Kosmos 2451

Kosmos 2451

Kosmos (Russian: Ко́смос, IPA: [ˈkozməs], Cosmos) is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia. Kosmos 1, the first spacecraft to be given a Kosmos designation, was launched on March 16, 1962.

As of September 2010, 2,468 Kosmos satellites had been launched. The spacecraft do not form a single programme, but instead consist of almost all Soviet and Russian military satellites, as well as a number of scientific satellites, and spacecraft which failed during or immediately after launch, but still reached orbit. Most Soviet and subsequently Russian military satellites were given Kosmos designations. Spacecraft include optical reconnaissance satellites, communications satellites, early warning missile defence spacecraft, nuclear-powered radar reconnaissance satellites, anti-satellite weapons and their targets, navigation satellites and technology demonstrators. Some scientific spacecraft such as Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik, Bion and Meteor satellites were also given Kosmos designations. The designation is given only to satellites which are in Earth orbit. Typically, Soviet Lunar and planetary missions were initially put into a low Earth parking orbit along with an upper stage, which would later burn for around four minutes to place the spacecraft into a cislunar or a heliocentric orbit. If the engine misfired or the burn was not completed, the probes which would be left in Earth orbit would be given a Kosmos designation. Control systems for 152 spacecraft which were later assigned Kosmos designations were developed and manufactured by NPO Electropribor (Kharkiv).[1]

Early Kosmos satellites

Kosmos 1

Main article: Kosmos 1

Kosmos 1, also known as Sputnik 11, was launched on March 16, 1962 at 12:00:00 UTC. Orbital mass 285 kg. It was the first satellite of the Soviet Earth Satellite series.[2] Employed radio instruments in order to study the structure of the ionosphere.

Kosmos 2

Main article: Kosmos 2

Kosmos 2, also known as Sputnik 12, was launched on April 6, 1962 at 17:16:00 UTC. Orbital mass 285 kg. It was the second satellite of the Soviet Earth Satellite series.[2] Employed radio instruments in order to study the structure of the ionosphere.

Kosmos 3

Main article: Kosmos 3

Kosmos 3, also known as Sputnik 13, was launched on April 24, 1962 at 04:04:00 UTC. Orbital mass 330 kg. It belongs to the Soviet Earth Satellite series.[2] It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units.

Kosmos 4

Main article: Kosmos 4

Kosmos 4, also known as Sputnik 14, was launched on April 26, 1962 at 10:04:00 UTC. Orbital mass 4600 kg. It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. It was developed to measure radiation before and after nuclear tests conducted during the US project Starfish.[2] Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units.

Kosmos 5

Main article: Kosmos 5

Kosmos 5, also known as Sputnik 15, was launched on May 28, 1962 at 03:07:00 UTC. Orbital mass 280 kg. It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units.[2]

Kosmos 6

Main article: Kosmos 6

Kosmos 6, also known as Sputnik 16, was launched on June 30, 1962 at 16:04:00 UTC from Kapustin Yar. Orbital mass 355 kg. It was a Soviet DS (Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik) type military satellite built in Ukraine for launch by Kosmos launch vehicles. It was used for military and scientific research and component proving tests.[2]

Kosmos 7

Main article: Kosmos 7

Kosmos 7, also known as Sputnik 17, was launched on July 28, 1962 at 09:21:00 UTC. Orbital mass 4600 kg. It was used to study the upper layers of the atmosphere, Earth and the outer space. Data was relayed to Earth by a multichannel telemetry systems equipped with space-borne memory units. It was used to measure radiation in the space environment in order to guarantee safety during the flight of the Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 spacecraft.[2]

Kosmos 8

Main article: Kosmos 8

Kosmos 8, also known as Sputnik 18, was launched on August 18, 1962 at 05:02:00 UTC from Kapustin Yar. Orbital mass 337 kg. It was a Soviet DS (Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik) type military satellite built in Ukraine for launch by Kosmos launch vehicles. It was used for military and scientific research and component proving tests.[2]

Other Kosmos satellites

  • Kosmos 21 - failed Venus (Venera) probe mission
  • Kosmos 24 - failed Venus probe mission
  • Kosmos 47 - first unmanned test flight of Voskhod manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 57 - second unmanned test flight of Voskhod manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 60 - failed Moon (Luna) landing probe mission
  • Kosmos 96 - failed Venus landing probe mission
  • Kosmos 110 - first Soviet biosatellite (contained biological experiments)
  • Kosmos 111 - failed first Moon orbiting mission
  • Kosmos 122 - first Soviet meteorological satellite
  • Kosmos 133 - first unmanned test flight of Soyuz manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 140 - second unmanned test flight of Soyuz manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 146 - first unmanned flight of planned manned L1 moon-flyby spacecraft
  • Kosmos 154 - second unmanned flight of planned manned L1 moon-flyby spacecraft
  • Kosmos 167 - failed Venus landing probe mission
  • Kosmos 186 and 188 - unmanned test flights of Soyuz manned spacecraft, the first ever automatic docking of satellites
  • Kosmos 212 and Kosmos 213 - unmanned test flights of Soyuz manned spacecraft with second automatic docking
  • Kosmos 238 - final test series of Soyuz programme spacecraft
  • Kosmos 300 - failed Moon sample return mission
  • Kosmos 305 - failed Moon sample return mission
  • Kosmos 359 - failed Venus landing probe mission
  • Kosmos 367 - first launched satellite with an onboard nuclear reactor US-A
  • Kosmos 382 - first unmanned flight of prototype of planned LOK moon-orbital spacecraft of L3 manned moon-landing program
  • Kosmos 419 - failed Mars orbiting/landing probe mission
  • Kosmos 482 - failed Venus landing probe mission, crashed in south New Zealand.
  • Kosmos 557 - failed third DOS type space station in the Salyut program
  • Kosmos 605 - first of the Bion series, containing biological organisms
  • Kosmos 638 - first unmanned test flight of Soyuz/7K-TM manned spacecraft for Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP)
  • Kosmos 670 - first unmanned test flight of Soyuz-VI/7K-S military manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 638 - second unmanned test flight of Soyuz/7K-TM manned spacecraft for ASTP
  • Kosmos 772 - second unmanned test flight of Soyuz-VI/7K-S military manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 782 - first mission in which the US participated in the Soviet Kosmos program
  • Kosmos 869 - third unmanned test flight of Soyuz-VI/7K-S military manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 929 - first unmanned flight of planned manned TKS spacecraft
  • Kosmos 954 - launched with an onboard nuclear US-A reactor; failed (reasons uncertain) and re-entered atmosphere on January 24, 1978, strewing radioactive debris across northern Canada
  • Kosmos 1001 - first unmanned test flight of Soyuz T manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 1074 - second unmanned test flight of Soyuz T manned spacecraft
  • Kosmos 1267 - second flight of TKS spacecraft
  • Kosmos 1374 - first flight of BOR-4 prototype of Spiral military shuttle system
  • Kosmos 1402 - failed
  • Kosmos 1443 - third flight of TKS spacecraft
  • Kosmos 1445 - second flight of BOR-4 prototype of Spiral military shuttle system
  • Kosmos 1517 - third flight of BOR-4 prototype of Spiral military shuttle system
  • Kosmos 1614 - fourth flight of BOR-4 prototype of Spiral military shuttle system
  • Kosmos 1669 - control-restored flight of Progress cargo spacecraft
  • Kosmos 1686 - fourth flight of TKS spacecraft
  • Kosmos 1818 - first RORSAT with Topaz-1 nuclear reactor
  • Kosmos 1867 - second RORSAT with Topaz-1 nuclear reactor
  • Kosmos 1870 - unmanned flight of Almaz military station
  • Kosmos 2251 - collided with an Iridium satellite in February 2009[3][4]
  • Kosmos 2441 - first in the a new series of spy satellites (Persona), features updated imaging technology and an extended lifetime of up to seven years, failed
  • Kosmos 2479 - last Oko US-KMO early warning satellite, launched on last Proton-K rocket.
  • Kosmos 2480 - Kobalt-M spy satellite, launched aboard last Soyuz-U launch vehicle.

Notes

See also

External links

  • Cosmos unmasked: studying Soviet and Russian space history in the 21st century by Dwayne A. Day]
  • Recoverable Satellites under the Cosmos Programme