, BBC
  50. ^ Tzouliadis, Tim (2008) The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin's Russia. The Penguin Press, ISBN 1-59420-168-4
  51. ^ McLoughlin, Barry and McDermott, Kevin, ed. (2002). Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union.  
  52. ^ Rosefielde, Stephen (1996). "Forced Labour and Economic Growth in the 1930s"Stalinism in Post-Communist Perspective: New Evidence on Killings, . Europe-Asia Studies 48 (6): 959.  
  53. ^ Comment on Wheatcroft by Robert Conquest, 1999
  54. ^ Pipes, Richard (2003) Communism: A History (Modern Library Chronicles), p. 67 ISBN 0-8129-6864-6
  55. ^ Applebaum 2003, p. 584.
  56. ^ Keep, John (1997). "Recent Writing on Stalin's Gulag: An Overview". Crime, History & Societies 1 (2): 91–112.  
  57. ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2007) The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-12389-2 p. 4
  58. ^ McLoughlin, Barry and McDermott, Kevin, ed. (2002). Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union.  
  59. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2010) Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-00239-0 p. 101
  60. ^ a b c Ellman, Michael (2007). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932–33 Revisited". Europe-Asia Studies 59 (4): 663–693.  
  61. ^ Quoted in Volkogonov, Dmitri (1991) Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy, New York, p. 210 ISBN 0-7615-0718-3
  62. ^ a b Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2007) The Voices of the Dead: Stalin's Great Terror in the 1930s. Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-12389-2 p. 2
  63. ^ Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934". Europe-Asia Studies 57 (6): 826.  
  64. ^ a b Boobbyer 2000, p. 130.
  65. ^ Pohl, Otto, Ethnic Cleansing in the USSR, 1937–1949, ISBN 0-313-30921-3
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  69. ^ "The rise of Stalin: AD1921–1924". History of Russia. HistoryWorld. Retrieved 19 July 2008. 
  70. ^ Stalin, Joseph, Dizzy with success, Pravda, 2 March 1930
  71. ^ Stalin, Joseph, Reply to Collective Farm Comrades, Pravda, 3 April 1930
  72. ^ "Ukraine Irks Russia With Push to Mark Stalin Famine as Genocide". Bloomberg L.P.. 3 January 2008
  73. ^ "Overpopulation.Com " The Soviet Famines of 1921 and 1932-3". 
  74. ^ "Ukraine's Holodomor". The Times (UK). 1 July 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
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  76. ^ a b "The Industrialisation of Soviet Russia" (PDF). 5 – The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan. 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 
  77. ^ "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1933" (PDF). The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies. 2001. Retrieved 28 December 2008. 
  78. ^ According to Ellman, although the 1946 drought was severe, government mismanagement of its grain reserves largely accounted for the population losses. Ellman, Michael (2000). "The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines". Cambridge Journal of Economics 24 (5): 603–30.  
  79. ^ "Findings of the Commission on the Ukraine Famine". Famine Genocide. 19 April 1988. 
  80. ^ "Statement by Pope John Paul II on the 70th anniversary of the Famine". Skrobach. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 
  81. ^ "Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives regarding the man-made famine that occurred in Ukraine in 1932–1933". US House of Representatives. 21 October 2003. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 
  82. ^ Bilinsky, Yaroslav (1999). "Was the Ukrainian Famine of 1932–1933 Genocide?". Journal of Genocide Research 1 (2): 147–156.  
  83. ^ Lisova, Natasha (28 November 2006). "Ukraine Recognize Famine As Genocide". Associated Press. 
  84. ^ France Meslé, Gilles Pison, Jacques Vallin France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History, Population and societies, N°413, juin 2005
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  88. ^ "The famine of 1932–33". Encyclopædia Britannica. Ukraine. Retrieved 25 June 2010. 
  89. ^ Kyiv court accuses Stalin leadership of organizing famine, Kyiv Post (13 January 2010)
  90. ^ Ukraine court finds Bolsheviks guilty of Holodomor genocide, (13 January 2010)
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  93. ^ Lewis, Robert (1994). Harrison, Mark; Davies, R.W. and Wheatcroft, S.G., ed. The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union. Cambridge University Press. p. 188. 
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  101. ^ < 
  102. ^ Joseph V.Stalin. "Voprosy leninizma", 2nd ed., Moscow, p. 589; (1951) "Istoricheskij materializm", ed. by F. B. Konstantinov, Moscow, p. 402; P. Calvert (1982). "The Concept of Class", New York, pp. 144–145
  103. ^ "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls".  See also: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Gulag Archipelago 1918–1956, 1973–1976 ISBN 0-8133-3289-3
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  105. ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (1999). "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. Not the Last Word". Europe-Asia Studies 51 (2): 315–345.  
  106. ^ Montefiore 2004, p. 649.
  107. ^ A century of genocide: utopias of race and nation. Eric D. Weitz (2003). Princeton University Press. p.82. ISBN 0-691-00913-9
  108. ^ Nicholas Werth, "A state against its people: violence, repression and terror in the Soviet Union" in Stéphane Courtois, Mark Kramer. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. pp. 33–268 (223). ISBN 0-674-07608-7
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  111. ^ Ellman, Michael (2002). "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments". Europe-Asia Studies 54 (7): 1151–1172.  
  112. ^ a b Applebaum 2003.
  113. ^ "Soviet Studies".  See also: Gellately (2007) p. 584: "Anne Applebaum is right to insist that the statistics 'can never fully describe what happened.' They do suggest, however, the massive scope of the repression and killing."
  114. ^ Gellately 2007, p. 256.
  115. ^ Getty, J. A.; Rittersporn, G. T. and Zemskov, V. N. (1993). "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years". American Historical Review 98 (4): 1017–49.  
  116. ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen (1996). "The Scale and Nature of German and Soviet Repression and Mass Killings, 1930–45". Europe-Asia Studies 48 (8): 1319–1353.  
  117. ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen (1990). "More light on the scale of repression and excess mortality in the Soviet Union in the 1930s". Soviet Studies 42 (2): 355–367.  
  118. ^ Erlikman, Vadim (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke: spravochnik. Moscow 2004: Russkaia panorama.  
  119. ^ Ellman, Michael (2005). "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies (Routledge) 57 (6): 823–41.  
  120. ^ Naimark, Norman M. Stalin's Genocides (Human Rights and Crimes against Humanity). Princeton University Press, 2010. pp. 134–135. ISBN 0-691-14784-1
  121. ^ Rosefielde, Steven. Red Holocaust. Routledge, 2009. ISBN 0-415-77757-7 pg. 259
  122. ^ Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books, 2010. ISBN 0-465-00239-0 pp. vii, 413
  123. ^ Davies, R. W. and Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (2004) The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933, ISBN 0-333-31107-8
  124. ^ Andreev, EM, et al. (1993) Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991. Moscow, Nauka, ISBN 5-02-013479-1
  125. ^ Rosefielde, Steven (1997). "Documented Homicides and Excess Deaths: New Insights into the Scale of Killing in the USSR during the 1930s". Communist and Post-Communist Studies 30 (3): 321–333.  
  126. ^ Montefiore (2004) p. 649: "Perhaps 20 million had been killed; 28 million deported, of whom 18 million had slaved in the Gulags"
  127. ^  
  128. ^  
  129. ^ Gellately (2007) p. 584: "More recent estimations of the Soviet-on-Soviet killing have been more 'modest' and range between ten and twenty million." and Stéphane Courtois. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. p. 4: "U.S.S.R.: 20 million deaths."
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Notes

See also

This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Русский WorldHeritage.

Decorations and awards

Stalin was also a well-regarded poet in his youth. Some of his poems were published in Ilia Chavchavadze's journal Iveria and later anthologized.[356][357]

Works

There are conflicting accounts of Stalin's birth, who listed his birth year in various documents as being in 1878 before coming to power in 1922.[1] The phrase "death of one man is a tragedy, death of a million is a statistic" is sometimes attributed to Stalin, although there is no proof of him saying that.[352] In addition, hypotheses and popular rumors exist about Stalin's biological father having been explorer Nicolay Przhevalsky.[353] Some Bolsheviks and others have accused Stalin of being an agent for the Okhrana.[354] It is also widely believed that the Red Terror was begun by Stalin.[355]

Hypotheses, rumors and misconceptions about Stalin

Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist) contingent at London May Day march in 2008, carrying a banner of Stalin.

The CPSU Central Committee continued to promote atheism and the elimination of religion during the remainder of Stalin's lifetime after the 1943 concordat.[351] Stalin's greater tolerance for religion after 1943 was limited by party machinations. Whether persecutions after World War II were more aimed at certain sections of society over and above detractors is a disputed point.

During the Second World War, Stalin reopened the churches. One reason could have been to motivate the majority of the population who had Christian beliefs. The reasoning behind this is that by changing the official policy of the party and the state towards religion, the Church and its clergymen could be at his disposal in mobilizing the war effort. On 4 September 1943, Stalin invited Metropolitan Sergius, Metropolitan Alexius and Metropolitan Nicholas to the Kremlin and proposed to reestablish the Moscow Patriarchate, which had been suspended since 1925, and elect the Patriarch. On 8 September 1943, Metropolitan Sergius was elected patriarch.

Although raised in the atheist. Stalin had a complex relationship with religious institutions in the Soviet Union.[349] Historians Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov have suggested that "[Stalin's] atheism remained rooted in some vague idea of a God of nature."[350]

Religion

Stalin was an accomplished billiards player,[347] and could read 500 pages a day, having a library of over 20,000 books.[348]

Khrushchev reports in his memoirs that Stalin was fond of American cowboy movies.[345] He would often sleep until evening in his dacha, and after waking up summon high-ranking Soviet politicians to watch foreign movies with him in the Kremlin movie theater.[345] The movies, being in foreign languages, were given a running translation by Ivan Bolshakov, people's commissar of cinema.[345] The translations were hilarious for the audience as Bolshakov spoke very basic English.[346] His favourite films were westerns and Charlie Chaplin episodes. He banned any hint of nudity. When Ivan showed a film with a naked woman Stalin shouted: "Are you making a brothel here, Bolshakov?" After a movie had ended, Stalin often invited the audience for dinner, even though the clock was usually past midnight.[345] In the aftermath of the war, he took control over all of Joseph Goebbels' films.

Stalin enjoyed drinking, and would often force those around him to join in.[344] He preferred Russian vodka, but usually ate traditional Russian food.[344]

Stalin inspecting the first ZIS, model 101

Habits

In 1967, Svetlana defected to the United States, where she later married William Wesley Peters, the apprentice of Frank Lloyd Wright. She died in Richland Center, Wisconsin on November 22, 2011, from complications of colon cancer.[342] Olga, her daughter with Peters, now goes by Chrese Evans and lives in Portland, Oregon.[343]

Beside his suite in the Kremlin, Stalin had numerous domiciles. In 1919, he started with a country house near Usovo, he added dachas at Zuvalova and Kuntsevo (Blizhny dacha built by Miron Merzhanov). Before World War II he added the Lipki estate and Semyonovskaya, and had at least four dachas in the south by 1937, including one near Sochi. A luxury villa near Gagri was given to him by Beria. In Abkhazia he maintained a mountain retreat. After the war he added dachas at Novy Afon, near Sukhumi, in the Valdai Hills, and at Lake Mitsa. Another estate was near Zelyony Myss on the Black Sea. All these dachas, estates, and palaces were staffed, well-furnished and equipped, kept safe by security forces, and were mainly used privately, rarely for diplomatic purposes.[341] Between places Stalin would travel by car or train, never by air; he flew only once when attending the 1943 Tehran conference.

Vasiliy rose through the ranks of the Soviet Air Force, officially dying of alcoholism in 1962; however, this is still in question. He distinguished himself in World War II as a capable airman. Svetlana emigrated to the United States in 1967. In March 2001, Russian Independent Television NTV interviewed a previously unknown grandson living in Novokuznetsk, Yuri Davydov, who stated that his father had told him of his lineage, but, was told to keep quiet because of the campaign against Stalin's cult of personality.[340]

Stalin had a son, Vasiliy, and a daughter, Svetlana, with his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva. She died in 1932, officially of illness. She may have committed suicide by shooting herself after a quarrel with Stalin, leaving a suicide note which according to their daughter was "partly personal, partly political."[339] According to A&E Biography, there is also a belief among some Russians that Stalin himself murdered his wife after the quarrel, which apparently took place at a dinner in which Stalin tauntingly flicked cigarettes across the table at her.

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