Libertarian socialism

two related economic and political systems called Participatory economics or "Parecon" and Participatory politics or "Parpolity".

Parecon is an economic system proposed primarily by activist and political theorist Michael Albert and radical economist Robin Hahnel, among others. It uses participatory decision making as an economic mechanism to guide the production, consumption and allocation of resources in a given society. Proposed as an alternative to contemporary capitalist market economies and also an alternative to centrally planned socialism or coordinatorism, it is described as "an anarchistic economic vision", and it could be considered a form of socialism as under Parecon, the means of production are owned by the workers. It proposes to attain these ends mainly through the following principles and institutions: Workers' and consumers' councils utilizing self-managerial methods for decision making, balanced job complexes, remuneration according to effort and sacrifice, and Participatory Planning. Under Parecon, the current monetary system would be replaced with a system of non-transferable "credit" which would cease to exist upon purchase of a commodity.

Parpolity is a theoretical political system proposed by Stephen R. Shalom. It was developed as a political vision to accompany Parecon. Participism as a whole is critical of aspects of modern representative democracies and capitalism arguing that the level of political control by the people isn’t sufficient. To address this problem Parpolity suggests a system of "Nested Councils", which would include every adult member of a given society. Under Participism, the state as such would dissolve into a mere coordinating body made up of delegates which would be recallable at any time by the nested council below them.

Inclusive Democracy

Inclusive Democracy is a political theory and political project that aim for direct democracy, economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy, self-management (democracy in the social realm) and ecological democracy. The theoretical project of Inclusive Democracy (ID)), as distinguished from the political project which is part of the democratic and autonomy traditions, emerged from the work of political philosopher, former academic and activist Takis Fotopoulos in Towards An Inclusive Democracy and was further developed by him and other writers in the journal Democracy & Nature and its successor The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy, an electronic journal freely available and published by the International Network for Inclusive Democracy.

According to Arran Gare, Towards an Inclusive Democracy "offers a powerful new interpretation of the history and destructive dynamics of the market and provides an inspiring new vision of the future in place of both neo-liberalism and existing forms of socialism".[246] Also, as David Freeman points out, although Fotopoulos' approach "is not openly anarchism, yet anarchism seems the formal category within which he works, given his commitment to direct democracy, municipalism and abolition of state, money and market economy".[247]

An artificial market is proposed by this tendency as a solution to the problem of maintaining freedom of choice for the consumer within a marketless and moneyless economy, an artificial market operates in much the same way as traditional markets, but uses [248]

Insurrectionary anarchism

Insurrectionary anarchism is a revolutionary theory, practice and tendency within the anarchist movement which emphasizes the theme of class conflict, and a refusal to negotiate or compromise with class enemies.

Contemporary insurrectionary anarchism inherits the views and tactics of anti-organizational anarcho-communism[249] and individual recuperation' or acts of terrorism."[154] A resurgence of such ideas happened "in the peculiar conditions of post war Italy and Greece."[250]

Zapatismo and Magonism

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) often referred to as the Zapatistas is a revolutionary leftist group based in Chiapas, the southernmost state of Mexico. Since 1994, the group has been in a declared war "against the Mexican state," though this war has been primarily nonviolent and defensive against military, paramilitary, and corporate incursions into Chiapas. Their social base is mostly rural indigenous people but they have some supporters in urban areas and internationally. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos (currently a.k.a. Delegate Zero in relation to "the Other Campaign"). Unlike other Zapatista spokespeople, Marcos is not an indigenous Maya. Since December 1994, the Zapatistas had been gradually forming several autonomous municipalities, called Rebel Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities (MAREZ). In these municipalities, an assembly of local representatives forms the Juntas de Buen Gobierno or Councils of Good Government (JBGs). These are not recognized by the federal or state governments; they oversee local community programs on food, health and education, as well as taxation. The EZLN political formations have happened in two phases generally called Aquascalientes and Caracoles.

The group takes its name from Emiliano Zapata, the agrarian reformer[251] and commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution, and sees itself as his ideological heir. Zapatista originally referred to a member of the revolutionary guerrilla movement founded about 1910 by Zapata. His Liberation Army of the South (Ejército Libertador del Sur) fought during the Mexican Revolution for the redistribution of agricultural land. Zapata and his army and allies, including Pancho Villa, fought for agrarian reform in Mexico. Specifically, they wanted to establish communal land rights for Mexico's indigenous population, which had mostly lost its land to the wealthy elite of European descent. Zapata was partly influenced by an anarchist from Oaxaca named Ricardo Flores Magón. The influence of Flores Magón on Zapata can be seen in the Zapatistas' Plan de Ayala, but even more noticeably in their slogan (this slogan was never used by Zapata) "Tierra y libertad" or "land and liberty", the title and maxim of Flores Magón's most famous work. Zapata's introduction to anarchism came via a local schoolteacher, Otilio Montaño Sánchez – later a general in Zapata's army, executed on May 17, 1917 – who exposed Zapata to the works of Peter Kropotkin and Flores Magón at the same time as Zapata was observing and beginning to participate in the struggles of the peasants for the land.

In reference to inspirational figures, in nearly all EZLN villages exist murals accompanying images of Zapata, Che Guevara, and Subcomandante Marcos.[252] The ideology of the Zapatista movement, Zapatismo, synthesizes traditional Mayan practices with elements of libertarian socialism, anarchism,[253][254] and Marxism.[255] The historical influence of Mexican Anarchists and various Latin-American Socialists is apparent on Zapatismo; with the positions of Subcomandante Marcos also adding a distinct Marxist (according to the New York Times) [256] element to the movement. A Zapatista slogan is in harmony with the concept of mutual aid: "For everyone, everything. For us, nothing" (Para todos, todo. Para nosotros, nada).

Left wing market anarchism

Left wing market anarchism, a form of left-libertarianism, individualist anarchism[257] and libertarian socialism[258][259] is associated with scholars such as Kevin Carson,[260][261] Roderick T. Long,[262][263] Charles Johnson,[264] Brad Spangler,[265] Samuel Edward Konkin III,[266] Sheldon Richman,[267][268][269] Chris Matthew Sciabarra,[270] and Gary Chartier,[271] who stress the value of radically free markets, termed freed markets to distinguish them from the common conception which these libertarians believe to be riddled with statist and capitalist privileges.[272] Referred to as left-wing market anarchists[273] or market-oriented left-libertarians,[269] proponents of this approach strongly affirm the classical liberal ideas of self-ownership and free markets, while maintaining that, taken to their logical conclusions, these ideas support anti-capitalist,[274][275][276] anti-corporatist, anti-hierarchical, pro-labor positions in economics; anti-imperialism in foreign policy; and thoroughly liberal or radical views regarding such cultural issues as gender, sexuality, and race.

The genealogy of contemporary market-oriented left-libertarianism—sometimes labeled "left-wing market anarchism"[277]—overlaps to a significant degree with that of Steiner–Vallentyne left-libertarianism as the roots of that tradition are sketched in the book The Origins of Left-Libertarianism.[278] Carson–Long-style left-libertarianism is rooted in 19th-century mutualism and in the work of figures such as Thomas Hodgskin and the individualist anarchists Benjamin Tucker and Lysander Spooner. While, with notable exceptions, market-oriented libertarians after Tucker tended to ally with the political right, relationships between such libertarians and the New Left thrived in the 1960s, laying the groundwork for modern left-wing market anarchism.[279] Left wing market anarchism identifies with Left-libertarianism (or left-wing libertarianism)[280] which names several related but distinct approaches to politics, society, culture, and political and social theory, which stress both individual freedom and social justice. Unlike right-libertarians, they believe that neither claiming nor mixing one's labor with natural resources is enough to generate full private property rights,[281][282] and maintain that natural resources (land, oil, gold, trees) ought to be held in some egalitarian manner, either unowned or owned collectively.[282] Those left-libertarians who support private property do so under the condition that recompense is offered to the local community.

Communization

Communization mainly refers to a contemporary communist theory in which we find is a "mixing-up of insurrectionist anarchism, the communist ultra-left, post-autonomists, anti-political currents, groups like the Invisible Committee, as well as more explicitly ‘communizing’ currents, such as Théorie Communiste and Endnotes. Obviously at the heart of the word is communism and, as the shift to communization suggests, communism as a particular activity and process...."[283]

The association of the term communization with a self-identified "ultra-left" was cemented in France in the 1970s, where it came to describe not a transition to a higher phase of communism but a vision of communist revolution itself. Thus the 1975 Pamphlet A World Without Money states: “insurrection and communisation are intimately linked. There would not be first a period of insurrection and then later, thanks to this insurrection, the transformation of social reality. The insurrectional process derives its force from communisation itself.”[284] The term is still used in this sense in France today and has spread into English usage as a result of the translation of texts by Gilles Dauvé and Théorie Comuniste, two key figures in this tendency. In collaboration with other left communists such as François Martin and Karl Nesic, Dauvé has attempted to fuse, critique, and develop different left communist currents, most notably the Italian movement associated with Amadeo Bordiga (and its heretical journal Invariance), German-Dutch council communism, and the French perspectives associated with Socialisme ou Barbarie and the Situationist International.[285]

In the late 1990s a close but not identical sense of "communization" was developed by the French post-situationist group Tiqqun. In keeping with their ultra-left predecessors, Tiqqun's predilection for the term seems to be its emphasis on communism as an immediate process rather than a far-off goal, but for Tiqqun it is no longer synonymous with "the revolution" considered as an historical event, but rather becomes identifiable with all sorts of activities – from squatting and setting up communes to simply "sharing" – that would typically be understood as "pre-revolutionary".[286] From an ultra-left perspective such a politics of "dropping-out" or, as Tiqqun put it, "desertion" — setting up spaces and practices that are held to partially autonomous from capitalism — is typically dismissed as either naive or reactionary.[287] Due to the popularity of the Tiqqun-related works Call and The Coming Insurrection in US anarchist circles it tended to be this latter sense of "communization" that was employed in US anarchist and "insurrectionist" communiques, notably within the Californian student movement of 2009–2010.[288]

Contemporary libertarian socialism

The global Occupy movement is noted to have distinct libertarian socialist principles.

A surge of popular interest in libertarian socialism occurred in western nations during the 1960s and 1970s.[289] Anarchism was influential in the Counterculture of the 1960s[290][291][292] and anarchists actively participated in the late sixties students and workers revolts.[293] In 1968 in Carrara, Italy the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during an international anarchist conference held there in 1968 by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile.[294][295] The uprisings of May 1968 also led to a small resurgence of interest in left communist ideas. Various small left communist groups emerged around the world, predominantly in the leading capitalist countries. A series of conferences of the communist left began in 1976, with the aim of promoting international and cross-tendency discussion, but these petered out in the 1980s without having increased the profile of the movement or its unity of ideas.[296] Prominent left communist groups existing today include the International Communist Party, International Communist Current and the Internationalist Communist Tendency.

The housing and employment crisis in most of Western Europe led to the formation of communes and squatter movements like that of Barcelona, Spain. In Denmark, squatters occupied a disused military base and declared the Freetown Christiania, an autonomous haven in central Copenhagen.

Around the turn of the 21st century, libertarian socialism grew in popularity and influence as part of the anti-war, anti-capitalist, and WTO conference in Seattle in 1999.[297] For english anarchist scholar Simon Critchley "contemporary anarchism can be seen as a powerful critique of the pseudo-libertarianism of contemporary neo-liberalism...One might say that contemporary anarchism is about responsibility, whether sexual, ecological or socio-economic; it flows from an experience of conscience about the manifold ways in which the West ravages the rest; it is an ethical outrage at the yawning inequality, impoverishment and disenfranchisment that is so palpable locally and globally."[298]

International anarchist federations in existence include the Swedish Anarcho-syndicalist Youth Federation; the CNT-AIT in France;[300] the Union Sindicale Italiana in Italy; in the US Workers Solidarity Alliance and the UK Solidarity Federation. The revolutionary industrial unionist Industrial Workers of the World, claiming 2,000 paying members, and the International Workers Association, an anarcho-syndicalist successor to the First International, also remain active.

Libertarian socialists in the early 21st century have been involved in the participatory economics; anti-racist and anti-fascist groups like Anti-Racist Action and Anti-Fascist Action; activist groups protecting the rights of immigrants and promoting the free movement of people, such as the No Border network; worker co-operatives, countercultural and artist groups; and the peace movement etc.

Libertarian socialism has also more recently played a large part in the global Occupy movement,[301][302] in particular its focus on direct participatory democracy.

References

  1. ^ Ostergaard, Geoffrey. "Anarchism". A Dictionary of Marxist Thought. Blackwell Publishing, 1991. p. 21.
  2. ^ a b Chomsky, Noam (2004). Language and Politics. In Otero, Carlos Peregrín. AK Press. p. 739
  3. ^ Bookchin, Murray and Janet Biehl. The Murray Bookchin Reader. Cassell, 1997. p. 170 ISBN 0-304-33873-7
  4. ^ Hicks, Steven V. and Daniel E. Shannon. The American journal of economics and sociolology. Blackwell Pub, 2003. p. 612
  5. ^ Miller, Wilbur R. (2012). The social history of crime and punishment in America. An encyclopedia. 5 vols. London: Sage Publications. p. 1007. ISBN 1412988764. "There exist three major camps in libertarian thought: right-libertarianism, socialist libertarianism, and ..."
  6. ^ "unlike other socialists, they tend to see (to various different degrees, depending on the thinker) to be skeptical of centralized state intervention as the solution to capitalist exploitation..." Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. Pg. 305
  7. ^ "So, libertarian socialism rejects the idea of state ownership and control of the economy, along with the state as such." "I1. Isn´t libertarian socialism an oxymoron" in An Anarchist FAQ
  8. ^ "We do not equate socialism with planning, state control, or nationalization of industry, although we understand that in a socialist society (not "under" socialism) economic activity will be collectively controlled, managed, planned, and owned. Similarly, we believe that socialism will involve equality, but we do not think that socialism is equality, for it is possible to conceive of a society where everyone is equally oppressed. We think that socialism is incompatible with one-party states, with constraints on freedom of speech, with an elite exercising power 'on behalf of' the people, with leader cults, with any of the other devices by which the dying society seeks to portray itself as the new society. "What is Libertarian Socialism?" by Ulli Diemer. Volume 2, Number 1 (Summer 1997 issue) of The Red Menace.
  9. ^ "Therefore, rather than being an oxymoron, "libertarian socialism" indicates that true socialism must be libertarian and that a libertarian who is not a socialist is a phoney. As true socialists oppose wage labour, they must also oppose the state for the same reasons. Similarly, libertarians must oppose wage labour for the same reasons they must oppose the state." "I1. Isn´t libertarian socialism an oxymoron" in An Anarchist FAQ
  10. ^ "So, libertarian socialism rejects the idea of state ownership and control of the economy, along with the state as such. Through workers' self-management it proposes to bring an end to authority, exploitation, and hierarchy in production." "I1. Isn´t libertarian socialism an oxymoron" in An Anarchist FAQ
  11. ^ " ...preferringa system of popular self governance via networks of decentralized, local voluntary, participatory, cooperative associations. Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. Pg. 305
  12. ^ Mendes, Silva. Socialismo Libertário ou Anarchismo Vol. 1 (1896): "Society should be free through mankind's spontaneous federative affiliation to life, based on the community of land and tools of the trade; meaning: Anarchy will be equality by abolition of private property (while retaining respect for personal property) and liberty by abolition of authority".
  13. ^ "We therefore foresee a Society in which all activities will be coordinated, a structure that has, at the same time, sufficient flexibility to permit the greatest possible autonomy for social life, or for the life of each enterprise, and enough cohesiveness to prevent all disorder...In a well-organized society, all of these things must be systematically accomplished by means of parallel federations, vertically united at the highest levels, constituting one vast organism in which all economic functions will be performed in solidarity with all others and that will permanently preserve the necessary cohesion." Gaston Leval. .
  14. ^ "...preferring a system of popular self governance via networks of decentralized, local, voluntary, participatory, cooperative associations-sometimes as a complement to and check on state power..."
  15. ^ Rocker, Rudolf (2004). Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice.  
  16. ^ "LibSoc share with LibCap an aversion to any interference to freedom of thought, expression or choicce of lifestyle." Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. pp 305
  17. ^ "What is implied by the term 'libertarian socialism'?: The idea that socialism is first and foremost about freedom and therefore about overcoming the domination, repression, and alienation that block the free flow of human creativity, thought, and action...An approach to socialism that incorporates cultural revolution, women's and children's liberation, and the critique and transformation of daily life, as well as the more traditional concerns of socialist politics. A politics that is completely revolutionary because it seeks to transform all of reality. We do not think that capturing the economy and the state lead automatically to the transformation of the rest of social being, nor do we equate liberation with changing our life-styles and our heads. Capitalism is a total system that invades all areas of life: socialism must be the overcoming of capitalist reality in its entirety, or it is nothing." "What is Libertarian Socialism?" by Ulli Diemer. Volume 2, Number 1 (Summer 1997 issue) of The Red Menace.
  18. ^ "Authority is defined in terms of the right to exercise social control (as explored in the "sociology of power") and the correlative duty to obey (as explred in the "philosophy of practical reason"). Anarchism is distinguished, philosophically, by its scepticism towards such moral relations – by its questioning of the claims made for such normative power – and, practically, by its challenge to those "authoritative" powers which cannot justify their claims and which are therefore deemed illegitimate or without moral foundation." by Paul McLaughlin. AshGate. 2007. p. 1Anarchism and Authority: A Philosophical Introduction to Classical Anarchism
  19. ^ "The IAF - IFA fights for : the abolition of all forms of authority whether economical, political, social, religious, cultural or sexual.""Principles of The International of Anarchist Federations"
  20. ^ "Anarchism, then, really stands for the liberation of the human mind from the dominion of religion; the liberation of the human body from the dominion of property; liberation from the shackles and restraint of government. Anarchism stands for a social order based on the free grouping of individuals for the purpose of producing real social wealth; an order that will guarantee to every human being free access to the earth and full enjoyment of the necessities of life, according to individual desires, tastes, and inclinations." Emma Goldman. "What it Really Stands for Anarchy" in Anarchism and Other Essays.
  21. ^ Individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker defined anarchism as opposition to authority as follows "They found that they must turn either to the right or to the left, — follow either the path of Authority or the path of Liberty. Marx went one way; Warren and Proudhon the other. Thus were born State Socialism and Anarchism...Authority, takes many shapes, but, broadly speaking, her enemies divide themselves into three classes: first, those who abhor her both as a means and as an end of progress, opposing her openly, avowedly, sincerely, consistently, universally; second, those who profess to believe in her as a means of progress, but who accept her only so far as they think she will subserve their own selfish interests, denying her and her blessings to the rest of the world; third, those who distrust her as a means of progress, believing in her only as an end to be obtained by first trampling upon, violating, and outraging her. These three phases of opposition to Liberty are met in almost every sphere of thought and human activity. Good representatives of the first are seen in the Catholic Church and the Russian autocracy; of the second, in the Protestant Church and the Manchester school of politics and political economy; of the third, in the atheism of Gambetta and the socialism of Karl Marx." Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty.
  22. ^ Ward, Colin (1966). "Anarchism as a Theory of Organization". Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010. 
  23. ^ Anarchist historian Mikhail Bakunin's anti-authoritarianism and shows opposition to both state and non-state forms of authority as follows: "All anarchists deny authority; many of them fight against it." (p. 9)...Bakunin did not convert the League's central committee to his full program, but he did persuade them to accept a remarkably radical recommendation to the Berne Congress of September 1868, demanding economic equality and implicitly attacking authority in both Church and State."
  24. ^ Brown, L. Susan (2002). "Anarchism as a Political Philosophy of Existential Individualism: Implications for Feminism". The Politics of Individualism: Liberalism, Liberal Feminism and Anarchism. Black Rose Books Ltd. Publishing. p. 106. 
  25. ^ Sims, Franwa (2006). The Anacostia Diaries As It Is. Lulu Press. p. 160. 
  26. ^ A Mutualist FAQ: A.4. Are Mutualists Socialists?
  27. ^ a b c Murray Bookchin, Ghost of Anarcho-Syndicalism; Robert Graham, The General Idea of Proudhon's Revolution
  28. ^ Kent Bromley, in his preface to Peter Kropotkin's book The Conquest of Bread, considered early French utopian socialist Charles Fourier to be the founder of the libertarian branch of socialist thought, as opposed to the authoritarian socialist ideas of Babeuf and Buonarroti." Kropotkin, Peter. The Conquest of Bread, preface by Kent Bromley, New York and London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906.
  29. ^ "(Benjamin) Tucker referred to himself many times as a socialist and considered his philosophy to be "Anarchistic socialism." An Anarchist FAQ by Various Authors
  30. ^ French individualist anarchist Émile Armand shows clearly opposition to capitalism and centralized economies when he said that the individualist anarchist "inwardly he remains refractory – fatally refractory – morally, intellectually, economically (The capitalist economy and the directed economy, the speculators and the fabricators of single are equally repugnant to him.)""Anarchist Individualism as a Life and Activity" by Emile Armand
  31. ^ Anarchist Peter Sabatini reports that In the United States "of early to mid-19th century, there appeared an array of communal and "utopian" counterculture groups (including the so-called free love movement). William Godwin's anarchism exerted an ideological influence on some of this, but more so the socialism of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. After success of his British venture, Owen himself established a cooperative community within the United States at New Harmony, Indiana during 1825. One member of this commune was Josiah Warren (1798–1874), considered to be the first individualist anarchist"Peter Sabatini. "Libertarianism: Bogus Anarchy"
  32. ^ "It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism." Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. Pg. Back cover
  33. ^ Brooks, Frank H. The Individualist Anarchists: An Anthology of Liberty Transaction Publishers (1994) p. 75
  34. ^ Spiegel, Henry. The Growth of Economic Thought Duke University Press (1991) p. 446
  35. ^ Paul, Ellen Frankel et al. Problems of Market Liberalism Cambridge University Press (1998) p. 305
  36. ^ However, libertarian socialism retains respect for personal property.
  37. ^ a b The Anarchist FAQ Editorial Collective. "150 years of Libertarian"]
  38. ^ Wikiquote. Retrieved June 4, 2006.
  39. ^ Perlin, Terry M. (1979). Contemporary Anarchism. Transaction Publishers. p. 40.  
  40. ^ Bookchin, Murray. The Modern Crisis Black Rose Books (1987) pp. 154–55 ISBN 0-920057-61-6
  41. ^ Chomsky (2003) p. 26
  42. ^ Hahnel, Robin. Economic Justice and Democracy, Routledge Press, 2005, p. 138 ISBN 0-415-93344-7
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  44. ^ Chomsky (2003) pp. 30–31
  45. ^ Ellerman 1992.
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  50. ^ Hallgrimsdottir & Benoit 2007.
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  52. ^ Harrington, Austin, et al. 'Encyclopedia of Social Theory' Routledge (2006) p. 50
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  54. ^ Marx 1969, Chapter VII
  55. ^ Goldman 2003, p. 283
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  59. ^ Ed, Andrew. 'Closing the Iron Cage: The Scientific Management of Work and Leisure' Black Rose Books (1999) p. 116
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  73. ^ Wendy McElroy. "The culture of individualist anarchist in Late-nineteenth century America"
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  77. ^ Sex-Pol stood for the German Society of Proletarian Sexual Politics. Danto writes that Reich offered a mixture of "psychoanalytic counseling, Marxist advice and contraceptives," and argued for a sexual permissiveness, including for young people and the unmarried, that unsettled other psychoanalysts and the political left. The clinics were immediately overcrowded by people seeking help. Danto, Elizabeth Ann (2007). Freud's Free Clinics: Psychoanalysis & Social Justice, 1918–1938, Columbia University Press, first published 2005., pp. 118–120, 137, 198, 208.
  78. ^ The Sexual Revolution, 1945 (Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf, translated by Theodore P. Wolfe)
  79. ^ Umanità Nova, n. 125, September 6, 1921. (A translation can be found at The revolutionary haste by Errico Malatesta. Retrieved June 17, 2006.
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  81. ^ a b Woodcock
  82. ^ a b c "Resisting the Nation State, the pacifist and anarchist tradition" by Geoffrey Ostergaard. Ppu.org.uk (1945-08-06). Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  83. ^ Woodcock, p. 21: "Finally, somewhat aside from the curve that runs from anarchist individualism to anarcho-syndicalism, we come to Tolstoyanism and to pacifist anarchism that appeared, mostly in Holland (sic), Britain, and the United states, before and after the Second World War and which has continued since then in the deep in the anarchist involvement in the protests against nuclear armament."
  84. ^ a b Diez, Xavier (2002). "La insumisión voluntaria. El anarquismo individualista español durante la Dictadura y la Segunda República (1923–1938)" (in Spanish). Acracia. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Su obra más representativa es Walden, aparecida en 1854, aunque redactada entre 1845 y 1847, cuando Thoreau decide instalarse en el aislamiento de una cabaña en el bosque, y vivir en íntimo contacto con la naturaleza, en una vida de soledad y sobriedad. De esta experiencia, su filosofía trata de transmitirnos la idea que resulta necesario un retorno respetuoso a la naturaleza, y que la felicidad es sobre todo fruto de la riqueza interior y de la armonía de los individuos con el entorno natural. Muchos han visto en Thoreau a uno de los precursores del ecologismo y del anarquismo primitivista representado en la actualidad por  
  85. ^ a b "EL NATURISMO LIBERTARIO EN LA PENÍNSULA IBÉRICA (1890–1939) by Jose Maria Rosello". Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  86. ^ "The pioneers". Natustar.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  87. ^ An Anarchist FAQ by Various authors
  88. ^ "Introduction to ''Anarchism and countercultural politics in early twentieth-century Cuba'' by Kirwin R. Shaffer". Raforum.info. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  89. ^ "While almost all forms of modern anarchism consider themselves to have an ecological dimension, the specifically eco-anarchist thread within anarchism has two main focal points, Social Ecology and "primitivist"."An Anarchist FAQ by Various authors
  90. ^ "Noam Chomsky, "Nationalism and the New World Order: An Interview by Takis Fotopoulos" at Democracy and Nature Vol. 2, No. 2 (Issue 5), 1994 pp. 1–7
  91. ^ "It was with sadness and a certain frustration that I read in Democracy and Nature (Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 198–202) that Murray Bookchin and Janet Biehl have resigned from the D&N International Advisory Board, Murray complaining, among other things, that the journal has become too "Castoriadian" in its orientation. The sadness stems from the fact that I found inherently appealing D&N's effort to examine what it considered the best of Bookchin and Castoriadis so as to encourage the emergence of a "new liberatory project." "On the Bookchin/Biehl Resignations and the Creation of a New Liberatory Project" by David Ames Curtis at Agora International website
  92. ^ a b Roderick T. Long. "Toward a libertarian theory of class." Social Philosophy and Policy. Volume 15. Issue 02. Summer 1998. Pg. 310
  93. ^ "It was in these conditions of class struggle that, among a whole cluster of radical groups such as the Fifth Monarchy Men, the Levellers and the Ranters, there emerged perhaps the first real proto-anarchists, the Diggers, who like the classical 19th-century anarchists identified political and economic power and who believed that a social, rather than political revolution was necessary for the establishment of justice. Gerrard Winstanley, the Diggers' leader, made an identification with the word of God and the principle of reason, an equivalent philosophy to that found in Tolstoy's The Kingdom of God is Within You. In fact, it seems likely Tolstoy took much of his own inspiration from Winstanley "Marlow. "Anarchism and Christianity"
  94. ^ "While the ideal commonwealth conceived by James Harrington tried to combine the existence of a powerful state with respect for the political rights of the citizens, Thomas Hobbes and Gerrard Winstanley, for opposite reasons, denied the possibility of power being shared between the state and the people...Before defining the government of a true Commonwealth Winstanley denounces the kingly government based on property and like Proudhon he believes that “property is theft”. Marie Louise Berneri ""Utopias of the English Revolution"
  95. ^ a b c The Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  96. ^ Lewis Herber. (Murray Bookchin) "Ecology and Revolutionary Thought". Theanarchistlibrary.org (2009-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  97. ^ "It was the great service of liberal thinkers like Jefferson and Paine that they recognized the natural limitations of every form of government. That is why they did not want to see the state become a terrestrial Providence which in its infallibility would make on its own every decision, thereby not only blocking the road to higher forms of social development, but also crippling the natural sense of responsibility of the people which is the essential condition for every prosperous society." Rudolf Rocker. Pioneers of American Freedom: Origin of Liberal and radical thought in America. J. J. LITTLE & IVES COMPANY, NEW YORK. 1949. pg. 13
  98. ^ "The Anarchists are simply. unterrified Jeffersonian Democrats. They believe that the best government is that which governs least," and that that which governs least is no government at all." Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty. New York. Vanguard Press. MCMXXVI. pg. 13
  99. ^ "At one end of an institutional continuum one can place the total institutions that routinely destroy the autonomy and initiative of their subj ects. At the other end of this continuum lies, perhaps, some ideal version of Jeffersonian democrac y composed of independent, self-reliant, selfrespecting, landowning farm ers, managers of their own small enterprises, answerable to themselves, free of debt, and more generally with no institutional reason for servility or deference. Such free-standing farmers, Jefferson thought, were the basis of a vigorous and independent public sphere where citizens could speak their mind without fear or favor. Somewhere in between these two poles lies the contemporary situation of most citizens of Western democracies : a relatively open public sphere but a quotidian institutional experience that is largely at cross purposes with the implicit assumptions behind this public sphere and encouraging and often rewarding caution, deference, servility, and conformity." James C. Scott. Two Cheers for Anarchism: Six Easy Pieces on Autonomy, Dignity, and Meaningful Work and Play. Princeton University Press, 2012, pg. 79-80
  100. ^ Kenneth C. Wenzer "Godwin's Place in the Anarchist Tradition — a Bicentennial Tribute". The anarchist library (2011-02-12). Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  101. ^ a b c Graham, Robert. Anarchism - A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas – Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939), Black Rose Books, 2005
  102. ^ a b c "Anarchism".  
  103. ^ Sheehan, Sean. Anarchism, London: Reaktion Books, 2004. p. 85.
  104. ^ Kropotkin, Peter. The Conquest of Bread, preface by Kent Bromley, New York and London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1906.
  105. ^ Hakim Bey (1991) "The Lemonade Ocean & Modern Times"
  106. ^ Herbert Marcuse. Eros and Civilization. Beacon Press, Boston, MA, 1955. p. 218
  107. ^ Peter Sabatini. "Libertarianism: Bogus Anarchy". Theanarchistlibrary.org (2009-12-03). Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  108. ^ General Idea of the Revolution in the Nineteenth Century (1851), Sixth Study, § 3 ¶ 5.
  109. ^ De l'être-humain mâle et femelle–Lettre à P.J. Proudhon par Joseph Déjacque (in French)
  110. ^ "An Anarchism FAQ – A.1 What is anarchism?". Web.archive.org. 2009-01-26. Archived from the original on 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  111. ^ Swartz, Clarence Lee. What is Mutualism?
  112. ^ "Ricardian socialism". The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Political Thought. 1987. p. 441
  113. ^ a b c d e f Ojeili, Chamsy (November 2001). "The "Advance Without Authority": Post-modernism, Libertarian Socialism, and Intellectuals".  
  114. ^ Beer, A History of British Socialism, vol. 2, p. 256.
  115. ^ Marx-Engels Collected Works: Volume 48. New York: International Publishers, 2001; p. 538, fn. 95.
  116. ^ Carr, E.H. – The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–1923. W. W. Norton & Company 1985.
  117. ^ Avrich, Paul. "Russian Anarchists and the Civil War", Russian Review, Vol. 27, No. 3 (Jul., 1968), pp. 296–306. Blackwell Publishing
  118. ^  
  119. ^ Castoriadis, Cornelius (1975). "An Interview". Telos (23). , p. 133
  120. ^ Castoriadis, Cornelius (1975). "An Interview". Telos (23). , p. 134
  121. ^ Brinton, Maurice (Goodway, David ed). For Workers' Power: the selected writings of Maurice Brinton. AK Press. 2004. ISBN 1-904859-07-0
  122. ^ "Peasant (农民)" was the official term for workers on people's communes. According to the Ultra-Left, both peasants and (urban) workers together composed a proletarian Social class divorced from any meaningful control over production or distribution.
  123. ^ See, for instance, "Whither China?" by Yang Xiguang.
  124. ^ The 70s Collective, ed. 1996. China: The Revolution is Dead, Long Live the Revolution. Montreal: Black Rose Books.
  125. ^ "Libertarian Marxism? by Daniel Guerin". Theanarchistlibrary.org. 2011-04-23. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  126. ^ Root & Branch at libcom.org
  127. ^ # 7 at libcom.orgRoot & Branch
  128. ^ "A libertarian Marxist tendency map". Libcom.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  129. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. The General Idea of the revolution Freedom Press (1923)
  130. ^ Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph. 'Oeuvres Complètes' (Lacroix edition), volume 17, pp. 188–9
  131. ^ a b c Tandy, Francis D., 1896, Voluntary Socialism, chapter 6, paragraphs 9, 10, 15, 19 & 22.
  132. ^ Carson, Kevin, 2004, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, chapter 2 (after Meek & Oppenheimer) ISBN 1-4196-5869-7.
  133. ^ Beecher, Jonathan F. (2001). Victor Considerant and the Rise and Fall of French Romantic Socialism.  
  134. ^ Swartz, Clarence Lee. What is Mutualism? VI. Land and Rent
  135. ^ Carson, Kevin, 2004, Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, chapter 2 (after Ricardo, Dobb & Oppenheimer) ISBN 1-4196-5869-7.
  136. ^ Hymans, E., Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, pp. 190–1
  137. ^ Woodcock, pp. 110, 112
  138. ^ Free Market Anti-Capitalism. Mutualist.Org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  139. ^ Woodcock, p. 20
  140. ^ a b c d e "Anarchism" at the Encyclopedia Britannica online.
  141. ^ a b George Woodcock. Anarchism: a history of libertarian movements. p. 357
  142. ^ George Woodcock. Anarchism: a history of libertarian movements. p. 357
  143. ^ Kevin Carson. Studies in Mutualist Political Economy.
  144. ^ a b Patsouras, Louis. 2005. Marx in Context. iUniverse. p. 54
  145. ^ Bakunin Mikail. Bakunin on Anarchism. Black Rose Books. 1980. p. 369
  146. ^ Morriss, Brian. Bakukunin: The Philosophy of Freedom. Black Rose Books Ltd., 1993. p. 115
  147. ^ "The revolution abolishes private ownership of the means of production and distribution, and with it goes capitalistic business. Personal possession remains only in the things you use. Thus, your watch is your own, but the watch factory belongs to the people."Alexander Berkman. "What Is Communist Anarchism?"
  148. ^ From Politics Past to Politics Future: An Integrated Analysis of Current and Emergent Paradigms Alan James Mayne Published 1999 Greenwood Publishing Group 316 pages ISBN 0-275-96151-6. Books.google.com. 1999.  
  149. ^ Anarchism for Know-It-Alls. Filiquarian Publishing. 2008.  
  150. ^ Fabbri, Luigi. "Anarchism and Communism." Northeastern Anarchist #4. 1922. 13 October 2002. http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/worldwidemovements/fabbrianarandcom.html
  151. ^ Makhno, Mett, Arshinov, Valevski, Linski (Dielo Trouda). "The Organizational Platform of the Libertarian Communists". 1926. Constructive Section: available here http://www.nestormakhno.info/english/platform/constructive.htm
  152. ^ Chapter 41: The "Anarchists"" in ''The Great French Revolution 1789–1793'' by Peter Kropotkin""". Theanarchistlibrary.org. 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  153. ^ Nunzio Pernicone, "Italian Anarchism 1864–1892", pp. 111–113, AK Press 2009.
  154. ^ a b c d e Pengam, Alain. "Anarchist-Communism". The Anarchist Library. Retrieved 23 May 2014. While they were not opposed to strikes as such, they were opposed to trade unions and the struggle for the  
  155. ^ Christopher Gray, Leaving the Twentieth Century, p. 88.
  156. ^ Towards the creative Nothing" by Renzo Novatore""". Theanarchistlibrary.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  157. ^ Post-left anarcho-communist Bob Black after analysing insurrectionary anarcho-communist Luigi Galleani's view on anarcho-communism went as far as saying that "communism is the final fulfillment of individualism.... The apparent contradiction between individualism and communism rests on a misunderstanding of both.... Subjectivity is also objective: the individual really is subjective. It is nonsense to speak of “emphatically prioritizing the social over the individual,”... You may as well speak of prioritizing the chicken over the egg. Anarchy is a “method of individualization.” It aims to combine the greatest individual development with the greatest communal unity.".Nightmares of ReasonBob Black.
  158. ^ "Modern Communists are more individualistic than Stirner. To them, not merely religion, morality, family and State are spooks, but property also is no more than a spook, in whose name the individual is enslaved – and how enslaved!...Communism thus creates a basis for the liberty and Eigenheit of the individual. I am a Communist because I am an Individualist. Fully as heartily the Communists concur with Stirner when he puts the word take in place of demand – that leads to the dissolution of property, to expropriation. Individualism and Communism go hand in hand."Max Baginski. "Stirner: The Ego and His Own" on Mother Earth. Vol. 2. No. 3 MAY, 1907
  159. ^ "Communism is the one which guarantees the greatest amount of individual liberty — provided that the idea that begets the community be Liberty, Anarchy...Communism guarantees economic freedom better than any other form of association, because it can guarantee wellbeing, even luxury, in return for a few hours of work instead of a day's work." "Communism and Anarchy" by Peter Kropotkin
  160. ^ This other society will be libertarian communism, in which social solidarity and free individuality find their full expression, and in which these two ideas develop in perfect harmony. by Dielo Truda (Workers' Cause)Organisational Platform of the Libertarian Communists
  161. ^ "I see the dichotomies made between individualism and communism, individual revolt and class struggle, the struggle against human exploitation and the exploitation of nature as false dichotomies and feel that those who accept them are impoverishing their own critique and struggle.""MY PERSPECTIVES" by Willful Disobedience Vol. 2, No. 12
  162. ^ "This process of education and class organization, more than any single factor in Spain, produced the collectives. And to the degree that the CNT-FAI (for the two organizations became fatally coupled after July 1936) exercised the major influence in an area, the collectives proved to be generally more durable, communist and resistant to Stalinist counterrevolution than other republican-held areas of Spain." Murray Bookchin. To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936
  163. ^ Murray Bookchin. To Remember Spain: The Anarchist and Syndicalist Revolution of 1936
  164. ^ "What do I mean by individualism? I mean by individualism the moral doctrine which, relying on no dogma, no tradition, no external determination, appeals only to the individual conscience." by Han RynerMini-Manual of Individualism
  165. ^ "I do not admit anything except the existence of the individual, as a condition of his sovereignty. To say that the sovereignty of the individual is conditioned by Liberty is simply another way of saying that it is conditioned by itself.""Anarchism and the State" in Individual Liberty
  166. ^ Palmer, Brian (2010-12-29) What do anarchists want from us?, Slate.com
  167. ^ William Bailie, [1] Josiah Warren: The First American Anarchist — A Sociological Study, Boston: Small, Maynard & Co., 1906, p. 20
  168. ^ 'Native American Anarchism: A Study of Left-Wing American Individualism'' by Eunice Minette Schuster"'". Againstallauthority.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  169. ^ "Benjamin Tucker: Capitalist or Anarchist" in An Anarchist FAQ by Various Authors
  170. ^ "The economic principles of Modern Socialism are a logical deduction from the principle laid down by Adam Smith in the early chapters of his “Wealth of Nations,” — namely, that labor is the true measure of price...Half a century or more after Smith enunciated the principle above stated, Socialism picked it up where he had dropped it, and in following it to its logical conclusions, made it the basis of a new economic philosophy...This seems to have been done independently by three different men, of three different nationalities, in three different languages: Josiah Warren, an American; Pierre J. Proudhon, a Frenchman; Karl Marx, a German Jew...That the work of this interesting trio should have been done so nearly simultaneously would seem to indicate that Socialism was in the air, and that the time was ripe and the conditions favorable for the appearance of this new school of thought...So far as priority of time is concerned, the credit seems to belong to Warren, the American, — a fact which should be noted by the stump orators who are so fond of declaiming against Socialism as an imported article." Benjamin Tucker. Individual Liberty
  171. ^ Anarchist Individualism as a Life and Activity" by Emile Armand""". Spaz.org. 2002-03-01. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  172. ^ "el capitalismo es sólo el efecto del gobierno; desaparecido el gobierno, el capitalismo cae de su pedestal vertiginosamente.... Lo que llamamos capitalismo no es otra cosa que el producto del Estado, dentro del cual lo único que se cultiva es la ganancia, bien o mal habida. Luchar, pues, contra el capitalismo es tarea inútil, porque sea Capitalismo de Estado o Capitalismo de Empresa, mientras el Gobierno exista, existirá el capital que explota. La lucha, pero de conciencias, es contra el Estado." by Miguel Gimenez IgualadaAnarquismo
  173. ^ "¿La propiedad? ¡Bah! No es problema. Porque cuando nadie trabaje para nadie, el acaparador de la riqueza desaparece, como ha de desaparecer el gobierno cuando nadie haga caso a los que aprendieron cuatro cosas en las universidades y por ese sólo hecho pretenden gobernar a los hombres. Porque si en la tierra de los ciegos el tuerto es rey, en donde todos ven y juzgan y disciernen, el rey estorba. Y de lo que se trata es de que no haya reyes porque todos sean hombres. Las grandes empresas industriales las transformarán los hombres en grandes asociaciones donde todos trabajen y disfruten del producto de su trabajo. Y de esos tan sencillos como hermosos problemas trata el anarquismo y al que lo cumple y vive es al que se le llama anarquista...El hincapié que sin cansancio debe hacer el anarquista es el de que nadie debe explotar a nadie, ningún hombre a ningún hombre, porque esa no-explotación llevaría consigo la limitación de la propiedad a las necesidades individuales." by Miguel Gimenez IgualadaAnarquismo
  174. ^ "The most ambitious contribution to literary anarchism during the 1890s was undoubtedly Oscar Wilde George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. 1962. (p. 447)
  175. ^ "The soul of man under Socialism by Oscar Wilde". Flag.blackened.net. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  176. ^ George Woodcock. Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements. 1962. (p. 447)
  177. ^ a b "The Soul of Man". Libcom.org. 2005-09-08. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  178. ^ Sorel, Georges. 'Political Theorists in Context' Routledge (2004) p. 248
  179. ^ Rocker, Rudolf. 'Anarcho-Syndicalism: Theory and Practice' AK Press (2004) p. 73
  180. ^ Pierce, Wayne."Libertarian Marxism's Relation to Anarchism" "The Utopian" 73–80.
  181. ^ Herman Gorter, Anton Pannekoek, Sylvia Pankhurst, Otto Ruhl Non-Leninist Marxism: Writings on the Workers Councils. Red and Black, 2007.
  182. ^ Marot, Eric. "Trotsky, the Left Opposition and the Rise of Stalinism: Theory and Practice"
  183. ^ "The Retreat of Social Democracy ... Re-imposition of Work in Britain and the 'Social Europe'" "Aufheben" Issue #8 1999.
  184. ^ Ernesto Screpanti, Libertarian communism: Marx Engels and the Political Economy of Freedom, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 2007.
  185. ^ Draper, Hal. The Principle of Self-Emancipation in Marx and Engels" "The Socialist Register." Vol 4.
  186. ^ Chomsky, Noam. "Government In The Future" Poetry Center of the New York YM-YWHA. Lecture.
  187. ^ A libertarian Marxist tendency map. libcom.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  188. ^ "Rosa Luxemburg: The Junius Pamphlet (Chap.1)". Marxists.org. Retrieved 2013-07-12. 
  189. ^ Dick Howard (1975). "Introduction to Castoriadis". Telos (23): 118. 
  190. ^ Raoul Vaneigem. The Revolution of Everyday Life
  191. ^ The Beginning of an Era (part1, part 2) Situationist International #12, 1969
  192. ^ Karen Elliot (2001-06-01). "Situationism in a nutshell". Barbelith Webzine. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  193. ^ Webpage of Multitudes
  194. ^ "Anarchosyndicalism" by Rudolf Rocker
  195. ^ John Quail, The Slow-Burning Fuse Paladin, 1978 ISBN 0-586-08225-5
  196. ^ Hain, Peter (1995). Ayes to the Left: A Future for Socialism. Lawrence and Wishart.  
  197. ^  
  198. ^ "papers relating to Libertarian Communism (a splinter group of the SPGB) including journals and miscellaneous correspondence, 1970–1980 (1 box)""Socialist Party of Great Britain" at Archives Hub at the Great Research Centre
  199. ^ "Following Isaiah Berlin, Halsema distinguishes between positive and negative freedom. Negative freedom is according to Halsema the freedom citizens from government influence; she applies this concept especially to the multicultural society and the rechtsstaat, where the government should protect the rights of citizens and not limit them. Positive freedom is the emancipation of citizens from poverty and discrimination. Halsema wants to apply this concept to welfare state and the environment where government should take more action. According to Halsema, GreenLeft is undogmatic party, that has anarchist tendencies." 
  200. ^ """Boric descarta apoyo a Bachelet en segunda vuelta: "Nuestra posición es de autonomía, pero de diálogo. El Dinamo. Retrieved 20 November 2013. 
  201. ^ Heavey, Jerome F. (July 2003). "Comments on Warren Samuels' "Why the Georgist movement has not succeeded"". American Journal of Economics and Sociology 62 (3): 593–599.  
  202. ^ Land Value Taxation: An Applied Analysis, William J. McCluskey, Riël C. D. Franzsen. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  203. ^ "Fairhope Single Tax Corporation". Fairhopesingletax.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  204. ^ Wenzer, Kenneth C. (1997). "Tolstoy's Georgist Spiritual Political Economy (1897–1910): Anarchism and Land Reform".  
  205. ^ Wiarda, Howard J. Corporatism and comparative politics. M.E. Sharpe, 1996. pp. 65–66, 156.
  206. ^ Principles of Syndcicalism, Brown, Tom. Retrieved July 6, 2010: http://libcom.org/library/principles-of-syndicalism-tom-brown
  207. ^ info on the FAI http://www.iisg.nl/archives/en/files/f/10748453.php
  208. ^ Christoyannopoulos, pp. 2–4: "Locating Christian anarchism.... In political theology"
  209. ^ Christoyannopoulos, pp. 43–80: "The Sermon on the Mount: A manifesto for Christian anarchism"
  210. ^ a b c  
  211. ^ Christoyannopoulos, pp. 19 and 208: "Leo Tolstoy"
  212. ^ Christoyannopoulos, p. 254: "The state as idolatry"
  213. ^ In the 1900 essay, "On Anarchy", he wrote; "The Anarchists are right in everything; in the negation of the existing order, and in the assertion that, without Authority, there could not be worse violence than that of Authority under existing conditions. They are mistaken only in thinking that Anarchy can be instituted by a revolution. But it will be instituted only by there being more and more people who do not require the protection of governmental power ... There can be only one permanent revolution—a moral one: the regeneration of the inner man." Despite his misgivings about anarchist violence, Tolstoy took risks to circulate the prohibited publications of anarchist thinkers in Russia, and corrected the proofs of Kropotkin's "Words of a Rebel", illegally published in St Petersburg in 1906. Peter Kropotkin: from prince to rebel. G Woodcock, I Avakumović.1990.
  214. ^ Otterman, Sharon (2012-11-26) In Hero of the Catholic Left, a Conservative Cardinal Sees a Saint, New York Times
  215. ^ Day, Dorothy. On Pilgrimage - May 1974, "There was no time to answer the one great disagreement which was in their minds--how can you reconcile your Faith in the monolithic, authoritarian Church which seems so far from Jesus who "had no place to lay his head," and who said "sell what you have and give to the poor,"--with your anarchism? Because I have been behind bars in police stations, houses of detention, jails and prison farms, whatsoever they are called, eleven times, and have refused to pay Federal income taxes and have never voted, they accept me as an anarchist. And I in turn, can see Christ in them even though they deny Him, because they are giving themselves to working for a better social order for the wretched of the earth."
  216. ^ Anarchist FAQ - A.3.7 Are there religious anarchists?, "Tolstoy's ideas had a strong influence on Gandhi, who inspired his fellow country people to use non-violent resistance to kick Britain out of India. Moreover, Gandhi's vision of a free India as a federation of peasant communes is similar to Tolstoy's anarchist vision of a free society (although we must stress that Gandhi was not an anarchist). The Catholic Worker Group in the United States was also heavily influenced by Tolstoy (and Proudhon), as was Dorothy Day a staunch Christian pacifist and anarchist who founded it in 1933."
  217. ^ Reid, Stuart (2008-09-08) Day by the Pool, The American Conservative
  218. ^ Day, Dorothy.On Pilgrimage - February 1974, "The blurb on the back of the book Small Is Beautiful lists fellow spokesmen for the ideas expressed, including "Alex Comfort, Paul Goodman and Murray Bookchin. It is the tradition we might call anarchism." We ourselves have never hesitated to use the word."
  219. ^ "US bishops endorse sainthood cause of Catholic Worker's Dorothy Day". Catholic New Service. November 13, 2012. Retrieved December 1, 2012. 
  220. ^ Day, Dorothy (February 1970). "Ammon Hennacy: 'Non-Church' Christian". The Catholic Worker. 
  221. ^ Kumarappa, Joseph Cornelius (1951). Gandhian economic thought. Library of Indian economics (1st ed.). Bombay, India: Vora.  
  222. ^ In 1908  
  223. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty, "Jawaharlal Nehru and Planning, 1938–1941: India at the Crossroads", Modern Asian Studies (March 1992) 26#2 pp. 275–287
  224. ^ Kuruvila Pandikattu (2001). Gandhi: the meaning of Mahatma for the millennium. CRVP. p. 237.  
  225. ^ Snow, Edgar. The Message of Gandhi. 27 September March 1948. "Like Marx, Gandhi hated the state and wished to eliminate it, and he told me he considered himself 'a philosophical anarchist.'"
  226. ^ Jesudasan, Ignatius. A Gandhian theology of liberation. Gujarat Sahitya Prakash: Ananda India, 1987, pp. 236–237
  227. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2006). Social and political thought of Mahatma Gandhi. Routledge. p. 138.  
  228. ^ Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand; Tolstoy, Leo (September 1987). B. Srinivasa Murthy, ed. Mahatma Gandhi and Leo Tolstoy letters. Long Beach Publications. 
  229. ^ "Gandhi's ideas were popularised in the West in books such as Richard Gregg's The Power of Nonviolence (1935), (34) and Bart de Ligt's The Conquest of Violence (1937)."Resisting the Nation State. The pacifist and anarchist traditionGeoffrey Ostergaard.
  230. ^ Anarchism: A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements by George Woodcock
  231. ^  
  232. ^  
  233. ^ Robin Hahnel, Economic Justice and Democracy: From Competition to Cooperation Part II ISBN 0-415-93344-7
  234. ^ . As such "In the forties and fifties, anarchism, in fact if not in name, began to reappear, often in alliance with pacifism, as the basis for a critique of militarism on both sides of the Cold War.[2] The anarchist/pacifist wing of the peace movement was small in comparison with the wing of the movement that emphasized electoral work, but made an important contribution to the movement as a whole. Where the more conventional wing of the peace movement rejected militarism and war under all but the most dire circumstances, the anarchist/pacifist wing rejected these on principle.""Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein "In the 1950s and 1960s anarcho-pacifism began to gel, tough-minded anarchists adding to the mixture their critique of the state, and tender-minded pacifists their critique of violence. Its first practical manifestation was at the level of method: nonviolent direct action, principled and pragmatic, was used widely in both the Civil Rights movement in the USA and the campaign against nuclear weapons in Britain and elsewhere."Resisting the Nation State. The pacifist and anarchist traditionGeoffrey Ostergaard. as can be seen in the activism and writings of the English anarchist member of Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Alex Comfort or the similar activism of the American catholic anarcho-pacifists Ammon Hennacy and Dorothy Day. Anarcho-pacifism became a "basis for a critique of militarism on both sides of the Cold War.""Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein
  235. ^ See Baker A J "Sydney Libertarianism and the Push" or at "Sydney Libertarians and the Push" on Prof. W L Morison memorial site
  236. ^ The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. Inclusivedemocracy.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  237. ^ John Campbell McMillian; Paul Buhle (2003). The new left revisited. Temple University Press. pp. 112–.  
  238. ^ Lytle 2006, pp. 213, 215.
  239. ^ "Overview: who were (are) the Diggers?". The Digger Archives. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  240. ^  
  241. ^ Holloway, David (2002). "Yippies". St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. 
  242. ^ Abbie Hoffman, Soon to be a Major Motion Picture, p. 128. Perigee Books, 1980.
  243. ^ Gitlin, Todd (1993). The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York. p. 286. 
  244. ^ "1969: Height of the Hippies - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  245. ^ Bookchin, Murray (1994). The Philosophy of Social Ecology: Essays on Dialectical Naturalism. Black Rose Books. pp. 119–120.  
  246. ^ Arran Gare, "Beyond Social Democracy? Takis Fotopoulos' Vision of an Inclusive Democracy as a New Liberatory Project" Democracy & Nature, Vol. 9, No. 3 (November 2003), pp. 345–358(14)
  247. ^ David Freeman, "Inclusive democracy and its prospects" review of book Towards An Inclusive Democracy: The Crisis of the Growth Economy and the Need For a New Liberatory Project, published in Thesis Eleven, Sage Publications, no. 69 (May 2002), pp. 103–106.
  248. ^ Takis Fotopoulos, Towards an Inclusive Democracy: the crisis of the growth economy and the need for a new liberatory project, (London & NY: Cassell, 1997), p. 255.
  249. ^ "Say you want an insurrection" by Crimethinc
  250. ^ Anarchism, insurrections and insurrectionalism" by Joe Black""". Ainfos.ca. 19 July 2006. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 20 September 2010. 
  251. ^ "Zapata, Emiliano, 1879–1919". libcom.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  252. ^ Baspineiro, Alex Contreras. "The Mysterious Silence of the Mexican Zapatistas." Narco News (May 7, 2004).
  253. ^ "Morgan Rodgers Gibson (2009) 'The Role of Anarchism in Contemporary Anti-Systemic Social Movements', Website of Abahlali Mjondolo, December, 2009". Abahlali.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  254. ^ "Morgan Rodgers Gibson (2010) 'Anarchism, the State and the Praxis of Contemporary Antisystemic Social Movements, December, 2010". Abahlali.org. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  255. ^ "The Zapatista Effect: Information Communication Technology Activism and Marginalized Communities"
  256. ^ "The Zapatista's Return: A Masked Marxist on the Stump"
  257. ^ Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia
  258. ^ "It introduces an eye-opening approach to radical social thought, rooted equally in libertarian socialism and market anarchism." Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. p. Back cover
  259. ^ "But there has always been a market-oriented strand of libertarian socialism that emphasizes voluntary cooperation between producers. And markets, properly understood, have always been about cooperation. As a commenter at Reason magazine’s Hit&Run blog, remarking on Jesse Walker’s link to the Kelly article, put it: “every trade is a cooperative act.” In fact, it’s a fairly common observation among market anarchists that genuinely free markets have the most legitimate claim to the label “socialism.”"."Socialism: A Perfectly Good Word Rehabilitated" by Kevin Carson at website of Center for a Stateless Society
  260. ^ Carson, Kevin A. (2008). Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. Charleston, SC:BookSurge.
  261. ^ Carson, Kevin A. (2010). The Homebrew Industrial Revolution: A Low-Overhead Manifesto. Charleston, SC:BookSurge.
  262. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2000). Reason and Value: Aristotle versus Rand. Washington, DC:Objectivist Center
  263. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2008). "An Interview With Roderick Long"
  264. ^ Johnson, Charles W. (2008). "Liberty, Equality, Solidarity: Toward a Dialectical Anarchism." Anarchism/Minarchism: Is a Government Part of a Free Country? In Long, Roderick T. and Machan, Tibor Aldershot:Ashgate pp. 155–88.
  265. ^ Spangler, Brad (15 September 2006). "Market Anarchism as Stigmergic Socialism."
  266. ^ Konkin III, Samuel Edward. The New Libertarian Manifesto.
  267. ^ Richman, Sheldon (23 June 2010). "Why Left-Libertarian?" The Freeman. Foundation for Economic Education.
  268. ^ Richman, Sheldon (18 December 2009). "Workers of the World Unite for a Free Market." Foundation for Economic Education.
  269. ^ a b Sheldon Richman (3 February 2011). "Libertarian Left: Free-market anti-capitalism, the unknown ideal." The American Conservative. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  270. ^ Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (2000). Total Freedom: Toward a Dialectical Libertarianism. University Park, PA:Pennsylvania State University Press.
  271. ^ Chartier, Gary (2009). Economic Justice and Natural Law. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.
  272. ^ Gillis, William (2011). "The Freed Market." In Chartier, Gary and Johnson, Charles. Markets Not Capitalism. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 19–20.
  273. ^ Chartier, Gary; Johnson, Charles W. (2011). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Brooklyn, NY:Minor Compositions/Autonomedia. pp. 1–16.
  274. ^ Gary Chartier and Charles W. Johnson (eds). Markets Not Capitalism: Individualist Anarchism Against Bosses, Inequality, Corporate Power, and Structural Poverty. Minor Compositions; 1st edition (November 5, 2011
  275. ^ Writing before the rise of the Carson–Long school of left-libertarianism, historian of American anarchism David DeLeon was disinclined to treat any market-oriented variant of libertarianism as leftist; see DeLeon, David (1978). The American as Anarchist: Reflections on Indigenous Radicalism. Baltimore, MD:Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 123.
  276. ^ Gary Chartier has joined Kevin Carson, Charles Johnson, and others (echoing the language of Benjamin Tucker and Thomas Hodgskin) in maintaining that, because of its heritage and its emancipatory goals and potential, radical market anarchism should be seen—by its proponents and by others—as part of the socialist tradition, and that market anarchists can and should call themselves "socialists." See Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Oppose Capitalism," "Free-Market Anti-Capitalism?" session, annual conference, Association of Private Enterprise Education (Cæsar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, April 13, 2010); Gary Chartier, "Advocates of Freed Markets Should Embrace 'Anti-Capitalism'"; Gary Chartier, Socialist Ends, Market Means: Five Essays. Cp. Tucker, "Socialism."
  277. ^ Chris Sciabarra is the only scholar associated with this school of left-libertarianism who is skeptical about anarchism; see Sciabarra's Total Freedom
  278. ^ Peter Vallentyne and Hillel Steiner. The origins of Left Libertarianism. Palgrave. 2000
  279. ^ Long, Roderick T. (2006). "Rothbard's 'Left and Right': Forty Years Later." Rothbard Memorial Lecture, Austrian Scholars Conference.
  280. ^ Related, arguably synonymous, terms include libertarianism, left-wing libertarianism, egalitarian-libertarianism, and libertarian socialism.
    • Sundstrom, William A. "An Egalitarian-Libertarian Manifesto."
    • Bookchin, Murray and Biehl, Janet (1997). The Murray Bookchin Reader. New York:Cassell. p. 170.
    • Sullivan, Mark A. (July 2003). "Why the Georgist Movement Has Not Succeeded: A Personal Response to the Question Raised by Warren J. Samuels." American Journal of Economics and Sociology. 62:3. p. 612.
  281. ^ Vallentyne, Peter; Steiner, Hillel; Otsuka, Michael (2005). "Why Left-Libertarianism Is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate, or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried". Philosophy and Public Affairs (Blackwell Publishing, Inc.) 33 (2). Retrieved 2013-07-23. 
  282. ^ a b Hamowy, Ronald. "Left Libertarianism." The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. p. 288
  283. ^ Benjamin Noys (ed). Communization and its Discontents: Contestation, Critique, and Contemporary Struggles. Minor Compositions, Autonomedia. 2011. 1st ed.
  284. ^ "A World Without Money" by Les amis de 4 millions de jeunes travailleurs. (quoted passage not included in this English extract)
  285. ^ "The text surveys the Italian and German lefts, Socialisme Ou Barbarie and the Situationist International and describes the theoretical development of the French ultra-left."Re-collecting our past - La Banquise
  286. ^ "As we apprehend it, the process of instituting communism can only take the form of a collection of acts of communisation, of making common such-and-such space, such-and-such machine, such-and-such knowledge. That is to say, the elaboration of the mode of sharing that attaches to them. Insurrection itself is just an accelerator, a decisive moment in this process." Anonymous, Call
  287. ^ For a critique of Tiqqun from an ultra-left perspective, as well as a description of the opposition between the two sense of "communization" see "Reflexions Around Call" Letters Journal #3. See also Dauvé and Nesic, "Un Appel et une Invite".
  288. ^ See e.g. "After the Fall: Communiqués from Occupied California"
  289. ^ Thomas 1985, p. 4
  290. ^ John Patten (1968-10-28). These groups had their roots in the anarchist resurgence of the nineteen sixties. Young militants finding their way to anarchism, often from the anti-bomb and anti-Vietnam war movements, linked up with an earlier generation of activists, largely outside the ossified structures of ‘official’ anarchism. Anarchist tactics embraced demonstrations, direct action such as industrial militancy and squatting, protest bombings like those of the First of May Group and Angry Brigade – and a spree of publishing activity." "Islands of Anarchy: Simian, Cienfuegos, Refract and their support network" by John Patten""". Katesharpleylibrary.net. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  291. ^ "Farrell provides a detailed history of the Catholic Workers and their founders Dorothy Day and Peter Maurin. He explains that their pacifism, anarchism, and commitment to the downtrodden were one of the important models and inspirations for the 60s. As Farrell puts it, "Catholic Workers identified the issues of the sixties before the Sixties began, and they offered models of protest long before the protest decade.""The Spirit of the Sixties: The Making of Postwar Radicalism" by James J. Farrell
  292. ^ "While not always formally recognized, much of the protest of the sixties was anarchist. Within the nascent women's movement, anarchist principles became so widespread that a political science professor denounced what she saw as "The Tyranny of Structurelessness." Several groups have called themselves "Amazon Anarchists." After the Murray Bookchin's anarchist writings." Encyclopedia of Homosexuality"Anarchism" by Charley Shively in . p. 52
  293. ^ "Within the movements of the sixties there was much more receptivity to anarchism-in-fact than had existed in the movements of the thirties...But the movements of the sixties were driven by concerns that were more compatible with an expressive style of politics, with hostility to authority in general and state power in particular...By the late sixties, political protest was intertwined with cultural radicalism based on a critique of all authority and all hierarchies of power. Anarchism circulated within the movement along with other radical ideologies. The influence of anarchism was strongest among radical feminists, in the commune movement, and probably in the Weather Underground and elsewhere in the violent fringe of the anti-war movement." "Anarchism and the Anti-Globalization Movement" by Barbara Epstein
  294. ^ London Federation of Anarchists involvement in Carrara conference, 1968 International Institute of Social History, Accessed 19 January 2010
  295. ^ Short history of the IAF-IFA A-infos news project, Accessed 19 January 2010
  296. ^ "The International Conferences of the Communist Left (1976–80) | International Communist Current". En.internationalism.org. Retrieved 2013-07-12. 
  297. ^ a b c Rupert, Mark (2006). Globalization and International Political Economy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 66.  
  298. ^ Infinitely Demanding by Simon Critchley. Verso. 2007. p. 125
  299. ^ Carley, Mark "Trade union membership 1993–2003" (International:SPIRE Associates 2004).
  300. ^ http://www.cnt-ait-fr.org/CNT-AIT/ACCUEIL.html Website of the Confédération Nationale du Travail – Association Internationale des Travailleurs
  301. ^ "If any radical left tendency has been responsible for inspiring action, the palm should go to Marxism’s historic antagonist on the Left—anarchism. Wherever movements have been provoked against neoliberalism, black flags have tended to outnumber red. Autonomista and other kinds of left-libertarian thought were major currents running through movements in Greece and Spain. The cornerstone for the occupation of Zuccotti Park was laid by anarchists, who also developed the consensus procedures by which the movement participants made (or occasionally failed to make) decisions." "Cheerleaders for Anarchism" by Nikil Saval in Dissent magazine
  302. ^ In November 2011, Rolling Stone magazine credited American anarchist David Graeber with giving the Occupy Wall Street movement its theme: "We are the 99 percent". Rolling Stone says Graeber helped create the first New York City General Assembly, with only 60 participants, on August 2. Sharlet, Jeff (10 November 2011). "Inside Occupy Wall Street: How a bunch of anarchists and radicals with nothing but sleeping bags launched a nationwide movement". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 4 December 2011.

Libertarian socialist periodicals

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Périodiques en anglais – CIRA – Lausanne. Anarca-bolo.ch (2011-09-02). Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  2. ^ Murray Bookchin What is Social Ecology? at the Wayback Machine (archived June 1, 2008) communalism.org
  3. ^ The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. Inclusivedemocracy.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  4. ^ Murray Bookchin obituary. Times Online (2011-12-21). Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  5. ^ Heatwave Magazine – UK, 1960s. libcom.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  6. ^ Leeds other paper Leeds libertarian socialist newspaper. [WorldCat.org]. Worldcatlibraries.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  7. ^ "Index of /Politics/Organized.Thoughts". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2009-01-01. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  8. ^ Lessons from the Summit Protest movement. Struggle.ws. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  9. ^ Red & Black Notes Index at the Wayback Machine (archived October 27, 2009). geocities.com
  10. ^ Root And Branch. Webcitation.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  11. ^ Anderson, Paul. (2004-07-27) GAUCHE. Libsoc.blogspot.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.
  12. ^ Gallin, Dan; Horn, Pat (2005). "Organizing Informal Women Workers". Global Labor Institute. Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  13. ^ "Obituary for the Dutch anarchist Karl Kreuger". Web.archive.org. 2008-12-09. Archived from the original on 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  14. ^ The Commune – for worker's self-management and communism
  15. ^ Başka Bir Sol Mümkün!. Turnusol.biz. Retrieved on 2011-12-28.

Bibliography

  • Anarchism: A Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas. Robert Graham, editor.
    • Volume One: From Anarchy to Anarchism (300CE to 1939) Black Rose Books, Montréal and London 2005. ISBN 1-55164-250-6.
    • Volume Two: The Anarchist Current (1939–2006) Black Rose Books, Montréal 2007. ISBN 978-1-55164-311-3.
  • ISBN . Retrieved 28 December 2011. 
  • An Anarchist FAQ by Iain McKay (ed.), Volume 1 (2008), see esp. section: A.1.3 Why is anarchism also called libertarian socialism? [3]
  • Anarchy: A Graphic Guide, Clifford Harper (Camden Press, 1987): An overview, updating Woodcock's classic, and illustrated throughout by Harper's woodcut-style artwork.
  • The Anarchist Reader, George Woodcock (ed.) (Fontana/Collins 1977; ISBN 0-00-634011-3): An anthology of writings from anarchist thinkers and activists including Proudhon, Kropotkin, Bakunin, Malatesta, Bookchin, Goldman, and many others.
  • Anarchist Seeds beneath the Snow: Left-Libertarian Thought and British Writers from William Morris to Colin Ward. David Goodway. Liverpool University Press. 2006 ISBN 1-84631-025-3
  • The Anarchist Turn. Edited by Jacob Blumenfeld, Chiara Bottici and Simon Critchley. Pluto Press. March 19, 2013. ISBN 9780745333427
  • Anarchism: From Theory to Practice by Daniel Guerin. Monthly Review Press. 1970. ISBN 0-85345-175-3
  • Anarchy through the times by Max Nettlau. Gordon Press. 1979. ISBN 0-8490-1397-6
  • Autonomia: Post-Political Politics, ed. Sylvere Lotringer & Christian Marazzi. New York: Semiotext(e), 1980, 2007. ISBN 1-58435-053-9, ISBN 978-1-58435-053-8.
  • (French) L’Autonomie. Le mouvement autonome en France et en Italie, éditions Spartacus 1978
  • Critical Theory and Libertarian Socialism: Realizing the Political Potential of Critical Social Theory. Charles Masquelier. Bloomsbury Academic. 2014
  • Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall. PM Press. 2010. ISBN 1-60486-064-2
  • People Without Government: An Anthropology of Anarchy (2nd ed.) by Harold Barclay, Left Bank Books, 1990 ISBN 1-871082-16-1
  • Pioneers of Anti-Parliamentarism by Guy Aldred. Glasgow: Bakunin Press.
  • The Political Theory of Anarchism by April Carter. Harper & Row. 1971. ISBN 978-0-06-136050-3
  • Sartwell, Crispin (2008). Against the state: an introduction to anarchist political theory. SUNY Press.  
  • Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red Edited By Alex Prichard, Ruth Kinna, Saku Pinta and Dave Berry. Palgrave Macmillan, December 2012 ISBN 978-0-230-28037-3
  • Libertarianism without Inequality by Otsuka, Michael. (Oxford University Press 2003)
  • Non-Leninist Marxism: Writings on the Workers Councils (a collection of writings by Gorter, Pannekoek, Pankhurst, and Ruhle). Red and Black Publishers, St Petersburg, Florida, 2007. ISBN 978-0-9791813-6-8
  • The International Communist Current, itself a Left Communist grouping, has produced a series of studies of what it views as its own antecedents. The book on the German-Dutch current, which is by Philippe Bourrinet (who later left the ICC), in particular contains an exhaustive bibliography.
    • The Italian Communist Left 1926–1945 (ISBN 1897980132)
    • The Dutch-German Communist Left (ISBN 1899438378)
    • The Russian Communist Left, 1918–1930 (ISBN 1897980108)
    • The British Communist Left, 1914–1945 (ISBN 1897980116)
  • Benjamin Noys (ed). Communization and its Discontents: Contestation, Critique, and Contemporary Struggles. Minor Compositions, Autonomedia. 2011. 1st ed.

External links

Libertarian socialist general resources

  • Le Monde Libertaire Transcription of the first known publication to declare itself 'Libertarian' and socialist, in 1858 edited by Joseph Déjacque.
  • libcom.org the home of Libertarian Communism in Britain
    • A libertarian Marxist tendency map
  • Libertarian Socialist Alliance – International Global Network of Libertarian Socialist Organizations
  • A People's Libertarian Index
  • Libertarian socialism
  • Collective Action Notes is a libertarian socialist publication whose website hosts an extensive collection of online anti-authoritarian texts. (link dead) Archived version at the Wayback Machine.
  • Anarchism and the left
  • Infoshop's libertarian Marxism and libertarian socialism portal
  • Left Communism collection on the Marxists Internet Archive
  • The Anarchist Library large online library with texts from anarchist authors
  • For Communism – John Gray WebSite: large online library of libertarian communist texts

Introductory articles

  • "Libertarian Socialism" by spunk.org
  • (1959) by Gaston Leval
  • "What is Libertarian Socialism?" by Ulli Diemer
  • "Libertarian Marxism's Relation to Anarchism" by Wayne Price
  • "Libertarian Socialism: A Better Reconciliation Between Self-Ownership and Equality" by Nicholas Vrousalis
  • "Libertarian Socialism" by Tom McLaughlin
  • "The End of Traditional Antisystemic Movements and the Need for a New Type of Antisystemic Movements Today" by Takis Fotopoulos, Democracy & Nature, Vol. 7, no. 3, 2001.
  • "Kropotkin, Self-valorization And The Crisis Of Marxism." by Harry Cleaver. Written for and presented to the Conference on Pyotr Alexeevich Kropotkin organized by the Russian Academy of Science in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Dimitrov on December 8 – 14, 1992
  • "How a Libertarian Capitalist Became a Libertarian Socialist" by Chris Wilson
  • "The Crisis of Dialectical Materialism and Libertarian Socialism" by Mario Cutajar

Libertarian socialist websites

  • The Red Menace Archive of The Red Menace, published by the Libertarian Socialist Collective
  • Workers Solidarity Movement
  • Industrial Workers of the World
  • Professor Roger McCain's libertarian socialist economics page
  • Social Ecology London, English libertarian socialist study/action group
  • TURNUSOL, A Libertarian Socialist Internet Periodical, Turkey
  • Liberty & Solidarity
  • "An Anarchist FAQ Webpage" –An Anarchist FAQ
  • Anarchism on In Our Time at the BBC. (listen now)
  • Anarchism: A Bibliography
  • Anarchy Archives – information relating to famous anarchists including their writings (see Anarchy Archives).
  • Daily Bleed's Anarchist Encyclopedia –700+ entries, with short biographies, links and dedicated pages
  • KateSharpleyLibrary.net –website of the Kate Sharpley Library, containing many historical documents pertaining to anarchism

Libertarian socialist history

  • "Socialism from below" by George Woodcock
  • Anarchism and the Russian revolution
  • The Bolshevik Counter-Revolution against the workers and popular soviet/council power was done with party dictatorship and massacre on the Kronstadt soviet in March 1921.
  • Anarchist timeline includes libertarian socialists
  • Anarchist Encyclopedia (from the Daily Bleed) includes libertarian socialists

Film

See List of films dealing with Anarchism for a list of nonfiction and fiction films dealing with anarchist movements both historical and contemporary.

  • Noam Chomsky Discussion with Libertarian Socialists, Ireland 2006