Eastman Kodak Company
Type Public
Traded as NYSE: KODK
Founded 1888 (1888)[2]
Founders George Eastman
Headquarters Rochester, New York, United States
Area served Worldwide
Key people
Products Digital imaging and photographic materials, equipment and services
Revenue Decrease US$ 4.11 billion (2012)[3][4]
Operating income Decrease US$ −600 million (2011)[3]
Net income Decrease US$ −764 million (2011)[3]
Total assets Decrease US$ 4.67 billion (2011)[3]
Total equity Decrease US$ −2.35 billion (2011)[3]
Employees Decrease 8,800 (2014)[5]
Website .com.kodakwww

Eastman Kodak Company, commonly known as Kodak, is an American technology George Eastman in 1888.

Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world. Its main business segments are Digital Printing & Enterprise and Graphics, Entertainment & Commercial Films.[6][8]

Kodak is best known for photographic film products. During most of the 20th century Kodak held a dominant position in photographic film, and in 1976, had a 90% market share of photographic film sales in the United States. The company's ubiquity was such that its tagline "Kodak moment" entered the common lexicon to describe a personal event that demanded to be recorded for posterity.[9]

Kodak began to struggle financially in the late 1990s as a result of the decline in sales of photographic film and its slowness in transitioning to digital photography, despite having invented the core technology used in current digital cameras. 2007 was the most recent year in which the company made a profit.[10] However, Kodak ended its most recent fiscal quarter reporting a $19M profit.[11] As part of a turnaround strategy, Kodak focused on digital photography and digital printing and attempted to generate revenues through aggressive patent litigation.[12][13]

In January 2012, Kodak filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.[14][15][16] In February 2012, Kodak announced that it would cease making digital cameras, pocket video cameras and digital picture frames and focus on the corporate digital imaging market.[17] In August 2012, Kodak announced the intention to sell its photographic film (excluding motion picture film), commercial scanners and kiosk operations as a measure to emerge from bankruptcy.[18] In January 2013, the Court approved financing for the company to emerge from bankruptcy by mid-2013.[19] Kodak sold many of its patents for approximately $525,000,000 to a group of companies (including Apple, Google, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, Samsung, Adobe Systems and HTC) under the name Intellectual Ventures and RPX Corporation.[20]

On September 3, 2013, Kodak emerged from bankruptcy having shed its large legacy liabilities and exited several businesses.[21] Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging are now part of Kodak Alaris, a separate company owned by the U.K.-based Kodak Pension Plan.[22][23]

On March 12, 2014, Kodak announced that the Board of Directors had elected Jeffrey J. Clarke as Chief Executive Officer and a member of its Board of Directors. [24] [25]


  • Name 1
  • History 2
    • Rivalry with Fujifilm 2.1
    • Shift to digital 2.2
    • New strategy 2.3
    • Timeline 2.4
      • 1880 to 1899 2.4.1
      • 1900 to 1999 2.4.2
      • 2000 to 2009 2.4.3
      • 2010 to present 2.4.4
  • Products and services 3
    • Current 3.1
    • Digital Printing and Enterprise 3.2
      • Flexo printing 3.2.1
      • Functional Printing 3.2.2
      • Enterprise Professional Services 3.2.3
      • Digital Printing Solutions 3.2.4
      • Consumer inkjet ink cartridges 3.2.5
    • GECF 3.3
      • Graphics 3.3.1
      • Global Technical Services 3.3.2
      • Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film 3.3.3
      • Motion picture and TV production 3.3.4
      • Technical support and on-site service 3.3.5
      • Other 3.3.6
    • Former 3.4
      • Still film cameras 3.4.1
      • Instant cameras 3.4.2
      • Image sensors 3.4.3
      • Digital cameras and video cameras 3.4.4
      • Digital picture frames 3.4.5
      • Kodak Gallery 3.4.6
      • Document imaging 3.4.7
      • Photographic film and paper 3.4.8
      • Photo kiosks 3.4.9
  • Operations 4
    • Subsidiaries 4.1
    • Kodak Research Laboratories 4.2
  • Notable people 5
    • Presidents and CEOs 5.1
    • Scientists 5.2
  • Archive donation 6
  • Environmental record 7
  • Controversies 8
    • Better Business Bureau 8.1
    • Patent litigation 8.2
    • Class action lawsuit 8.3
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Bibliography 11
  • External links 12


1900 Kodak ad
The letter k was a favorite of Eastman's; he is quoted as saying, "it seems a strong, incisive sort of letter."[26]

He and his mother devised the name Kodak with an anagrams set. Eastman said that there were three principal concepts he used in creating the name: it should be short, easy to pronounce, and not resemble any other name or be associated with anything else.[27]

It has also been suggested that Kodak originated from the suggestion of David Houston, a fellow photographic inventor who held the patents to several roll film camera concepts that he later sold to Eastman.[27] Houston, who started receiving patents in 1881, was said to have chosen Nodak as a nickname of his home state, North Dakota (NoDak).[28][29] This is contested by other historians, however, who note that Kodak was trademarked before Eastman bought Houston's patents.[30]


The Kodak factory and main office in Rochester, circa 1910

From the company's founding by razor and blades strategy of selling inexpensive cameras and making large margins from consumables — film, chemicals and paper. As late as 1976, Kodak commanded 90% of film sales and 85% of camera sales in the U.S., according to a 2005 case study for Harvard Business School.

Rivalry with Fujifilm

Japanese competitor Fujifilm entered the U.S. market (via Fuji Photo Film U.S.A.) with lower-priced film and supplies, but Kodak did not believe that American consumers would ever desert its brand.[31] Kodak passed on the opportunity to become the official film of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics; Fuji won these sponsorship rights, which gave them a permanent foothold in the marketplace. Fuji opened a film plant in the U.S., and its aggressive marketing and price cutting began taking market share from Kodak. Fuji went from a 10% share in the early 1990s to 17% in 1997. Meanwhile, Kodak made little headway in Japan, the second-largest market for photo film and paper after the United States. Fuji also made headway into the professional market with specialty transparency films such as Velvia and Provia, which competed successfully with Kodak's signature professional product, Kodachrome, but used the more economical and common E-6 processing machines which were standard in most processing labs, rather than the dedicated machines required by Kodachrome. Fuji's films soon also found a competitive edge in higher-speed negative films, with a tighter grain structure.

In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji. The complaint was lodged by the United States with the

  • Kodak
  • Kodak Camera Catalog Info at Historic Camera

External links

  • ACKERMAN, Carl William, George Eastman : founder of Kodak and the photography business, Beard Books, Washington, D. C., 2000.
  • BINANT, Philippe, Au coeur de la projection numérique, Actions, 29, 12-13, Kodak, Paris, 2007.


  1. ^ "Evolution of our brand logo". Eastman Kodak. Retrieved September 26, 2007. 
  2. ^ a b c "Milestones- chronology". Retrieved January 20, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Eastman Kodak Company".  
  4. ^ "Eastman Kodak Company Revenue & Earnings Per Share". Securities and Exchange Commission. 2014. 
  5. ^ Kodak employment continues to shrink
  7. ^ "Certificate of amendment to the restated certificate of incorporation of Eastman Kodak company" (PDF).  
  8. ^ "Kodak Announces Emergence From Bankruptcy". September 3, 2013. Retrieved October 2, 2013. 
  9. ^ Rees, Jasper (January 20, 2012). "The end of our Kodak moment". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved January 20, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Hiltzik, Michael (December 4, 2011). "Kodak's long fade to black". latimes.com. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Daneman, Matthew (November 4, 2014). "New Kodak Moment: A $19M profit". democratandchronicle.com. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  12. ^ a b "Kodak embraces digital revolution". BBC News. January 13, 2004. Retrieved March 29, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b Dana Mattioli (April 19, 2010). "At Kodak, Patents Hold the Key to the Future".  
  14. ^ a b Business Standard. "Kodak files for bankruptcy, plans biz overhaul". Business-standard.com. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c d McCarty, Dawn; Jinks, Beth (January 19, 2012). "Kodak Files for Bankruptcy Protection". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c "Eastman Kodak Files for Bankruptcy". The New York Times. January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Kodak ditches digital camera business". CNN. February 9, 2012. 
  18. ^ "Kodak announces plans to sell still film, commercial scanner, and kiosk divisions". The Verge. Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
  19. ^ Gilbert, Ben (2013-01-23). "Court approves Kodak financing, could exit bankruptcy by mid-2013". Engadget.com. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  20. ^ Apple i Google pośród firm, które zapłaciły za patenty Kodaka 525 milionów dolarów | Newsy. Magazynt3.pl (2012-12-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  21. ^ "Kodak bankruptcy officially ends". USA Today. September 3, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  22. ^ "Kodak emerges from bankruptcy with focus on commercial printing". Reuters. September 3, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  23. ^ "Kodak Exits Bankruptcy". New York Times. September 3, 2013. 
  24. ^ a b "Kodak Names Tech Veteran as CEO". The Wall Street Journal. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b "Kodak Names Oribitz Chairman Clarke as New CEO". Bloomberg. March 12, 2014. 
  26. ^ Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc (April 1962). "The story behind Kodak Trademark". Kiplinger's Personal Finance. p. 40 
  27. ^ a b Nemenoff, Ben. "Houston, David Henderson". nd.gov. Retrieved September 5, 2010. 
  28. ^ Hammer, Mina Fisher (1940). History of the kodak and its continuations. The House of little books. p. 46. 
    "... in 1880 ... [Houston] polished his invention for patent and originated its name, Kodak, from that of the State, Dakota ...."
  29. ^ Helm, Merry (October 11, 2003). "Kodak from Nodak-David Houston". Dakota datebook. Prairie public. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Houston, David Henderson". North Dakota visual artist archive. Archived from the original on December 13, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  31. ^ "The last Kodak moment?".  
  32. ^ World Trade Organization. "DS44 Japan — Measures Affecting Consumer Photographic Film and Paper". WTO. Retrieved January 23, 2012. 
  33. ^ a b Hiltzik, Michael (December 4, 2011). "Kodak's long fade to black". latimes.com. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  34. ^ "The Kodak - Fuji Rivalry | Business Strategy Case Studies | Business, Management Strategies Cases | Case Study". Icmrindia.org. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  35. ^ a b "fujicasestudy" (PDF). Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  36. ^ "The last Kodak moment?". The Economist (14 January 2012). 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  37. ^ "Evolution of our brand logo". Eastman Kodak. Retrieved September 26, 2007. 
  38. ^ "Kodak's Last Days". nst.com. February 5, 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  39. ^ "Steven Sasson named to CE Hall of Fame". letsgodigital.org. September 18, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Mistakes Made On The Road To Innovation". Businessweek.com. November 27, 2006. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  41. ^ Jinks, Beth; Childs, Mary (January 20, 2012). "Kodak Bankruptcy May Shed Photography, Bet on Digital Printing". Bloomberg. 
  42. ^ a b "Kodak:What led to bankruptcy - Hindustan Times". HindustanTimes.com. January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  43. ^ Scheyder, Ernest (December 24, 2011). "As Kodak struggles, Eastman Chemical thrives". Reuters. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  44. ^ a b (Optics Journal, New York, 2012) pp. 133-136Laser PhysicistF. J. Duarte, .
  45. ^ "Kodak, Yahoo and RIM: Death comes for us all". News (CBS). Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  46. ^ a b Martin, Andrew (October 20, 2011). "Kodak's Bet on Its Printers Fails to Quell the Doubters". The New York Times. 
  47. ^ a b "Kodak quits printers, wants new deadline". USA Today. September 28, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2012. 
  48. ^ a b "Kodak may file for bankruptcy". IBNLive (Report). IN. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  49. ^ Haunss, Kristen (January 13, 2012). "Kodak Said in Talks With Citigroup on Bankruptcy Financing". Bloomberg. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Kodak gets 2013 deadline to reorganise". IBNLive (IN). Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  51. ^ 明, 星编辑 (2013-04-19), P&E:单电外观曝光 柯达重现展会现场 (in Chinese),  
  52. ^ New pictures of the Kodak S1 MFT camera…, Four Thirds Rumors, April 25, 2013 
  53. ^ a b
  54. ^ http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20140312005708/en/Jeff-Clarke-Elected-CEO-Kodak#.UyBnas51nsL
  55. ^ Rochester University History Dept Eastman Dry Plate
  56. ^ "Almanac: The birth of Kodak".  
  57. ^ a b c d  
  58. ^ Coe, Brian (1978). Cameras. Crown Publishing, Inc.  
  59. ^ Gordon, John Steele (October 2003). "What digital camera makers can learn from George Eastman".  
  60. ^ Brayer, Elizabeth (1996). George Eastman. The Johns Hopkins University Press.  
  61. ^ a b "Dow Jones Industrial Average History" (PDF). Dow Jones Indexes. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2008. 
  62. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  63. ^ O. G. Peterson, S. A. Tuccio, B. B. Snavely, CW operation of an organic dye solution dye laser, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 1917-1918 (1970).
  64. ^ "As Kodak struggles, Eastman Chemical thrives". Reuters. December 24, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2011. 
  65. ^ C. H. Chen, J. L. Fox, F. J. Duarte, Lasing characteristics of new-coumarin-analog dyes: broadband and narrow-linewidth performance, Appl. Opt. 27, 443-445 (1988).
  66. ^ Black, Larry (June 16, 1993). "Kodak to spin off chemicals: Eastman will become independent by the end of this year". London: The Independent. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  67. ^ "One Eastman Chemical share set for 4 of Kodak". The New York Times. December 11, 1993. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  68. ^ "Kodak acquires Algotec for $42.5 million". The Engineer. November 18, 2003. 
  69. ^ "Kodak embraces digital revolution". BBC News. January 13, 2004. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  70. ^ "Kodak cuts 15,000 jobs worldwide". BBC News. January 22, 2004. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  71. ^ Teather, David (January 23, 2004). "Kodak pulls shutter down on its past". London: The Guardian. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  72. ^ "Kodak To Market Lexar Memory Cards". Forbes. May 17, 2004. 
  73. ^ "Kodak to Purchase OREX, Leader in Computed Radiography Products for Specialty Markets". Diagnostico Journal. Jan 18, 2005. 
  74. ^ Sullivan, Terry (April 25, 2006). "Kodak's Small, Sleek…Superzoom?". PC Mag. Retrieved December 19, 2011. 
  75. ^ "Kodak intros wireless digital cameras". Macworld. April 25, 2006. Retrieved December 19, 2011. 
  76. ^ "Kodak Posts a Wider Loss". The New York Times. August 2, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  77. ^ "Slumping film sales leave Kodak figures deep in red". London: The Guardian. August 2, 2006. Retrieved January 2, 2012. 
  78. ^ "Kodak to Sell Health Group to Onex for up to $2.55 billion". Eastman Kodak. January 10, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  79. ^ "Kodak Completes Sale of Health Group to Onex". Eastman Kodak. May 1, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  80. ^ "Rohm and Haas to buy Kodak's light management films unit". Reuters. April 19, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2012. 
  81. ^ "Chi Mei, Kodak ink deal to make slimmer screens". Taipei Times. May 26, 2007. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
  82. ^ "Color Filter Array 2.0". June 14, 2007. 
  83. ^ "Press Release: Kodak and Lexar Announce New Extended Five-Year Agreement". Eastman Kodak. September 4, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2008. 
  84. ^ The Wall Street Journal November 26, 2008. Katherine Boehret. Family Snapshots in the Splendor of HD.
  85. ^ Paul, Franklin (January 29, 2009). "Kodak to cut up to 4,500 jobs". Reuters.com. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  86. ^ "Kodak Will Retire Kodachrome, Its Oldest Color Film Stock". The New York Times. June 22, 2009. Retrieved December 26, 2011. 
  87. ^ Topping, Alexandra (June 23, 2009). "Mama, they've taken away my nice bright Kodachrome colours". London: The Guardian. Retrieved December 26, 2011. 
  88. ^ "Rocnow.com". Rocnow.com. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  89. ^ "S&P ousts Kodak, but its shares rise".  
  90. ^ Spector, Mike; Mattioli, Dana (2011-09-30). "Kodak Hires Restructuring Lawyers".  
  91. ^ "Beleaguered Kodak faces delisting from NYSE". Chicago Tribune. January 3, 2012. 
  92. ^ Humer, Caroline (January 10, 2012). "Struggling Kodak film group split up, shares soar". Reuters. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
  93. ^ Jarzemsky, Matt (January 10, 2012). "Kodak separates business into consumer and commercial segments". The Australian. Retrieved January 15, 2012. 
  94. ^ "Photography icon Eastman Kodak has filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. –". Usatoday.com. January 19, 2012. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  95. ^ "Truesense Imaging Announces Independent Operation - Truesense Imaging, Inc". Truesenseimaging.com. Retrieved 2013-03-03. 
  96. ^ - "Kodak to Cease Digital Camera Production". PC Magazine. February 9, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  97. ^ - "Kodak Focuses Consumer Business On More Profitable Growth Opportunities". Kodak. February 9, 2012. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  98. ^ "Kodak to sell film business that made its name". The Chicago Tribune. August 24, 2012. Retrieved August 24, 2012. 
  99. ^ Jones, Roland. "Kodak plans to cut another 1,000 jobs". NBC News. Retrieved 10 September 2012. 
  100. ^ "Kodak in $525 mln patent deal, eyes bankruptcy end". Reuters. December 19, 2012. Retrieved December 20, 2012. 
  101. ^ "Kodak selling two businesses to pension plan". USA Today. April 29, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  102. ^ "Kodak emerges from Chapter 11". Screen Daily. September 4, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  103. ^ """Video "The opening of the new Kodak. October 17, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013. 
  104. ^ """Video "Jeff Clarke's Message to Employees. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. 
  105. ^ Fritz, Ben, Movie film, at death's door, gets a reprieve, Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2014, p.B1
  106. ^
  107. ^ a b c "Update: Kodak exits Chapter 11". September 4, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  108. ^ a b "AP EXCLUSIVE: Kodak CEO talks company's future". September 3, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  109. ^ "Kodak Proclaims, "We Are Ready" for Whatever Life after Chapter 11 May Bring". September 6, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  110. ^ "Me & my: Kodak NexPress SX3900". September 30, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  111. ^ "Tried & Tested: Kodak Digimaster". January 21, 2011. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  112. ^ "KODAK FLEXCEL NX System - Kodak Graphic Communications Group". Graphics.kodak.com. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
  113. ^ "Kodak Sees Bright Future in Imaging for Business". September 5, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  114. ^ "Kodak, Kingsbury ink deal on touch-screen sensors". June 27, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  115. ^ "Kodak, UniPixel have renamed their touch-screen sensor line". September 25, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  116. ^ "Digital Printing Solution - Kodak Graphics Communications Group". Eastman Kodak. 
  117. ^ "Kodak Revolutionizes the Inkjet Industry". Eastman Kodak. February 6, 2007. 
  118. ^ "Kodak to stop selling inkjet printers from 2013". Reuters. September 28, 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012. 
  119. ^ "Kodak Emerges From Bankruptcy". Variety. September 3, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  120. ^ "Kodak sells British visual effects house Cinesite". Los Angeles Times. May 10, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  121. ^ "LAC Group Acquires Kodak's PRO-TEK Film Preservation Subsidiary to Expand Information Curation and Stewardship Services". October 16, 2013. Retrieved November 11, 2013. 
  122. ^ "Kodak embraces digital revolution". BBC News. January 13, 2004. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  123. ^ "Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co.". October 12, 1990. 
  124. ^ "History — Truesense Imaging, Inc.". 
  125. ^ "Weave Innovations StoryBox". Gadget Central. April 4, 2000. 
  126. ^ Scoblete, Greg (March 12, 2001). "Digital Frames Make Inroads In Consumer Market". Twice. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  127. ^ Rubin, Ben Fox (1 March 2012). "Kodak Agrees to Sell Gallery to Shutterfly". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 March 2012. 
  128. ^ "Insurance | Case Studies | Gore Success Story". Microdea.com. Retrieved December 11, 2011. 
  129. ^ "Kodak to Stop Making Black-and-White Paper".  
  130. ^ "KODAK, Esprida offer Remote Business Manager for photo kiosks". Kiosk Marketplace. October 10, 2006. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  131. ^ "Kodak.com". E.kodak.com:80. June 24, 2010. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  132. ^ T. H. James, Journey: 75 Years of Kodak Research (Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, 1989).
  133. ^ Burley, Robert (February 21, 2007). "Back to the Future - Photography in the 21st Century, February 21, 2007". The Photographic Historical Society of Canada. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  134. ^ "Special Collections: Kodak Canada Corporate Archives and Heritage Collection". Ryerson University Library and Archives. Retrieved October 1, 2011. 
  135. ^ "Facilities Releasing TRI Chemicals to the Environment". Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  136. ^ "Detailed Company Report: Kodak". Toxic 100. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  137. ^ "2005 Dirty Dozen Awards". Citizens' Environmental Coalition. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  138. ^ "Corporate Citizenship". Eastman Kodak. Retrieved January 7, 2008. 
  139. ^ "Eastman Kodak Resigns from Council of Better Business Bureaus After Expulsion Proceedings are Initiated". Better Business Bureau. March 26, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  140. ^ Rochester Business Journal, March 26, 2007
  141. ^ Don Reisinger, CNET. "Kodak wins key battle in Apple patent case." May 13, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011.
  142. ^ "Superior Court of California, County of Orange: CIVIL CASE ACCESS". 
  143. ^ "Kodak All-In-One Color Inkjet Printer Class Action Lawsuit". 
  144. ^ "Class action complaint filing for case: 30-2011-00510342-CU-FR-CXC". 


See also

The complaint also alleges that the printer design necessitates that both black and color cartridges be installed for the printer to operate, even when the intent is to print a black and white document, and that the combination of these design aspects results in forced purchases of color inkjet cartridges.[143][144]

The complaint alleges that Kodak engaged in wrongful business practices by not informing consumers that its All-In-One inkjet printers are designed in such a way that both black and color inkjet cartridges are always used during printing, regardless of printer settings.

On September 22, 2011, a class action complaint was filed in the Superior Court of California, County of Orange, Daniela Apostol v. Eastman Kodak Company.[142]

Class action lawsuit

On July 1, 2011, the U.S. International Trade Commission partially reversed a January decision by an administrative law judge stating that neither Apple nor Research in Motion had infringed upon Kodak's patents. The ITC remanded the matter for further proceedings before the ALJ." Notice of Commission Determination."

In 2010, Apple filed a patent-infringement claim against Kodak. On May 12, 2011, Judge Robert Rogers rejected Apple's claims that two of its digital photography patents were being violated by Kodak.[141]

Patent litigation

It is inaccurate in the facts presented as well as those the BBB chose to omit. Ironically, we ultimately decided to resign our membership because we were extremely unhappy with the customer service we received from the local office of the BBB. After years of unproductive discussions with the local office regarding their Web site postings about Kodak, which in our view were consistently inaccurate, we came to the conclusion that their process added no value to our own. Our commitment to our customers is unwavering. That will not change. What has changed is that, for us, the BBB’s customer complaint process has become redundant, given the multiple and immediate ways that customers have to address their concerns directly with Kodak.

Kodak said its customer service and customer privacy teams concluded that 99 percent of all complaints forwarded by the BBB already were handled directly with the customer. Brian O’Connor, Kodak chief privacy officer, said the company was surprised by the news release distributed by the Better Business Bureau:

On March 26, 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) announced that Eastman Kodak was resigning its national membership in the wake of expulsion proceedings initiated by the CBBB Board of Directors.[139] In 2006, Kodak notified the BBB of Upstate New York that it would no longer accept or respond to consumer complaints submitted by them. In prior years, Kodak responded by offering consumers an adjustment or an explanation of the company’s position. The BBB file contains consumer complaints of problems with repairs of Kodak digital cameras, as well as difficulty communicating with Kodak customer service. Among other complaints, consumers say that their cameras broke and they were charged for repairs when the failure was not the result of any damage or abuse. Some say their cameras failed again after being repaired.

Better Business Bureau


Kodak details its annual progress in global sustainability, as well as health, safety, and environment, in its global sustainability report.[138]

The Political Economy Research Institute at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, which compiled the Toxic 100, ranked Kodak the seventh largest polluter in the United States in 2002.[136] In 2004, the Citizens' Environmental Coalition's (CEC) of New York awarded Kodak one of its "Dirty Dozen" awards to highlight its consistently high rates of pollution.[137]

Kodak has been widely criticized by environmentalists and researchers as one of the worst polluters in the United States. According to scorecard.org, a web site that collects information on corporate pollution, Kodak is the worst polluter in New York State, having released 4,433,749 pounds (2,011,115 kg) of chemicals into the environment.[135]

Environmental record

In 2005, Kodak Canada donated its entire historic company archives to Ryerson University in Toronto. The Ryerson University Library also acquired an extensive collection of materials on the history of photography from the private collection of Nicholas M. & Marilyn A. Graver of Rochester, New York.[133] The Kodak Archives, begun in 1909, contain the company's Camera Collection, historic photos, files, trade circulars, Kodak magazines, price lists, daily record books, equipment, and other ephemera. It includes the contents of the Kodak Heritage Collection Museum, a museum established in 1999 for Kodak Canada's centennial that Kodak closed in 2005 along with the company's entire 'Kodak Heights' manufacturing campus in Mount Dennis, Toronto.[134]

Archive donation


Name Title Tenure
Henry A. Strong President 1884 – July 26, 1919
George Eastman President 1921 – April 7, 1925
William G. Stuber President 1925–1934
Frank W. Lovejoy President 1934–1941
Thomas J. Hargrave President 1941–1952
Albert K. Chapman President 1952–1960
William S. Vaughn President and CEO 1960 – December 31, 1968
Louis K. Eilers President and CEO January 1, 1969 – May 17, 1972
Walter A. Fallon President and CEO May 18, 1972 – 1983
Colby H. Chandler CEO May 1983 – June 1990
Kay R. Whitmore CEO June 1990 – October 27, 1993
George M. C. Fisher CEO October 28, 1993 – December 31, 1999
Daniel A. Carp CEO January 1, 2000 – May 31, 2005
Antonio M. Pérez Chairman and CEO June 1, 2005 – 2014
Jeff Clarke CEO March 12, 2014 – present
George Eastman

Presidents and CEOs

Notable people

The Kodak Research Laboratories were founded in 1912 with Kenneth Mees as the first director.[132] Principal components of the Kodak Research Laboratories were the Photographic Research Laboratories and then the Imaging Research Laboratories. Additional organizations included the Corporate Research Laboratories. Over nearly a century, scientists at these laboratories produced thousands of patents and scientific publications.

Kodak Research Laboratories

  • Kodak Limited (UK)
    • the Company's sales and marketing headquarters are located at Hemel Hempstead in Hertfordshire
    • manufacturing facilities are sited at Harrow in north-west London, Kirkby near Liverpool, and Annesley in Nottinghamshire
  • FPC, Inc.
    • FPC, US/Canada
    • FPC Italy



Kodak is a manufacturer of self-service photo kiosks that produce "prints in seconds" from multiple sources including digital input, scanned prints, Facebook, the Kodak Gallery and orders placed on-line using thermosublimation printers. The company has placed over 100,000 Picture Kiosks in retail locations worldwide.[130] Employing similar technology, Kodak also offers larger printing systems with additional capabilities including duplex greeting cards, large format poster printers, photobooks and calendars under the brand name "APEX".[131]

A Kodak NexPress 2500 digital printing press.

Photo kiosks

Kodak is a leading producer of silver halide (AgX) paper used for printing from film and digital images. Minilabs located in retail stores and larger central photo lab operations (CLOs) use silver halide paper for photo printing. In 2005 Kodak announced it would stop producing black-and-white photo paper.[129]

Kodak continues to produce specialty films and film for newer and more popular consumer formats, while it has also discontinued the manufacture of film in older and less popular formats.

Photographic film and paper

Kodak provides document imaging solutions. Historically this industry began when George Eastman partnered with banks to image checks in the 1920s. Through the development of microfilm technology, Eastman Kodak was able to provide business and government with a solution for long term document storage. Document imaging was one of the first imaging solutions to move to "digital imaging" technology. Kodak manufactured the first digital document scanners for high speed document imaging. Today Kodak has a full line of document scanners providing imaging solutions for banking, finance, insurance,[128] healthcare and other vertical industries. Kodak also provides associated document capture software and business process services. Eastman Kodak acquired the Bowe Bell & Howell scanner division in September 2009.

Document imaging

In June 2001, Kodak purchased the photo-developing website Ofoto, later renamed Kodak Gallery. The website enables users to upload their photos into albums, publish them into prints, and create mousepads, calendars, etc. On March 1, 2012, Kodak announced that it will sell the Kodak Gallery to Shutterfly for $23.8 million.[127]

Kodak Gallery

Kodak re-entered the digital photo frame market at CES in 2007 with the introduction of four new EasyShare-branded models that were available in sizes from 200 to 280 mm (8 to 11 inches), included multiple memory card slots, and some of which included wi-fi capability to connect with the Kodak Gallery—that gallery functionality has now been compromised due to gallery policy changes (see below).

Kodak first entered the digital picture frame market with the Kodak Smart Picture Frame in the fourth quarter of 2000. It was designed by Weave Innovations and licensed to Kodak with an exclusive relationship with Weave's StoryBox online photo network.[125] Smart Frame owners connected to the network via an analog telephone connection built into the frame. The frame could hold 36 images internally and came with a six-month free subscription to the StoryBox network.[126]

Digital picture frames

In July 2006 Kodak announced that Flextronics would manufacture and help design its digital cameras.

The Kodak DCS series of digital single-lens reflex cameras and digital camera backs were released by Kodak in the 1990s and 2000s, and discontinued in 2005. They were based on existing 35mm film SLRs from Nikon and Canon and the range included the original Kodak DCS, the first commercially-available digital SLR.

Many of Kodak's early compact digital cameras were designed and built by Chinon Industries, a Japanese camera manufacturer. In 2004 Kodak Japan acquired Chinon and many of its engineers and designers joined Kodak Japan.

A Kodak Easyshare Z1015 IS Digital Camera

Digital cameras and video cameras

As part of its move toward higher end products, Kodak announced on September 15, 2006 that the new Leica M8 camera incorporates Kodak's KAF-10500 image sensor. This was the second recent partnership between Kodak and the German optical manufacturer. In 2011, Kodak sold its Image Sensor Solutions business to Platinum Equity, who subsequently renamed it Truesense Imaging, Inc.[124]

Image sensors

Kodak was the exclusive supplier of negatives for Polaroid cameras from 1963 until 1969, when Polaroid chose to manufacture its own instant film.

Polaroid was awarded damages in the patent trial in the amount of $909,457,567, a record at the time. (Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., U.S. District Court District of Massachusetts, decided October 12, 1990, case no. 76-1634-MA. Published in the U.S. Patent Quarterly as 16 USPQ2d 1481). See also the following cases: Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 641 F.Supp. 828 [228 USPQ 305] (D. Mass. 1985), stay denied, 833 F.2d 930 [5 USPQ2d 1080] (Fed. Cir.), aff'd, 789 F.2d 1556 [229 USPQ 561] (Fed. Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 850 (1986).[123]

After losing a patent battle with Polaroid Corporation, Kodak left the instant camera business on January 9, 1986. The Kodak instant camera included models known as the Kodamatic and the Colorburst.

Instant cameras

On January 13, 2004, Kodak announced it would stop marketing traditional still film cameras (excluding disposable cameras) in the United States, Canada and Western Europe, but would continue to sell film cameras in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and China.[122] By the end of 2005, Kodak ceased manufacturing cameras that used the Advanced Photo System. Kodak licensed the manufacture of Kodak branded cameras to Vivitar in 2005 and 2006. After 2007 Kodak did not license the manufacture of any film camera with the Kodak name.

Still film cameras

A Kodak Instamatic 104


Kodak markets Picture CDs and other photo products such as calendars, photo books and photo enlargements through retail partners such as CVS, Walmart and Target and through its Kodak Gallery online service, formerly known as Ofoto.


Aside from technical phone support for their products, Kodak offers onsite service for other devices such as document scanners, data storage systems (optical, tape, and disk), printers, inkjet printing presses, microfilm/microfiche equipment, photograph kiosks, and photocopiers, for which they dispatch technicians who make repairs in the field.

Technical support and on-site service

Kodak also sold Pro-Tek Media Preservation Services, a film storage company in Burbank, California, in October 2013.[121]

Kodak previously sold LaserPacific and its subsidiaries Laser-Edit, Inc, and Pacific Video, Inc., in April 2010 for an undisclosed sum to TeleCorps Holdings, Inc.

Kodak previously owned the visual effects film post-production facilities Cinesite in Los Angeles and London and also LaserPacific in Los Angeles. Kodak sold Cinesite to Endless LLP, an independent British private equity house.[120]

The company helped set the standard of 35 mm film, and introduced the 16 mm film format for home movie use and lower budget film productions. The home market-oriented 8 mm and Super 8 formats were also developed by Kodak. Kodak also entered the professional television production video tape market, briefly in the mid-1980s, under the product portfolio name of Eastman Professional Video Tape Products. In 1990, Kodak launched a Worldwide Student Program working with university faculty throughout the world to help nurture the future generation of film-makers. Kodak formed Educational Advisory Councils in the US, Europe and Asia made up of Deans and Chairs of some of the most prestigious film schools throughout the world to help guide the development of their program.

The Kodak company holds a vital role in the invention and development of the motion picture industry. Many cinema and TV productions are shot on Kodak film stocks.[119]

Motion picture and TV production

E&CF also offers Aerial and Industrial Films including KODAK Printed Circuit Board film, and delivers external sales for the company’s component businesses: Polyester Film, Specialty Chemicals, Inks and Dispersions and Solvent Recovery.

Kodak’s Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film group (“E&CF”) encompasses its motion picture film business, providing motion imaging products (camera negative, intermediate, print and archival film), services and technology for the professional motion picture and exhibition industries.

Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film

Kodak’s Global Technical Services (“GTS”) for Commercial Imaging is focused on selling service contracts for Kodak products, including the following service categories: field services, customer support services, educational services, and professional services.

Global Technical Services

Kodak’s Graphics business consists of computer to plate (CTP) devices, which Kodak first launched in 1995 when the company introduced the first thermal CTP to market. In CTP, an output device exposes a digital image using SQUAREspot laser imaging technology directly to an aluminum surface (printing plate), which is then mounted onto a printing press to reproduce the image. Kodak’s Graphics portfolio includes front-end controllers, production workflow software, CTP output devices, and digital plates.



Kodak announced plans to stop selling inkjet printers in 2013 as it focuses on commercial printing, but will still sell ink.[118]

In February 2007, Kodak re-entered the market with a new product line of All-In-One (AiO) inkjet printers that employ several technologies marketed as Kodacolor Technology. Advertising emphasizes low price for ink cartridges rather than for the printers themselves.[117]

Kodak entered into consumer inkjet photo printers in a joint venture with manufacturer Lexmark in 1999 with the Kodak Personal Picture Maker.

Consumer inkjet ink cartridges

At present, Kodak has Commercial Web Fed Presses, Commercial Imprinting Systems - PROSPER, VERSAMARK and Commercial Sheet Fed Press - NexPress Digital Production Colour Press, DIGIMASTER HD Digital Black & White Production Printer.[116]

In March 2004, Heidelberg had transferred its Digital Print division to Eastman Kodak Co. under mutual agreement. Kodak continues to research and develop Digital Printing Systems and introduced more products.

In 1997, Heidelberg and Eastman Kodak Co. had created the Nexpress Solutions LLC joint venture to develop a digital color printing press for the high-end market segment. Heidelberg acquired Eastman Kodak Co.'s Office Imaging black and white digital printing activities in 1999. In 2000, they had launched Digimaster 9110 - Black & White Production Printer and NexPress 2100 Digital Colour Press.

Digital Printing Solutions

Enterprise Professional Services offers Print & Managed Media Services, Brand Protection Solutions and Services, and Document Management Services to enterprise customers, including government, pharmaceuticals, and health, consumer and luxury good products, retail and finance.

Enterprise Professional Services

The company currently has strategic relationships with worldwide touch-panel sensor leaders, such as the partnerships with UniPixel announced on April 16, 2013 and Kingsbury Corp. launched on June 27, 2013.[113][114][115]

Functional Printing

Kodak designs and manufactures products for flexography printing. Its Flexcel[112] line of flexo printing systems allow label printers to produce their own digital plates for customized flexo printing and flexible printed packaging.

Flexo printing


Electrophotographic Printing Solutions encompasses the NEXPRESS Press Platform, which enables the printing of short-run, personalized print applications such as direct mail, books, marketing collateral and photo products; and the DIGIMASTER Production Platform that uses monochrome electrophotographic printing technology to create high-quality printing of statements, short-run books, corporate documentation, manuals and direct mail.

(b) Electrophotographic Printing Solutions

Applications include publishing, commercial print, direct mail, and packaging. The business also includes the customer base of KODAK VERSAMARK (first-generation) Products.[108]

Kodak’s product offering includes KODAK PROSPER Presses and PROSPER hybrid components. PROSPER hybrid components are also integrated into OEM partner portfolios. The PROSPER Press features the Stream inkjet technology, which delivers a continuous flow of ink that enables constant and consistent operation, with uniform size and accurate placement, even at very high print speeds.[107]

(a) Inkjet Printing Solutions

Kodak’s Digital Printing Solutions includes high-speed, high-volume commercial inkjet, and color and black-and-white electrophotographic printing equipment and related consumables and services.[109] It has an installed base of more than 5,000 units.

Digital Printing

Digital Printing and Enterprise

Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world.[106] Its main business segments are Digital Printing & Enterprise and Graphics, Entertainment & Commercial Films.[107][108]


Products and services

  • September 3, 2013 Kodak announces that it has emerged from Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection[102] as a company focused on serving commercial customers.[53]
  • October 17, 2013 Kodak brings European headquarter and the entire EAMER Technology Centre under one roof in Eysins, Switzerland. The relocation brings the company's European headquarters and Inkjet demo facilities, which were based in Gland, Switzerland, and the Kodak EAMER Technology and Solutions Centre, which was based in La Hulpe, Belgium, together.[103]
  • March 12, 2014 Kodak names Jeffrey J. Clarke as its new Chief Executive Officer. [24] [25] [104]
  • July 30, 2014 Kodak is negotiating with movie studios for an annual movie film order guarantee to preserve the last source of movie film manufacturing in the United States.[105]
  • January 2012: Kodak received a warning from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) notifying it that its average closing price was below $1.00 for 30 consecutive days and that over the next 6 months it must increase the closing share price to at least $1 on the last trading day of each calendar month and have an average closing price of at least $1 over the 30 trading-days prior or it would be delisted. From the $90 range in 1997, Kodak shares closed at 76 cents on January 3, 2012. On January 8, 2012, Kodak shares closed over 50% higher after the company announced a major restructuring into two main divisions, one focused on products and services for businesses, and the other on consumer products including digital cameras.[92][93]
  • January 19, 2012: Kodak filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection.[15][16][94] The company's stock was delisted from NYSE and moved to OTC exchange. Following the news it ended the day trading down 35% at $0.36 a share.
  • February 7, 2012: The Image Sensor Solutions (ISS) division of Kodak was sold to Truesense Imaging Inc.[95]
  • February 9, 2012: Kodak announced that it would exit the digital image capture business, phasing out its production of digital cameras.[96][97] Kodak sees home photo printers, high-speed commercial inkjet presses, workflow software and packaging as the core of its future business. Once the digital camera business is phased out, Kodak said its consumer business will focus on printing. It will seek a company to license its EasyShare digital camera brand.
  • August 24, 2012: Kodak announced that it plans to sell its film, commercial scanner and kiosk divisions.[98]
  • September 10, 2012: Kodak announced plans to cut another 1,000 jobs by the end of 2012 and that it is examining further job cuts as it works to restructure its business in bankruptcy.[99]
  • September 28, 2012: Kodak announced that it is exiting the inkjet printer business.[47]
  • December 20, 2012 Kodak announced that it plans to sell its digital imaging patents for about $525 million to some of the world’s biggest technology companies, thus making a step to end bankruptcy.[100]
  • April 29, 2013 Kodak announced an agreement with the U.K. Kodak Pension Plan (KPP) to spin off Kodak’s Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging businesses and settle $2.8 Billion in KPP claims.[101]
  • December 2010: Standard & Poor's removed Kodak from its S&P 500 index.[89]
  • September 2011: Kodak hired law firm Jones Day for restructuring advice and its stock dropped to an all-time low of $0.54 a share.[90] During 2011, Kodak shares fell more than 80 percent.[91]

2010 to present

  • 2003: Kodak introduced the Kodak EasyShare LS633 Digital Camera, the first camera to feature an AMOLED display, and the Kodak EasyShare Printer Dock 6000, the world's first printer-and-camera dock combination.
  • November 2003: Kodak acquired the Israel-based company Algotec Systems, a developer of advanced picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), which enable radiology departments to digitally manage and store medical images and information.[68]
  • January 2004: Kodak announced that it would stop selling traditional film cameras in Europe and North America, and cut up to 15,000 jobs (around a fifth of its total workforce at the time).[69][70][71]
  • April 8, 2004: Kodak was delisted from the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, having been a constituent for 74 consecutive years.[61]
  • May 2004: Kodak signed an exclusive long-term agreement with Lexar Media, licencing the Kodak brand for use on digital memory cards designed, manufactured, sold, and distributed by Lexar.[72]
  • January 2005: The Kodak EasyShare-One Digital Camera, the world’s first Wi-Fi consumer digital camera capable of sending pictures by email, was unveiled at the 2005 CES.
  • January 2005: Kodak acquired the Israel-based company OREX Computed Radiography, a provider of compact computed radiography systems that enable medical practitioners to acquire patient x-ray images digitally.[73]
  • January 2005: Kodak acquired the Burnaby, BC, Canada-based company Creo.
  • January 2006: Kodak unveiled the Kodak EasyShare V570 Dual Lens Digital Camera, the world's first dual-lens digital still camera and smallest ultra-wide-angle optical zoom digital camera, at the CES. Using proprietary Kodak Retina Dual Lens technology, the V570 wrapped an ultra-wide angle lens (23 mm) and a second optical zoom lens (39 – 117 mm) into a body less than 2.5 cm (an inch) thick.
  • April 2006: Kodak introduced the Kodak EasyShare V610 Dual Lens Digital Camera, at that time the world’s smallest 10× (38–380 mm) optical zoom camera at less than 2.5 cm (an inch) thick.[74][75]
  • August 1, 2006: Kodak agreed to divest its digital camera manufacturing operations to Flextronics, including assembly, production and testing.[76][77] As part of the sale it was agreed that Flextronics would manufacture and distribute consumer digital cameras for Kodak, and conduct some design and development functions for it. Kodak kept high-level digital camera design in house, continued to conduct research and development in digital still cameras, and retained all intellectual property and patents. Approximately 550 Kodak personnel transferred to Flextronics.
  • January 10, 2007: Kodak agreed to sell Kodak Health Group to Onex Corporation for $2.35 billion in cash, and up to $200 million in additional future payments if Onex achieved specified returns on the acquisition.[78] The sale was completed May 1.[79] Kodak used part of the proceeds to fully repay its approximately $1.15 billion of secured term debt. Around 8,100 employees transferred to Onex, and Kodak Health Group was renamed Carestream Health. Kodak Health Group had revenue of $2.54 billion for the 12 months to September 30, 2006.
  • April 19, 2007: Kodak announced an agreement to sell its light management films business, which produced films designed to improve the brightness and efficiency of liquid crystal displays, to Rohm and Haas. The divested business comprised 125 workers. As part of the transaction Rohm and Haas agreed to license technology and purchase equipment from Kodak, and lease Building 318 at Kodak Park. The sale price was not disclosed.[80]
  • May 25, 2007: Kodak announced a cross-licensing agreement with Chi Mei Optoelectronics and its affiliate Chi Mei EL (CMEL), enabling CMEL to use Kodak technology for active matrix OLED modules in a variety of small to medium size display applications.[81]
  • June 14, 2007: Kodak announced a two to fourfold increase in sensitivity to light (from one to two stops) compared to current sensor designs. This design was a departure from the classic "Bayer filter" by adding panchromatic or “clear” pixels to the RGB elements on the sensor array. Since these pixels are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, they collect a significantly higher proportion of the light striking the sensor. In combination with advanced Kodak software algorithms optimized for these new patterns, photographers benefited from an increase in photographic speed (improving performance in low light), faster shutter speeds (reducing motion blur for moving subjects), and smaller pixels (higher resolutions in a given optical format) while retaining performance. The technology was credited to Kodak scientists John Compton and John Hamilton.[82]
  • September 4, 2007: Kodak announced a five-year extension of its partnership with Lexar Media.[83]
  • November 2008: Kodak released the Kodak Theatre HD Player, allowing photos and videos stored on a computer to be displayed on an HDTV. Kodak licensed technology from Hillcrest Labs for the interface and pointer, which allowed a user to control the player with gestures.[84]
  • January 2009: Kodak posted a $137 million fourth-quarter loss and announced plans to cut up to 4,500 jobs.[85]
  • June 22, 2009: Kodak announced that it would cease selling Kodachrome color film by the end of 2009, ending 74 years of production, after a dramatic decline in sales.[86][87]
  • December 4, 2009: Kodak sold its LG Electronics, resulting in the lay-off of 60 people.[88]

2000 to 2009

  • New Kodak Moment: A $19M profit.[11]
  • 1981: Kodak was sued by Polaroid for infringement of its Instant Picture patents. The suit ran for five years, the court finally finding in favour of Polaroid in 1986.
  • 1982: Kodak launched the Kodak Disc film format for consumer cameras. The format ultimately proved unpopular and was later discontinued.
  • 1986: Kodak scientists created the world's first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels and producing a photo-quality 12.5 x 17.5 cm (5×7 inch) print.
  • 1987: Dr. Ching W. Tang, a senior research associate, and his colleague, Steven Van Slyke, developed the first multi-layer OLEDs at the Kodak Research Laboratories, for which he later became a Fellow of the Society for Information Display (SID)
  • 1988: Kodak scientists introduce the coumarin tetramethyl laser dyes[65] also used in OLED devices. These become a successful product until the line of fine chemicals is sold.
  • 1993: Fortune 500 company in its own right.[66][67]
  • 1994: Apple Quicktake, the first ever consumer digital camera was debuted by Apple Computer. It was manufactured by Kodak.
  • 1932: George Eastman dies at age 77, taking his own life with a gun shot.
  • 1935: Kodak introduced Kodachrome, a color reversal stock for movie and slide film.
  • 1936: Kodak branches out into manufacture of hand-grenades.
  • 1940-1944: Eastman Kodak ranked 62nd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[62]
  • 1949-1956: Kodak Introduces the Retina Series 35mm Camera
    Kodak Retina Series Cameras were produced between 1949 until 1956. It also had the KodaChrome Technology
  • 1959: Kodak introduced the Starmatic camera, the first automatic Brownie camera, which sold 10 million units over the next five years.
  • 1963: Kodak introduced the Instamatic camera, an inexpensive, easy-to-load, point-and-shoot camera.
  • 1970: Kodak scientists disclose the continuous wave tunable dye laser.[63] This becomes a product for several high-tech companies but not at Kodak.
  • 1975: Steven Sasson, then an electrical engineer at Kodak, invented the digital camera.[64]
  • 1976: The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA) was invented by Eastman Kodak researcher Bryce Bayer. The order in which dyes are placed on an image sensor photosite is still in use today. The basic technology is still the most commonly used of its kind to date. Also in 1976, Kodak introduced the first Kodamatic, instant picture cameras, using a similar film and technology to that of the Polaroid company.
    • The company sold 90% of the photographic film in the US along with 85% of the cameras.[10]
Kodak Camera Center, Tennessee, ca. 1930-1945
  • 1900: The Brownie camera was introduced, creating a new mass market for photography.
  • 1901: The present company, Eastman Kodak Company of New Jersey, was formed under the laws of that state. Eventually, the business in Jamestown was moved in its entirety to Rochester, and the plants in Jamestown were demolished.
  • By 1920: An “Autographic Feature” provided a means for recording data on the margin of the negative at the time of exposure. This feature was supplied on all Kodak cameras with the exception of a box camera designed for making panoramic pictures[57] and was discontinued in 1932.
  • 1920: Tennessee Eastman was founded as a wholly owned subsidiary. The company's primary purpose was the manufacture of chemicals, such as acetyls, needed for Kodak's film photography products.
  • 1930: Eastman Kodak Company was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average index on July 18, 1930. The company remained listed as one of the DJIA companies for the next 74 years, ending in 2004.[61]
A Brownie No 2. camera

1900 to 1999

  • April 1880: George Eastman leased the third floor of a building on State Street in Rochester and began the commercial manufacture of dry plates.
  • January 1, 1881: Eastman and businessman Henry A. Strong formed a partnership called the Eastman Dry Plate Company.[55] Eastman resigned his position at the Rochester Savings Bank in order to work full-time at the Eastman Dry Plate Company.
  • 1884: The Eastman-Strong partnership was dissolved and the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company formed with 14 shareowners. The Eastman Dry Plate Company was responsible for the first cameras suitable for non expert use.
  • 1885: roll film, the basis for the invention of motion picture film, as used by early filmmakers and Thomas Edison.
  • September 4, 1888: Eastman registered the trademark Kodak.[56]
  • 1888: The first model of the Kodak camera appeared. It took round pictures 6.4 cm (2.5 inches) in diameter, was of the fixed focus type, and carried a roll of film enough for 100 exposures. Its invention practically marked the advent of amateur photography, as before that time both apparatus and processes were too burdensome to classify photography as recreation. The roll film used in the first model of the Kodak camera had a paper base but was soon superseded by a film with a cellulose base, a practical transparent flexible film.[57] The first films had to be loaded into the camera and unloaded in the dark room, but the film cartridge system with its protecting strip of non-actinic paper made it possible to load and unload the camera in ordinary light. The Kodak Developing Machine (1900) and its simplified successor, the Kodak Film Tank, provided the means for daylight development of film, making the dark room unnecessary for any of the operations of amateur photography. The earlier types of the Kodak cameras were of the box form and of fixed focus, and as various sizes were added, devices for focusing the lenses were incorporated.[57]
  • 1889: The Eastman Company was formed.[2]
  • 1891: [58]
  • 1892: It was renamed the Eastman Kodak Company in 1892. Eastman Kodak Company of New York was organized.[2] He coined the advertising slogan, "You Press the Button, We Do the Rest."[59] The Kodak company thereby attained its name from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the "Kodak" in its product line.
  • Early 1890s: The first folding Kodak cameras were introduced. These were equipped with folding bellows that permitted much greater compactness.
  • 1895: The first pocket Kodak camera, the $5 Pocket Kodak, was introduced.[60] It was of the box form type, slipping easily into an ordinary coat pocket, and producing negatives 1½ x 2 inches.
  • 1897: The first folding pocket Kodak camera was introduced,[57] and was mentioned in the novel Dracula.
  • 1899: George Eastman purchased the patent for Velox photographic paper from Leo Baekeland for $1,000,000. After this time, Velox paper was then sold by Eastman Kodak.
Advertisement for a folding "pocket" Kodak camera (August, 1900)
An advertisement from The Photographic Herald and Amateur Sportsman (November 1889).
An original Kodak camera, complete with box, camera, case, felt lens plug, manual, memorandum and viewfinder card

1880 to 1899


On March 12, 2014, Kodak announced that Jeffrey J. Clarke had been named the new CEO. [54]

On September 3, 2013, Kodak announced that it emerged from bankruptcy as a technology company focused on imaging for business.[53] Its main business segments are Digital Printing & Enterprise and Graphics, Entertainment & Commercial Films.[6]

In April 2013, Kodak showed its first Micro Four Thirds camera, to be manufactured by JK Imaging.[51][52]

[50] By January 2012, analysts suggested that the company could enter bankruptcy followed by an auction of its patents, as it was reported to be in talks with [48] In 2011, Kodak reportedly explored selling off or licensing its vast portfolio of patents in order to stave off bankruptcy.[48] In 2011, despite the turnaround progress, Kodak rapidly used up its cash reserves, stoking fears of bankruptcy; it had $957 million in cash in June 2011, down from $1.6 billion in January 2001.

Kodak has also turned to litigation in order to generate revenue.[12][13] In 2010, it received $838 million from patent licensing that included a settlement with LG.[33]

Kodak then began a strategy shift: Previously Kodak had done everything in-house, but CEO Antonio Pérez shut down film factories and eliminated 27,000 jobs as it outsourced its manufacturing.[45] Pérez invested heavily in digital technologies and new services that capitalized on its technology innovation to boost profit margins.[40] He also spent hundreds of millions of dollars to build up a high-margin printer ink business to replace shriveling film sales. Kodak's ink strategy rejected the razor and blades business model used by the dominant market leader Hewlett-Packard in that Kodak's printers were expensive but the ink was cheaper.[46] As of 2011, these new lines of inkjet printers were said to be on verge of turning a profit, although some analysts were skeptical as printouts had been replaced gradually by electronic copies on computers, tablets, and smartphones.[46] Home photograph printers, high-speed commercial inkjet presses, workflow software, and packaging were viewed as the company's new core businesses, with sales from those four businesses projected to double to nearly $2 billion in revenue in 2013 and account for 25 percent of all sales. However, while Kodak named home printers as a core business as late as August 2012, at the end of September declining sales forced Kodak to announce an exit from the consumer inkjet market.[47]

Kodak headquarters in Rochester, New York, United States

New strategy

In a critical essay, physicist Frank Duarte has argued that several major analog-era imaging companies (including Canon, Nikon, Leica, and Fuji) successfully transitioned from analog to digital, thus indicating that the switch to digital technology is not the only reason for Kodak's decline.[44] A significant factor, in addition to managerial ineptitude, he argues, was the transformation (begun in the early 1990s) from a widely diversified chemical manufacturer to a company mainly focused on imaging.[44]

Despite the high growth, Kodak failed to anticipate how fast these digital cameras became commodities, with low profit margins, as more companies entered the market in the mid-2000s.[41] In 2001 Kodak held the No. 2 spot in U.S. digital camera sales (behind Sony) but it lost $60 USD on every camera sold, while there was also a dispute between employees from its digital and film divisions.[42] The film business, where Kodak enjoyed high profit margins, fell 18% in 2005. The combination of these two factors resulted in disappointing profits overall.[40] Its digital cameras soon became undercut by Asian competitors that could produce their offerings more cheaply. Kodak had a 27 percent market-leading share in 1999, that dwindled to 15 percent by 2003.[42] In 2007 Kodak was No. 4 in U.S. digital camera sales with a 9.6 percent share, and by 2010 it held 7 percent in seventh place behind Canon, Sony, Nikon, and others, according to research firm IDC.[43] Also an ever-smaller percentage of digital pictures were being taken on dedicated digital cameras, being gradually displaced in the late 2000s by cameras on cellphones, smartphones, and tablets.

Under Daniel Carp, Fisher's successor as CEO, Kodak made its move in the digital camera market, with its EasyShare family of digital cameras. Kodak spent tremendous resources studying customer behavior, finding out that women in particular loved taking digital photos but were frustrated in moving them to their computers. This key unmet consumer need became a major opportunity. Once Kodak got its product development machine started, it released a wide range of products which made it easy to share photos via PCs. One of their key innovations was a printer dock, where consumers could insert their cameras into this compact device, press a button, and watch their photos roll out. By 2005, Kodak ranked No. 1 in the U.S. in digital camera sales that surged 40% to $5.7 billion.[40]

Although Kodak Apple's pioneering QuickTake consumer digital cameras, introduced in 1994, had the Apple label but were produced by Kodak. The DC-20 and DC-25 launched in 1996. Overall, though, there was little implementation of the new digital strategy. Kodak's core business faced no pressure from competing technologies, and as Kodak executives could not fathom a world without traditional film there was little incentive to deviate from that course. Consumers gradually switched to the digital offering from companies such as Sony. In 2001 film sales dropped, which was attributed by Kodak to the financial shocks caused by the September 11 attacks. Executives hoped that Kodak might be able to slow the shift to digital through aggressive marketing.[40]

The Kodak 'K' logo was first introduced in 1971. The version seen here- with the 'Kodak' name in a more modern typeface- was used from 1987 until the logo's discontinuation in 2006.[37]

Shift to digital

Although from the 1970s both Fuji and Kodak recognized the upcoming threat of digital photography, and although both sought diversification as a mitigation strategy, Fuji was more successful at diversification.[36]

[35][35][34][33] On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. Kodak's financial results for the year ending December 1997 showed that company's revenues dropped from $15.97 billion in 1996 to $14.36 billion in 1997, a fall of more than 10%; their net earnings went from $1.29 billion to just $5 million for the same period. Kodak's market share declined from 80.1% to 74.7% in the United States, a one year drop of five percentage points that had observers suggesting that Kodak was slow to react to changes and underestimated its rivals.[32]