Kalyani (raga)

Kalyani (raga)

Kaḷyāṇ or Kaḷyāṇī, alternatively called Yaman, is a melakarta rāga (parent musical scale) in the Carnatic music, and is also an important raga in Hindustani music tradition. Its Western equivalent is the Lydian mode.

Contents

  • Kalyani in Carnatic music 1
    • Specifics on this raga 1.1
    • Structure and Lakshana 1.2
    • Janya Rāgams 1.3
    • Related rāgams 1.4
  • Kalyan in Hindustani music 2
    • Vadi and Samavadi 2.1
    • Pakad or Chalan 2.2
    • Organization and relationships 2.3
    • Behavior 2.4
    • Samay (Time) 2.5
    • Seasonality 2.6
    • Rasa 2.7
  • Historical Information 3
    • Origins 3.1
    • Important recordings 3.2
    • Film songs 3.3
  • References 4
  • Literature 5
  • External links 6

Kalyani in Carnatic music

In South Indian weddings this is a very prominently played rāga. The word Kaḷyāṇī means she who causes auspicious things.

It is the 65th melakarta rāga under the Katapayadi sankhya. It is also called Mechakaḷyāṇī. The notes for Kaḷyāṇī are S R2 G3 M2 P D2 N3.

Specifics on this raga

Kalyani is slightly difficult to elaborate on in raaga alapana due to its similarity with Sankarabharanam with the only difference of the Madyamam (Ma). One should not remain too long on panchamam (pa) or alternate between shadjamam and panchamam too frequently. Also, one must stress the characteristic madhyama very frequently or risk confusion with other raagas. Rishabham and Dhaivatam are also very key to this raagam and also aren't stressed very much in Sankarabharanam. Kaḷyāṇī is a very beautiful raaga, and is prominently known among the public. This raga is very special because it is sung with all higher notes.

Structure and Lakshana

Kalyani scale with Shadjam at C

It is the 5th ragam in the 11th chakra Rudra. The mnemonic name is Rudra-Ma. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gu mi pa dhi (or 'di') nu.[1] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes used in this scale are shadjam, chatushruti rishabam, antara gandharam, prati madhyamam, chatushruti dhaivatam, kakali nishadam. It is a Sampurna raga in Carnatic music, that is to say, has all the seven notes: Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni. It is the prati madhyamam equivalent of Dheerasankarabharanam, which is the 29th melakarta. This raga is very significant to the chart, because it is sung with all higher notes.

Janya Rāgams

Kaḷyāṇī has many janya rāgams (derived scales) associated with it, of which Hamīr Kaḷyāṇī, Mohanakalyani, Saranga, Sunadavinodini and Yamuna Kaḷyāṇī are very popular. See List of Janya Rāgams for full list of rāgams associated with Kaḷyāṇī.

===Popular compositions===

Nearly every significant Carnatic composer (including the Trinity of Carnatic music) has composed several pieces in the Kaḷyāṇī rāgam. Kaḷyāṇī is also considered one of the "major" rāgams of Carnatic music along with Sankarabharanam, Todi and Kharaharapriya (the set of "major" rāgams is an informal grouping of the most popular rāgams used for elaboration and exploration, and which often form the centerpiece of a Carnatic music concert in the form of a Rāgaṃ tānaṃ Pallavi (RTP) or a kriti). See next section for further information on relationships between these rāgams.

Here is a short list of well known compositions in Kaḷyāṇī.

The most popular film composition set in Kalyani is " Mannavan Vandhanadi Thozhi" by K V Mahadevan rendered by P Susheela, [2]" "Amma Endrazhaikkaatha Uyirillaye" by Ilayaraja, "Manmadha Pournami" (P Susheela) in Panchavankadu by G Devarajan. The track Kalaivaniye in Sindhu Bhairavi that is set in the Kalyani rāgam and sung without an avarohaṇam. The Bharathiar composition Veenai Adi Nee Enakku from the movie Ezhavathu Manithan is also set in the Kalyani rāgam. The Telugu movie Sankarabharanam has a Shloka "Māṇikya Upalālayanti" set in this rāgam.

Related rāgams

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of Kalyani.

Kalyani's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields 5 other major Melakarta rāgams, namely, Hanumatodi, Sankarabharanam, Natabhairavi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bhedam of this rāgam refer Related rāgams section in Sankarabharanam page.

Kalyan in Hindustani music

Avarohana S' N D P M+ G R S

Vadi and Samavadi

Vadi is ga, Samvadi is ni .

Pakad or Chalan

Kalyan has no specific phrases or particular features, many musicians avoid Sa and Pa in ascend or treat them very weakly. You often hear N0 R G M+ D N S' in ascent and S' N G M+ G R S in descend[3]).
Sa is avoided in beginning the ascend such as N0 R G M+ P D N S'

Organization and relationships

There is some discussion whether Yaman and Kalyan really just are different names for the same raga, or that these are actually 2 ragas. Joep Bor says "Kalyan (today usually referred to as Yaman)",[4] Kaufmann[5] says that Yaman and Kalyan are just different names, but insists that rāga Yaman-kalyan is different as there natural Ma is occasionally inserted between two Ga, like Ga Ma Ga Re Sa, while in all other instances tivra Ma (Ma+ is used as in Kalyan). S. Bagchee[6] agrees with Kaufmann. Bor : If natural Ma is occasionally added in a concluding figure leading to Sa, the raga is known as Yaman-Kalyan.[4]
Kalyan is mixed with several ragas:

Thaat: Kalyan is type raga of Kalyan thaat. In thaat Kalyan, all notes are shuddha (natural) except teevra (sharp) Ma.

Behavior

Yaman is regarded one of the grandest and most fundamental rāgas in Hindustani music. It is one of the first rāgas taught to students.

Samay (Time)

Kalyan should be performed during the first quarter of the night.

Seasonality

Rasa

Kalyan is described by Meshakarna(1570) as "lord in white garments and pearl necklace on a splendid lion-throne, under a royal umbrella, fanned with whisk, chewing betel"[4]
A song text is:
Hey friend, without my lover
I don't find peace
At any moment of the day;
Since my lover went away
I spend my nights counting the stars
[4]

Historical Information

Yaman is not an ancient rāga. It is first mentioned in the literature in the late 16th century, by which time it was very popular: The Sahasras contains 45 dhrupad song-texts for Kalyan and five for Iman-Kalyan. According to Venkatamakhin(1620), Kalyan was a favourite melody to the Arabs, and Pundarika included Yaman among his 'Persian' Ragas.[4]

Origins

Important recordings

Film songs

  • "Man re, tu kaahe na dheer dhare" in "Chitralekha"
  • "Zindagi bhar nahin bhulegi barsaat ki raat" in "Barsaat Ki Raat" (1960)
  • "Aansoo bhari hai yeh jeevan ki raahen" in "Parvarish" (1977)
  • "Chandan Sa Badan, Chanchal Chitvan" in SaraswatiChandra (1968)
  • "Kalyani Kalyani" in Kannada Movie - Ksheera Sagara (1992)
  • "Saathiyan Toone Kya Kiya" in Love (1991)

References


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local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

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function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


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function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
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end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
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end

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  1. ^ Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  2. ^ http://www.thamizhisai.com/tamil-cinema/tamil-cinema-001/tc0001_thiruvarut-selvar.php
  3. ^ Kaufmann(1968)
  4. ^ a b c d e Bor 1997
  5. ^ Kaufmann 1968
  6. ^ Bagchee 1998

Literature


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External links

Examples of Kalyan:

  • Chandan Sa Badan
  • Riyaz of Prashant Uday Manohar on violin
  • song "Bhuli Hui Yaadein" on Saaj
  • Abhik Mukherjee, sitar, Raag Yaman, drut

Examples of Yaman-Kalyan:

Examples of Shuddha Kalyan:

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