Liberation theology is a Christian response to the conditions of poverty in Roman Catholic theology which interprets the teachings of Jesus Christ in relation to a liberation from unjust economic, political, or social conditions. It has been described as "an interpretation of Christian faith through the poor's suffering, their struggle and hope, and a critique of society and the Catholic faith and Christianity through the eyes of the poor". Detractors have called it Christianized Marxism.
Although liberation theology has grown into an international and inter-denominational movement, it began as a movement within the Catholic Church in Latin America in the 1950s–1960s. Liberation theology arose principally as a moral reaction to the poverty caused by social injustice in that region. The term was coined in 1971 by the Peruvian priest Gustavo Gutiérrez, who wrote one of the movement's most famous books, A Theology of Liberation. Other noted exponents are Leonardo Boff of Brazil, Jon Sobrino of Spain, and Juan Luis Segundo of Uruguay.
The influence of liberation theology diminished after proponents were accused of using "Marxist concepts" leading to admonishment by the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) in 1984 and 1986. The Vatican criticized certain strains of liberation theology for focusing on institutionalized or systemic sin, apparently to the exclusion of individual offenders and offences; and for identifying Catholic Church hierarchy in South America as members of the same privileged class that had long been oppressing indigenous populations since the arrival of Pizarro onward.
- Theology 1
- History 2
Liberation theology in Brazil 3.1
- Base ecclesial communities 3.1.1
Liberation theology and indigenous Brazil 3.1.2
- The Tapeba 126.96.36.199
- Gurupá 188.8.131.52
- Liberation theology in Brazil 3.1
Vatican reaction 4
- Cardinal Ratzinger 4.1
- Towards reconciliation under Pope Francis 4.2
- Related movements 5
See also 6
- Theologians 6.1.1
- People 6.1
- References 7
- Further reading 8
- External links 9
Liberation theology could be interpreted as an attempt to return to the gospel of the early church where Christianity is politically and culturally decentralized.
Liberation theology proposes to fight poverty by addressing its alleged source: sin. In so doing, it explores the relationship between Christian theology — especially Roman Catholic theology — and political activism, especially in relation to social justice, poverty, and human rights. The principal methodological innovation is seeing theology from the perspective of the poor and the oppressed. For example Jon Sobrino, S.J., argues that the poor are a privileged channel of God's grace.
Some liberation theologians base their social action upon the Bible scriptures describing the mission of Jesus Christ, as bringing a sword (social unrest), e.g. Isaiah 61:1, Matthew 10:34, Luke 22:35–38 — and not as bringing peace (social order). This Biblical interpretation is a call to action against poverty, and the sin engendering it, to effect Jesus Christ's mission of justice in this world.
Jeunesse Ouvrière Chrétienne". He was also influenced by Paul Gauthier's "The Poor, Jesus and the Church" (1965). Gutierrez's book is based on an understanding of history in which the human being is seen as assuming conscious responsibility for human destiny, and yet Christ the Savior liberates the human race from sin, which is the root of all disruption of friendship and of all injustice and oppression.
Gutierrez also popularized the phrase "preferential option for the poor", which became a slogan of liberation theology and later appeared in addresses of the Pope. Drawing from the biblical motif on the poor, Gutierrez asserts that God is revealed as having a preference for those people who are “insignificant,” “marginalized,” “unimportant,” “needy,” "despised” and “defenseless." Moreover, he makes clear that terminology of "the poor" in scripture has social and economic connotations that etymologically go back to the Greek word, ptōchos. To be sure, as to not misinterpret Gutierrez’s definition of the term "preferential option," he stresses, “Preference implies the universality of God’s love, which excludes no one. It is only within the framework of this universality that we can understand the preference, that is, 'what comes first.'"
Gutierrez emphasized practice (or, more technically, "praxis") over doctrine. Gutierrez clarified his position by advocating a circular relationship between orthodoxy and orthopraxis seeing the two as having a symbiotic relationship. Gutierrez' reading of prophets condemning oppression and injustice against the poor (i.e. Jeremiah 22:13–17) informs his assertion that to know God (orthodoxy) is to do justice (orthopraxis). Cardinal Ratzinger (who later became Pope Benedict XVI), however, criticized liberation theology for elevating orthopraxis to the level of orthodoxy. Richard McBrien summarizes this concept as follows:
God is disclosed in the historical "praxis" of liberation. It is the situation, and our passionate and reflective involvement in it, which mediates the Word of God. Today that Word is mediated through the cries of the poor and the oppressed.
Another important hallmark for Gutierrez's brand of liberation theology is an interpretation of revelation as "history". For example Gutierrez wrote:
History is the scene of the revelation God makes of the mystery of his person. His word reaches us in the measure of our involvement in the evolution of history.
Gutierrez also considered the Church to be the "sacrament of history", an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace, thus pointing to the doctrine of universal salvation as the true means to eternal life, and assigning the Church itself to a somewhat temporal role, namely, liberation.
The struggle of women for social justice has given rise to its own liberation theology, frequently known as feminist theology in Europe and North America. Black and other women of colour in the United States speak of womanist theology, while Mujerista theology denotes the liberation theology of Hispanic women.
A major player in the formation of liberation theology was CELAM, the Latin American Episcopal Conference. Created in 1955 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), CELAM pushed the Second Vatican Council (1962–65) toward a more socially oriented stance. However, CELAM never supported liberation theology as such, since liberation theology was frowned upon by the Vatican, with Pope Paul VI trying to slow the movement after the Second Vatican Council.
After the Second Vatican Council, CELAM held two conferences which were important in determining the future of liberation theology: the first was held in Medellín, Colombia, in 1968, and the second in Puebla, Mexico, in January 1979. The Medellín conference debated how to apply the teachings of Vatican II to Latin America, and its conclusions were strongly influenced by liberation theology. Although liberation theology grew out of these officially recognized ideas, the Medellín document is not a liberation theology document. It did, however, lay the groundwork, and since then liberation theology has developed rapidly in the Latin American Catholic Church.
Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo was a central figure at the Medellín Conference, and was elected in 1972 as general secretary of CELAM. He represented a more orthodox position, becoming a favorite of Pope John Paul II and the "principal scourge of liberation theology." Trujillo's faction became predominant in CELAM after the 1972 Sucre conference, and in the Roman Curia after the CELAM conference in Puebla, Mexico, in January 1979.
Despite the orthodox bishops' predominance in CELAM, a more radical form of liberation theology remained much supported in South America. Thus, the 1979 Puebla Conference was an opportunity for orthodox bishops to reassert control of the radical elements; but they failed. At the Puebla Conference, the orthodox reorientation was met by strong opposition from the liberal part of the clergy, which supported the concept of a "preferential option for the poor". This concept had been approved at the Medellín conference by Bishop Ricard Durand, president of the Commission about Poverty.
Pope John Paul II gave the opening speech at the Puebla Conference. The general tone of his remarks was conciliatory. He criticized radical liberation theology, saying, "this conception of Christ, as a political figure, a revolutionary, as the subversive of Nazareth, does not tally with the Church's catechisms"; however, he did speak of "the ever increasing wealth of the rich at the expense of the ever increasing poverty of the poor", and affirmed that the principle of private property "must lead to a more just and equitable distribution of goods...and, if the common good demands it, there is no need to hesitate at expropriation, itself, done in the right way"; on balance, the Pope offered neither praise nor condemnation.
Some liberation theologians, however, including Gutierrez, had been barred from attending the Puebla Conference. Working from a seminary and with aid from sympathetic, liberal bishops, they partially obstructed other clergy's efforts to ensure that the Puebla Conference documents satisfied conservative concerns. Within four hours of the Pope's speech, Gutiérrez and the other priests wrote a twenty-page refutation, which was circulated at the conference, and has been claimed to have influenced the final outcome of the conference. According to a socio-political study of liberation theology in Latin America, twenty-five per cent of the final Puebla documents were written by theologians who were not invited to the conference. Cardinal Trujillo said that this affirmation is "an incredible exaggeration" (Ben Zabel 2002:139).
One of the most radical aspects of liberation theology was the social organization, or re-organization, of church practice through the model of Christian base communities (CBCs). Liberation theology strove to be a bottom-up movement in practice, with Biblical interpretation and liturgical practice designed by lay practitioners themselves, rather than by the orthodox Church hierarchy. In this context, sacred text interpretation is understood as "praxis". Liberation theology seeks to interpret the actions of the Catholic Church and the teachings of Jesus Christ from the perspective of the poor and disadvantaged. In Latin America, liberation theologians specifically target the severe disparities between rich and poor in the existing social and economic orders within the nations' political and corporate structures. It is a strong critique of the various economic and social structures, such as an oppressive government, dependence upon First World countries and the traditional hierarchical Church, that allow some to be extremely rich while others are unable to even have safe drinking water.
The journalist and writer
- Liberation Theology Video from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives.
- BBC Religion and Ethics theological obituary of Pope John Paul II: his views on liberation theology
- Centre for Liberation Theologies, Faculty of Theology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
- Papal suspension against Miguel d'Escoto is lifted
- Lernoux, Penny, Cry of the people: United States involvement in the rise of fascism, torture, and murder and the persecution of the Catholic Church in Latin America. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1980.
- Alves, Rubem, Towards a Theology of Liberation (1968).
- De La Torre, Miguel A., Handbook on U.S. Theologies of Liberation (Chalice Press, 2004).
- Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal, "Liberation Theology" (preliminary notes to 1984 Instruction)
- Gutiérrez, Gustavo, A Theology of Liberation: History, Politics and Salvation, Orbis Books, 1988.
- Kirylo, James D. Paulo Freire: The Man from Recife. New York: Peter Lang, 2011.
- Nash, Ronald, ed. Liberation Theology. First ed. Milford, Mich.: Mott Media, 1984. ISBN 0-88062-121-4
- Smith, Christian, The Emergence of Liberation Theology: Radical Religion and the Social Movement Theory, University of Chicago Press, 1991.
- Marxism and Missions / Missions et Marxisme, special issue of the journal Social Sciences and Missions, Volume 22/2, 2009
- Hamford. In the mass media, 'Liberation Theology' can sometimes be used loosely, to refer to a wide variety of activist Roman Catholic Christian thought. In this article the term will be used in a narrower sense outlined here.
- Berryman, Phillip, Liberation Theology: essential facts about the revolutionary movement in Latin America and beyond(1987)
- "[David] Horowitz first describes liberation theology as 'a form of Marxised Christianity,' which has validity despite the awkward phrasing, but then he calls it a form of 'Marxist–Leninist ideology,' which is simply not true for most liberation theology..." Robert Shaffer, "Acceptable Bounds of Academic Discourse," Organization of American Historians Newsletter 35, November 2007. URL retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Richard P. McBrien, Catholicism (Harper Collins, 1994), chapter IV.
- Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation, First (Spanish) edition published in Lima, Peru, 1971; first English edition published by Orbis Books (Maryknoll, New York), 1973.
- Wojda, Paul J., "Liberation theology", in R.P. McBrien, ed., The Catholic Encyclopedia (Harper Collins, 1995).
- ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEOPLES, Populorum Progressio, Encyclical Letter of His Holiness Pope Paul VI promulgated on March 26, 1967
- Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation(London: SCM Press,1974) 36f
- Gutierrez, Gustavo. The God of Life. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1991. (Original: El Dios de la vida. Lima: CEP, 1989.) p. 112
- Nickoloff, James B. ed. Gustavo Gutierrez: Essential Writings. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1996, p. 145
- Gutierrez, Gustavo. The Truth Shall Make You Free: Confrontations. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1990. (Original: La verdad los hara libres: confrontaciones. Lima: CEP, 1986)
- Gutierrez, Gustavo. The Power of Poor in History. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis, 1983. (Original: La fuerza historica de los obres: seleccion de trabajos. Lima: CEP, 1971.)
- Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal (2007). "Liberation Theology: Preliminary Notes", in The Ratzinger Report. (2007). Reprinted in: J.F. Thornton and S.B. Varenne, eds., The Essential Pope Benedict XVI. Online version: Harper Collins,.
- McBrien, R.P. "Catholicism" (Harper Collins, 1995), pp. 249–250.
- Gutierrez, G. "Faith as Freedom", ‘’Horizons’’ 2/1, Spring 1975, p.32
- Christopher Rowland (December 17, 2007). The Cambridge companion to liberation theology. Cambridge University Press. p. 105.
- Robert Pelton, "Latin America, Catholicism in" in R.P. McBrien, ed., The Harper Collins Encyclopedia of Catholicism, Harper Collins, 1995.
- According to Cardinal Alfonso López Trujillo, liberation theology was simultaneously created by the Reflection Task Force of CELAM, and by Rubem Alves's book, Towards a Theology of Liberation (1968). However, Cardinal Trujillo had himself been general secretary of CELAM, and president of CELAM's Reflection Task Force. Cardinal Samore, who as leader of the Pontifical Commission for Latin America was in charge of relations between the Roman Curia and CELAM, was ordered to put a stop to liberation theology, which was judged antithetical to the Catholic Church's global teachings.
- Liberation Theology and Its Role in Latin America. Elisabeth Erin Williams. Monitor: Journal of International Studies. The College of William and Mary.
- Elena Curti, "Study in Scarlet", The Tablet, May 8, 2010, p.4.
- Smith, Christian. The Emergence of Liberation Theology
- "As Pope Heads to Brazil, a Rival Theology Persists" The New York Times May 7, 2007.
- Liberation Theology, Canada & the World, February 10, 2010
- PACE, R. (1992), Social conflict and political activism in the Brazilian Amazon: a case study of Gurupá. American Ethnologist, 19: 710–732. doi: 10.1525/ae.1992.19.4.02a00050
- Claiming the Virgin:The Broken Promise of Liberation Theology in Brazil. Robin Nagle. New York: Routledge, 1997. xii+224 pp., addendums, notes, glossary, bibliography, index.
- The Brazilian Popular Church and the Crisis of Modernity. Manuel A. Vasquez. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. 302 pp.
- Legalizing Indigenous Identities: The Tapeba Struggle for Land and Schools in Caucaia, Brazil. Max Maranhao Piorsky Aires. The Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Anthropology, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 320–340. 2012.
- Ratzinger, Joseph Cardinal (2007). "Liberation Theology: Preliminary Notes", in The Ratzinger Report. Reprinted in: J.F. Thornton and S.B. Varenne, eds., The Essential Pope Benedict XVI,. Online version: Harper Collins, 2007.
- Curti,, Elena (May 8, 2010). "Study in Scarlet", The Tablet,. p. 4.
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, (September 13, 1984). "Instruction on certain aspects of the 'Theology of Liberation'", Origins 14/13. Online version.Online version
- Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, . (April 17, 1986). "Instruction on Christian Freedom and Liberation", Origins 15/44.
- Ratzinger, Cardinal (1985). op cit.
- Kappen, Sebastian (1977). Jesus and Freedom. In 1980, the CDF asked the General of the Society of Jesus (of which Kappen was a member) to disavow this book. Kappen responded with a pamphlet entitled "Censorship and the Future of Asian Theology". No further action was taken by the Vatican on this matter.
- Allen, John L., Jr. (April 12, 2013). "Hard questions about Francis in Argentina and a lesson from Chile". National Catholic Reporter.
- Bernstein, Dennis J. (March 19, 2013). "Liberation Theology Haunts New Pope". Consortium News.
- Rocca, Francis X. (September 13, 2013). "Under Pope Francis, liberation theology comes of age". Catholic News Service. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- McElwee, Joshua J. (September 25, 2013). "Pope meets with liberation theology pioneer". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- Allen Jr., John L. (January 24, 2014). "Truisms in Catholic life and a rundown of Rome news". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
- Interactivist article on liberation theology
- Marcella Althaus-Reid, Argentina – Scotland (1952–2009)
- Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Haiti (b. 1953)
- Paulo Evaristo Arns, Brazil (b. 1921)
- Naim Ateek, Palestine (b. 1937)
- Alan Boesak, South Africa (b. 1945)
- Leonardo Boff, Brazil (b. 1938)
- Joseph Booth, Britain
- Robert McAfee Brown, U.S. (1920–2001)
- Hélder Câmara, Brazil (1909–1999), Archbishop of Olinda and Recife
- Pedro Casaldáliga, Spain – Brazil (b. 1928)
- Ernesto Cardenal, Nicaragua (b. 1925)
- John Chilembwe, Malawi
- Miguel A. De La Torre, U.S. Cuban
- Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann, Nicaragua (b. 1933)
- Jean Marc Ela, Cameroon (b. 1936)
- Virgilio Elizondo, U.S.
- Ignacio Ellacuría, S.J., Spain – El Salvador (1930–1989)
- Marc H. Ellis, U.S. (b. 1952)
- Paul Gauthier, France (1914–2002)
- Ivone Gebara, Brazil (b. 1944)
- Gustavo Gutiérrez, Peru (b. 1928)
- François Houtart, Belgium (b. 1925)
- Gérard Jean-Juste, Haiti (b. 1947)
- Sebastian Kappen, India (1924–1993)
- Hans Küng, Switzerland – Germany (b. 1928)
- Aloisio Leo Arlindo Lorscheider, Brazil (1924–2007)
- Martin Maier, S.J. Germany
- Ignacio Martín-Baró, S.J., Spain – El Salvador (1942–1989)
- Herbert McCabe, O.P., UK (1926–2001)
- Johann Baptist Metz, Germany (b. 1928)
- Jürgen Moltmann, Germany (b. 1926)
- Segundo Montes, S.J., Spain – El Salvador (1933–1989)
- Henri Nouwen, Netherlands (1932–1996)
- Rubin Phillip, South Africa (b. 1948)
- Camilo Torres, Colombia (1929–1966)
- Samuel Ruiz, Mexico (1924–2011)
- Edward Schillebeeckx, Belgium – Netherlands (1914–2009)
- Juan Luis Segundo, S.J., Uruguay (1925–1996)
- Jon Sobrino, S.J., Spain – El Salvador (b. 1938)
- Dorothee Sölle, Germany (1929–2003)
- William Stringfellow, U.S. (1929–1985)
- Jung Mo Sung, Brazil (b. 1957)
- Abahlali baseMjondolo in South Africa
- Dalit theology in India
- Landless Workers' Movement in Brazil
- Lavalas in Haiti
- FSLN in Nicaragua (see The Catholic Church and the Nicaraguan Revolution)
- FMLN in El Salvador
- Christians for Socialism (es) in Chile
Miguel d'Escoto, a Maryknoll priest from Nicaragua, was sanctioned with an a divinis suspension from his public functions in 1984 by Pope John Paul II, for political activity in the leftist Sandinista government in Nicaragua. Pope Francis lifted the suspension in August, 2014, in response to a request by d'Escoto 
On September 11, 2013, Pope Francis hosted Fr. Gutierrez in his residence, leading some to comment that this was a sign of warming relations between the hierarchy and liberation theologians. The same month, L'Osservatore Romano published an article praising Gutierrez by the prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Archbishop Gerhard Müller. On January 18, 2014, Pope Francis met with Fr. Arturo Paoli, an Italian priest whom the Pope knew from Paoli's long service in Argentina. Paoli is recognized as an exponent of liberation theology avant la lettre and the meeting was seen as a sign of "reconciliation" between the Vatican and the liberationists.
According to Roberto Bosca, an historian at Pope Francis) had "a reputation as an opponent of liberation theology during the 1970s" but he "accepted the premise of liberation theology, especially the option for the poor, but in a 'nonideological' fashion." Bosca said Bergoglio was not opposed to liberation theology itself but to "giving a Catholic blessing to armed insurgency", specifically the Montoneros, who claimed liberation theology as part of their political ideology. Blase Bonpane, a former Maryknoll father and founding director of the Office of the Americas, said "The new pope has not been comfortable with liberation theology."
Towards reconciliation under Pope Francis
Throughout the 1990s, Ratzinger, as prefect of the CDF, continued to condemn these elements in liberation theology, and prohibited dissident priests from teaching such doctrines in the Catholic Church's name. Leonardo Boff was suspended and others were censured. Tissa Balasuriya, in Sri Lanka, was excommunicated. Sebastian Kappen, an Indian theologian, was also censured for his book Jesus and Freedom. Under Cardinal Ratzinger's influence, theological formation schools were forbidden from using the Catholic Church's organization and grounds to teach liberation theology in the sense of theology using unacceptable Marxist ideas, not in the broader sense.
Ratzinger also argued that liberation theology is not originally a "grass-roots" movement among the poor, but rather, a creation of Western intellectuals: "an attempt to test, in a concrete scenario, ideologies that have been invented in the laboratory by European theologians" and in a certain sense itself a form of "cultural imperialism". Ratzinger saw this as a reaction to the demise or near-demise of the "Marxist myth" in the West.
In 1984, it was reported that a meeting occurred between the CDF and the CELAM bishops, during which a rift developed between Ratzinger and some of the bishops, with Ratzinger issuing official condemnations of certain elements of liberation theology. These "Instructions" rejected as Marxist the idea that class struggle is fundamental to history, and rejected the interpretation of religious phenomena such as the Exodus and the Eucharist in exclusively political terms. Ratzinger further stated that liberation theology had a major flaw in that it attempted to apply Christ's sermon on the mount teachings about the poor to present social situations. He asserted that Christ's teaching on the poor meant that we will be judged when we die, with particular attention to how we personally have treated the poor.
Cardinal Ratzinger did praise liberation theology in some respects, including its ideal of justice, its rejection of violence, and its stress on "the responsibility which Christians necessarily bear for the poor and oppressed." He subsequently stated that no one could be neutral in the face of injustice, and referred to the "crimes" of colonialism and the "scandal" of the arms race. Nonetheless, media reports tended to assume that the condemnation of "liberation theology" meant a rejection of such attitudes and an endorsement of conservative politics.
In March 1983, Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI), head of the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF), made ten observations of Gutiérrez's theology, accusing Gutiérrez of politically interpreting the Bible in supporting temporal messianism, and stating that the predominance of orthopraxis over orthodoxy in his thought proved a Marxist influence. Ratzinger objected that the spiritual concept of the Church as "People of God" is transformed into a "Marxist myth." In liberation theology he declared, the "people is the antithesis of the hierarchy, the antithesis of all institutions, which are seen as oppressive powers. Ultimately anyone who participates in the class struggle is a member of the "people"; the "Church of the people" becomes the antagonist of the hierarchical Church."
In Gurupá, the Catholic Church has employed liberation theology to defend indigenous tribes, farmers, and extractors from unethical expropriation from their lands by federal or corporate forces. New religious ideas, in the form of liberation theology, have fortified and given legitimacy to an evolving political culture of resistance. Meanwhile, the Church supported Base Ecclesial Communities (CEBs) have promoted stronger social connections among Community members that has led to more effective activism in Gurupá. Anthropologist Richard Pace's study of Gurupá revealed that CEBs assured safety in united activism and, combined with liberation theology, encouraged members to challenge landowner's commercial monopolies and fight for better standards of living. Pace references a specific incident in the CEB of Nossa Senhora de Fátima in which a community of 24 families of farmers, timber extractors, and traders resisted an extra regional timber extraction firm that would have taken resources from their land. The indigenous families of the community were able to negotiate an agreement with the firm that gained them a higher standard of living that included imported goods, increased food availability, and access to health products. While severe social dislocations such as government-initiated capitalist penetration, land expropriation, and poor wages persist, small-farmer activism is fortified by liberation theology and receives structural support from unions, political parties, and church organizations.
Anthropologist and author Max Maranhao Piorsky Aires analyzes the influence of liberation theology on the transformation of the indigenous Tapeba population of Brazil from poor, uneducated, and state neglected inhabitants to rights bearing and involved citizens of the Brazilian population. Specifically he largely attributes the work of the Brazilian Catholic Church to the progression of the Tapeba. The Catholic Church enlisted state authorities, anthropologists, and journalists to help uncover the identity of the neglected indigenous people of Brazil. Early recognition by missionaries and followers of liberation theology stimulated indigenous identiﬁcation of the Tapeba population as a possibility for attaining rights, especially land, health, and education. The Church gathered and contributed historical knowledge of indigenous territory and identity of the Tapeba in Caucaia that ultimately succeeded in the tribes obtaining a legally codified identity as well as a rightful place as Brazilian subjects.
Liberation theology and indigenous Brazil
While Robin Nagle claims that liberation theology is ineffective for genuine social change, anthropologist Manuel Vasquez argues that liberation theology embraced by CEBs create a twofold effect because it not only provides moral justification for resistance but also a means to organize such resistance. Many people come to the CEB through conversion experiences, but also because they are keenly concerned with the spiritual and infrastructural needs of their community. Through his fieldwork in working-class neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro, Vasquez reveals that CEBs combat disenfranchisement but also serve to overcome the obstacles associated with materialism and globalization. The social and political impact can be viewed in terms of initial consciousness-raising, the motivation for involvement, the sense of community they develop, the experience of grass-roots democracy, the direct actions they engage in, and finally, directly political actions.
While liberation theology has brought about significant progressive reforms in Brazil, anthropologist Robin Nagle questions the effectiveness of Catholic Church theology in Brazil. Nagle concentrates on the conflict between conservatives and liberationists in Recife, Brazil in 1990. The poor neighborhood of Morro da Conceição had a liberationist priest named Reginaldo who was expelled by the traditionalist archbishop because the archbishop found Reginaldo's politics and social theology annoying and adverse to his own agenda. When Reginaldo and his followers refused to accept the expulsion and the new priest, the archbishop called in the Military Police. Conversely, the event did not cause a mass response because the liberationist agenda aroused distrust and even hatred among many of its intended audience. The main reason was that it was too much to ask poor parishioners to embrace a Church focused more on the troubles of this life than solace in the next.
After decades of repression from the government authorities, the liberationist Catholic Church in Brazil is absent of traditional centralization and encourages an increased lay participation. Faced with a severe priest shortage, much of the Brazilian Catholic Church is organized into Base Ecclesial Communities or, "CEBs" in which the Mass, community spirituality programs, and community needs are led or addressed by a single clergy member or a trained lay member in either a small chapel or an individual's home. The CEBs introduced new social ideas and democratic methods which led to many participants' active involvement in popular movements of Brazil that worked for progressive social change. An example of progressive social change initiated by the CEBs is in Nova Iguacu. A health program began there to try to organize the population in order to remedy widespread malnutrition, open sewers, and other health hazards. Eventually the neighborhood initiative reached a national interest level where it then became a mass movement in nearly every neighborhood. Initiatives like the health program in Nova Iguacu illustrate how CEBs have helped the transition from military to democratic rule.
Base ecclesial communities
The Brazilian Catholic Church is arguably one of the most theologically progressive Catholic congregations due, in large part, to a history of violent military and political conflicts as well as a divisive socioeconomic climate. During Brazil's military rule from 1964 to 1985, the Catholic Church and its members assumed responsibility to provide services to the poor and disenfranchised, often under threat of persecution. The Vatican II and Medellín conference innovations in liberation theology entered the Brazilian Church as the Brazilian lower classes experienced sharply deteriorating economic and political conditions. Among these were an increase in landownership concentration, a decline in wages and standards of living, and a rise in the military state's political repression and violence, including mass detainment, torture, and the assassination of political opponents. Even though military rule in Brazil is officially over, repression continues through intimidation tactics as well as neglect of the poor by those in powerful government positions. The Brazilian Catholic Church seeks to define authority, government power, and socioeconomic equality by assessing politics and society through the religious context of liberation theology.
Liberation theology in Brazil