Mackerel

Mackerel

Mackerel
Some species of mackerel migrate in schools for long distances along the coast and other species cross oceans
Global commercial capture of mackerel in million tonnes
as reported by the FAO 1950–2009[1]

Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They are found in both temperate and tropical seas, mostly living along the coast or offshore in the oceanic environment.

Mackerel typically have vertical stripes on their backs and deeply forked tails. Many species are restricted in their distribution ranges, and live in separate populations or fish stocks based on geography. Some stocks migrate in large schools along the coast to suitable spawning grounds, where they spawn in fairly shallow waters. After spawning they return the way they came, in smaller schools, to suitable feeding grounds often near an area of upwelling. From there they may move offshore into deeper waters and spend the winter in relative inactivity. Other stocks migrate across oceans.

Smaller mackerel are forage fish for larger predators, including larger mackerel and Atlantic cod.[2] Flocks of seabirds, as well as whales, dolphins, sharks and schools of larger fish such as tuna and marlin follow mackerel schools and attack them in sophisticated and cooperative ways. Mackerel is high in omega-3 oils and is intensively harvested by humans. In 2009, over five millions tonnes were landed by commercial fishermen[1] (see graph on the right). Sport fisherman value the fighting abilities of the king mackerel.[3]

Contents

  • Species 1
    • Scombroid mackerels 1.1
      • Scombrini, the true mackerels 1.1.1
      • Scomberomorini, the Spanish mackerels 1.1.2
    • Other mackerel 1.2
  • Characteristics 2
  • Distribution 3
  • Life cycle 4
  • Fisheries 5
  • Management 6
  • As food 7
  • Notes 8
  • Other references 9
  • External links 10

Species

Over thirty different species, principally belonging to the family Scombridae, are commonly referred to as mackerel. The term "mackerel" means "marked" or "spotted." The term mackerel derives from the Old French maquerel, c.1300, meaning a pimp or procurer. The connection is not altogether clear, but mackerel spawn enthusiastically in shoals near the coast, and medieval ideas on animal procreation were creative.[4]

Scombroid mackerels

About 21 species in the family Scombridae are commonly called mackerel. The type species for the scombroid mackerel is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus. Until recently, it was thought that Atlantic chub mackerel and Indo-Pacific chub mackerel were subspecies of the same species. In 1999 Collette established, on molecular and morphological considerations, that these are separate species.[5] Mackerel are smaller with shorter life cycles than their close relatives, the tuna, which are also members of the same family.[6][7]

This article is
one of a series on
Commercial fish
Large pelagic
billfish, bonito
mackerel, salmon
shark, tuna

Forage
anchovy, herring
menhaden, sardine
shad, sprat

Demersal
cod, eel, flatfish
pollock, ray
Mixed
carp, tilapia

Scombrini, the true mackerels

The true mackerels belong to the tribe Scombrini.[8] The tribe consists of seven species, each belonging to one of two genera: Scomber and Rastrelliger.[9][10]

True Mackerels (tribe Scombrini)
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
FishBase FAO IUCN status
Short mackerel Rastrelliger brachysoma
(Bleeker, 1851)
34.5 cm 20 cm kg years 2.72 [11] [12] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[13]
Island mackerel R. faughni
(Matsui, 1967)
20 cm cm 0.75 kg years 3.4 [14] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[15]
Indian mackerel R. kanagurta
(Cuvier, 1816)
35 cm 25 cm kg 4 years 3.19 [16] [17] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[18]
Blue mackerel Scomber australasicus
(Cuvier, 1832)
44 cm 30 cm 1.36 kg years 4.2 [19] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[20]
Atlantic chub mackerel S. colias
(Gmelin, 1789)
cm cm kg years 3.91 [21] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[22]
Chub mackerel S. japonicus
(Houttuyn, 1782)
64 cm 30 cm 2.9 kg 18 years 3.09 [23] [24] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[25]
Atlantic mackerel S. scombrus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
66 cm cm kg 12 years west
18 years east
3.65 [26] [27] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[5]

Scomberomorini, the Spanish mackerels

The Spanish mackerels belong to the tribe Scomberomorini, which is the "sister tribe" of the true mackerels.[28] This tribe consists of 21 species in all—18 of those are classified into the genus Scomberomorus,[29] two into Grammatorcynus,[30] and a single species into the monotypic genus Acanthocybium.[31]

Spanish Mackerels (tribe Scomberomorini)
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
FishBase FAO IUCN status
Wahoo Acanthocybium solandri
(Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1832)
250 cm 170 cm 83 kg years 4.4 [32] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[33]
Shark mackerel Grammatorcynus bicarinatus
(Quoy & Gaimard, 1825)
112 cm cm 13.5 kg years 4.5 [34] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[35]
Double-lined mackerel G. bilineatus
(Rüppell, 1836)
100 cm 50 cm 3.5 kg years 4.18 [36] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[37]
Serra Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus brasiliensis
(Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978)
cm cm kg years 3.31 [38] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[39]
King mackerel S. cavalla
(Cuvier, 1829)
184 cm 70 cm 45 kg 14 years 4.5 [40] [41] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[42]
Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel S. commerson
(Lacepède, 1800)
240 cm 120 cm kg years 4.5 [43] [44] NT IUCN 3 1.svg Near threatened[45]
Monterey Spanish mackerel S. concolor
(Lockington, 1879)
cm cm kg years 4.24 [46] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[47]
Indo-Pacific king mackerel S. guttatus
(Bloch & Schneider, 1801)
76 cm 55 cm kg years 4.28 [48] [49] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[50]
Korean mackerel S. koreanus
(Kishinouye, 1915)
150 cm 60 cm 15 kg years 4.2 [51] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[52]
Streaked Spanish mackerel S. lineolatus
(Cuvier, 1829)
80 cm 70 cm kg years 4.5 [53] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[54]
Atlantic Spanish mackerel S. maculatus
(Mitchill, 1815)
91 cm cm 5.89 kg 5 years 4.5 [55] [56] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[57]
Papuan Spanish mackerel S. multiradiatus
Munro, 1964
35 cm cm 0.5 kg years 4.0 [58] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[59]
Australian spotted mackerel S. munroi
(Collette & Russo, 1980)
104 cm cm 10.2 kg years 4.3 [60] NT IUCN 3 1.svg Near threatened[61]
Japanese Spanish mackerel S. niphonius
(Cuvier, 1832)
100 cm cm 7.1 kg years 4.5 [62] [63] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[64]
Queen mackerel S. plurilineatus
Fourmanoir, 1966
120 cm  cm 12.5 kg years 4.2 [65] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[66]
Queensland school mackerel S. queenslandicus
(Munro, 1943)
100 cm 80 cm 12.2 kg years 4.5 [67] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[68]
Cero mackerel S. regalis
(Bloch, 1793)
183 cm  cm 7.8 kg years 4.5 [69] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[70]
Broadbarred king mackerel S. semifasciatus
(Macleay, 1883)
120 cm cm kg 10 years 4.5 [71] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[72]
Pacific sierra S. sierra
(Cuvier, 1832)
99 cm 60 cm 8.2 kg years 4.5 [73] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[74]
Chinese mackerel S. sinensis
(Cuvier, 1832)
247 cm 100 cm kg years 4.5 [75] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[76]
West African Spanish mackerel S. tritor
(Cuvier, 1832)
cm cm kg years 4.26 [77] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[78]

Other mackerel

In addition, a number of species with mackerel-like characteristics in the families Carangidae, Hexagrammidae and Gempylidae are commonly referred to as mackerel. There has been some confusion between the Pacific jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) and the heavily harvested Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi). These have been thought at times to be the same species, but are now recognised as separate species.[79]

Other mackerel species
Family Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
FishBase FAO IUCN status
Scombridae
Gasterochisma
Butterfly mackerel Gasterochisma melampus Richardson, 1845 175 cm 153 cm  kg years 4.4 [80] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[81]
Carangidae
Jack mackerel
Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus (Linnaeus, 1758) 70 cm 22 cm 2.0 kg years 3.64 [82] [83] Not assessed
Blue jack mackerel T. picturatus (Bowdich, 1825) 60 cm 25 cm kg years 3.32 [84] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[85]
Cape horse mackerel T. capensis (Castelnau, 1861) 60 cm 30 cm kg years 3.47 [86] [87] Not assessed[88]
Chilean jack mackerel T. murphyi (Nichols, 1920) 70 cm 45 cm kg 16 years 3.49 [89] [90] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[91]
Cunene horse mackerel T. trecae (Cadenat, 1950) 35 cm cm 2.0 kg years 3.49 [92] [93] Not assessed
Greenback horse mackerel T. declivis (Jenyns, 1841) 64 cm 42 cm kg 25 years 3.93 [94] [95] Not assessed[96]
Japanese horse mackerel T. japonicus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1844) 50 cm 35 cm 0.66 kg 12 years 3.4 [97] [98] Not assessed
Mediterranean horse mackerel T. mediterraneus (Steindachner, 1868) 60 cm 30 cm kg years 3.59 [99] [100] Not assessed
Pacific jack mackerel T. symmetricus (Ayres, 1855) 81 cm 55 cm kg 30 years 3.56 [101] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[102]
Yellowtail horse mackerel T. novaezelandiae (Richardson, 1843) 50 cm 35 cm kg 25 years 4.5 [103] Not assessed
Gempylidae
Snake mackerel
Black snake mackerel Nealotus tripes (Johnson, 1865) 25 cm 15 cm kg years 4.2 [104] Not assessed
Blacksail snake mackerel Thyrsitoides marleyi (Fowler, 1929) 200 cm 100 cm kg years 4.19 [105] Not assessed
Snake mackerel Gempylus serpens (Cuvier, 1829) 100 cm 60 cm kg years 4.35 [106] Not assessed
Violet snake mackerel Nesiarchus nasutus (Johnson, 1862) 130 cm 80 cm kg years 4.33 [107] Not assessed
* White snake mackerel Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832) 40 cm 25 cm kg years 3.86 [108] Not assessed
Hexagrammidae Okhotsk atka mackerel Pleurogrammus azonus (Jordan & Metz, 1913) 62 cm cm 1.6 kg 12 years 3.58 [109] [110] Not assessed
Atka mackerel P. monopterygius (Pallas, 1810) 56.5 cm cm 2.0 kg 14 years 3.33 [111] Not assessed
Still life with mackerel, lemon and tomato, Van Gogh, 1886

The term mackerel is also used as a modifier in the common names of other fish, sometimes indicating the fish has vertical stripes similar to a scombroid mackerel:

By extension, the term is applied also to other species such as the mackerel tabby cat,[112] and to inanimate objects such as the altocumulus mackerel sky cloud formation.[113]

Characteristics

Like other scombroids, mackerel such as this Atlantic mackerel are superb swimmers, and can retract their fins into grooves on their bodies for streamlining. They have deeply forked tails and are smaller and slimmer than tuna.[114][115]

Most mackerel belong to the family Scombridae, which also includes tuna and bonito. Generally mackerel are much smaller and slimmer than tuna, though in other respects they share many common characteristics. Their scales, if present at all, are extremely small. Like tuna and bonito, mackerel are voracious feeders, and are swift and manoeuvrable swimmers, able to streamline themselves by retracting their fins into grooves on their body. Like other scombroids, their bodies are cylindrical with numerous finlets on the dorsal and ventral sides behind the dorsal and anal fins, but unlike the deep-bodied tuna, they are slim.[114]

The type species for scombroid mackerels is the Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus. These fish are iridescent blue-green above with a silvery underbelly and twenty to thirty near vertical wavy black stripes running across their upper body.[26][116]

It might seem that the prominent stripes on the back of mackerels are there to provide camouflage against broken backgrounds. That is not the case, because mackerel live in midwater pelagic environments which have no background.[117] However, fish have an optokinetic reflex in their visual systems which can be sensitive to moving stripes.[118] In order for fish to school efficiently, they need feedback mechanisms that help them align themselves with adjacent fish, and match their speed. The stripes on neighbouring fish provide "schooling marks" which signal changes in relative position.[117][119]

Mackerel, such as these Pacific jack mackerel, usually have vertical stripes on their sides which provide "schooling marks", visual clues that help them stay in formation as they school.[117]

There is a layer of thin reflecting platelets on some of the mackerel stripes. In 1998, Denton and Rowe argued that these platelets transmit additional information to other fish about how a given fish moves. As the orientation of the fish changes relative to another fish, the amount of light reflected to the second fish by this layer also changes. This sensitivity to orientation gives the mackerel "considerable advantages in being able to react quickly while schooling and feeding."[120]

Mackerel range in size from small forage fish to larger game fish. Coastal mackerel tend to be small.[121] The king mackerel is an example of a larger mackerel. Most fish are cold-blooded, but there are exceptions. Certain species of fish maintain elevated body temperatures. Endothermic bony fishes are all in the suborder Scombroidei and include the butterfly mackerel, a species of primitive mackerel.[122]

Mackerel are strong swimmers. Atlantic mackerel can swim at a sustained speed of 0.98 metres/sec with a burst speed of 5.5 m/s,[123][124] while chub mackerel can swim at a sustained speed of 0.92 m/s with a burst speed of 2.25 m/s.[114]

Distribution

King mackerels cruise on long migrations at 10 kilometres per hour.[125][126]

Most mackerel species have restricted distribution ranges.[114]

  • Atlantic Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus maculatus) occupy the waters off the east coast of North America from the Cape Cod area south to the Yucatan Peninsula. Its population is considered to include two fish stocks, defined by geography. As summer approaches, one stock moves in large schools north from Florida up the coast to spawn in shallow waters off the New England coast. It then returns to winter in deeper waters off Florida. The other stock migrates in large schools along the coast from Mexico to spawn in shallow waters of the Gulf of Mexico off Texas. It then returns to winter in deeper waters off the Mexican coast.[56] These stocks are managed separately, even though genetically they are identical.[57]
  • The Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) is a coastal species found only in the north Atlantic. The stock on the west side of the Atlantic is largely independent of the stock on the east side. The stock on the east Atlantic currently operates as three separate stocks, the southern, western and North Sea stocks, each with their own migration patterns. Some mixing of the east Atlantic stocks takes place in feeding grounds towards the north, but there is almost no mixing between the east and west Atlantic stocks.[5][127][128][129][130]
  • Another common coastal species, the chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), is absent from the Atlantic Ocean but is widespread across both hemispheres in the Pacific, where its migration patterns are somewhat similar to those of Atlantic mackerel. In the northern hemisphere, chub mackerel migrate northwards in the summer to feeding grounds, and southwards in the winter when they spawn in relatively shallow waters. In the southern hemisphere the migrations are reversed. After spawning, some stocks migrate down the continental slope to deeper water and spend the rest of the winter in relative inactivity.[23]
  • The Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), the most intensively harvested mackerel-like species, is found in the south Pacific from West Australia to the coasts of Chile and Peru.[89] A sister species, the Pacific jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus), is found in the north Pacific. The Chilean jack mackerel occurs along the coasts in upwelling areas, but also migrates across the open ocean. Its abundance can fluctuate markedly as ocean conditions change,[91] and is particularly affected by the El Nino.

Three species of jack mackerels are found in coastal waters around New Zealand: the Australasian, Chilean and Pacific jack mackerels. They are mainly captured using purse seine nets, and are managed as a single stock that includes multiple species.[131]

Some mackerel species migrate vertically. Adult snake mackerels conduct a diel vertical migration, staying in deeper water during the day and rising to the surface at night to feed. The young and juveniles also migrate vertically but in the opposite direction, staying near the surface during the day and moving deeper at night.[132] This species feeds on squid, pelagic crustaceans, lanternfishes, flying fishes, sauries and other mackerel.[133] It is in turn preyed upon by tuna and marlin.[134]

Life cycle

Gannets and other seabirds fuel themselves with mackerel

Mackerel are prolific broadcast spawners. Individual females lay between 300,000 and 1,500,000 eggs.[114] Their eggs and larvae are pelagic, that is, they float free in the open sea. The larvae and juvenile mackerel feed on zooplankton. As adults they have sharp teeth, and hunt small crustaceans such as copepods, as well as forage fish, shrimp and squid. In turn they are hunted by larger pelagic animals such as tuna, billfish, sea lions, sharks and pelicans.[24][41][135]

Off Madagascar, spinner sharks follow migrating schools of mackerel.[136] Bryde's whales feed on mackerel when they can find them. They use several feeding methods, including skimming the surface, lunging, and bubble nets.[137]

Fisheries

Global capture of mackerel in tonnes reported by the FAO 1950–2009
↑  Scombroid mackerels[1]
↑  Non-scombroid mackerels[1]
Main commercial species
The chub mackerel is the most intensively fished mackerel in the scombroid family
Chilean jack mackerel have been overfished and may be in danger of collapsing. Here an entire school of about 400 tons is encircled by a purse seiner.

Chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, are the most intensively fished scombroid mackerel. As can be seen from the graph on the right, they account for about half the total capture production of scombroid mackerels.[1] As a species they are easily confused with Atlantic mackerel. Chub mackerel migrate long distances in oceans and across the Mediterranean. They can be caught with drift nets and suitable trawls, but are most usually caught with surround nets at night by attracting them with lampara lamps.[138]

The remaining catch of scombroid mackerels is divided equally between the Atlantic mackerel and all other scombroid mackerels. Just two species account for about 75% of the total catch of scombroid mackerels.[1]

Chilean jack mackerel are the most commonly fished non-scombroid mackerel, fished as heavily as chub mackerel[1][90] (see second graph on the right). The species has been overfished, and its fishery may now be in danger of collapsing.[139][140]

Smaller mackerel behave like herrings, and are captured in similar ways.[141] Fish species like these, which school near the surface, can be caught efficiently by purse seining. Huge purse seiner vessels use spotter planes to locate the schooling fish. Then they close in using sophisticated sonar to track the shape of the shoal. Entire schools are then encircled with fast auxiliary boats which deploy purse seine nets as they speed around the school.[142][143]

Suitably designed trollers can also catch mackerels effectively when they swim near the surface. Trollers typically have several long booms which they lift and drop with "topping lifts". They haul their lines with electric or hydraulic reels.[144] Fish aggregating devices are also used to target mackerel.[145]

Management

The North Sea has been overfished to the point where the ecological balance has become disrupted and many jobs in the fishing industry have been lost.[146]

The Southeast US region spans the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea and the US Southeast Atlantic. Overfishing of king and Spanish mackerel occurred in the 1980s. Regulations were introduced to restrict the size, amount of catch, fishing locations and bag limits for recreational fishers as well as commercial fishers. Gillnets were banned in waters off Florida. By 2001, the mackerel stocks had bounced back.[147]

As food

Atlantic mackerel on ice at a fishmongers

Mackerel is an important food fish that is consumed worldwide.[148] As an oily fish, it is a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids.[149] The flesh of mackerel spoils quickly, especially in the tropics, and can cause scombroid food poisoning. Accordingly, it should be eaten on the day of capture, unless properly refrigerated or cured.[150]

Mackerel preservation is not simple. Before the 19th-century development of canning and the widespread availability of refrigeration, salting and smoking were the principal preservation methods available.[151] Historically in England, this fish was not preserved, but was consumed only in its fresh form. However, spoilage was common, leading the authors of The Cambridge Economic History of Europe to remark: "There are more references to stinking mackerel in English literature than to any other fish!"[141] In 2013, concerns were raised that mackerel may not have been as plentiful a fish as had previously been considered. In France mackerel was traditionally pickled with large amounts of salt, which allowed it to be sold widely across the country.[141]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  2. ^ Daan, N. (December 1973). "A quantitative analysis of the food intake of North Sea cod, Gadus Morhua". Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 6 (4): 479–517.  
  3. ^ Merriam-Webster (2003) King mackerel Page 688. ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5.
  4. ^ Mackerel Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  5. ^ a b c Collette B and 9 others (2011). "Scomber scombrus".  
  6. ^ Juan-Jorda MJ, Mosqueira I, Cooper AB, Freire J, Dulvy NK (2011) "Global population trajectories of tunas and their relatives" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108 (51): 20650–20655. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107743108
  7. ^ Tuna and mackerel populations have reduced by 60% in the last century ScienceDaily, 8 February 2012.
  8. ^ "Scombrini".  
  9. ^ "Scomber".  
  10. ^ "Rastrelliger".  
  11. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Rastrelliger brachysoma in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  12. ^ (Bleeker, 1851)Rastrelliger brachysoma FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  13. ^ Collette B and 4 others (2011). "Rastrelliger brachysoma".  
  14. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Rastrelliger faughni in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  15. ^ Collette B and 4 others (2011). "Rastrelliger faughni".  
  16. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Rastrelliger kanagurta in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  17. ^ (Cuvier, 1817)Rastrelliger kanagurta FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  18. ^ Collette B and 9 others (2011). "Rastrelliger kanagurta".  
  19. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomber australasicus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  20. ^ Collette B and 21 others (2011). "Scomber australasicus".  
  21. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomber colias in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  22. ^ Collette B and 17 others (2011). "Scomber colias".  
  23. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomber japonicus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  24. ^ a b (Houttuyn, 1782)Scomber japonicus FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  25. ^ Collette B and 9 others (2011). "Scomber japonicus".  
  26. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomber scombrus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  27. ^ (Linnaeus, 1758)Scomber scombrus FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  28. ^ "Scomberomorini".  
  29. ^ "Scomberomorus".  
  30. ^ "Grammatorcynus".  
  31. ^ "Acanthocybium".  
  32. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Acanthocybium solandri in FishBase. December 2012 version.
  33. ^ Collette B and 32 others (2011). "Acanthocybium solandri".  
  34. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Grammatorcynus bicarinatus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  35. ^ Collette B, Fox W and Nelson R (2011). "Grammatorcynus bicarinatus".  
  36. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Grammatorcynus bilineatus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  37. ^ Collette B and 5 others (2011). "Grammatorcynus bilineatus".  
  38. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus brasiliensis in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  39. ^ Collette B and 17 others (2011). "Scomberomorus brasiliensis".  
  40. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus cavalla in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  41. ^ a b (Cuvier, 1829)Scomberomorus cavalla FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  42. ^ Collette B and 15 others (2011). "Scomberomorus cavalla".  
  43. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus commerson in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  44. ^ (Lacepède, 1800)Scomberomorus commerson FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  45. ^ Collette B and 16 others (2011). "Scomberomorus commerson".  
  46. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus concolor in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  47. ^ Collette B and 20 others (2011). "Scomberomorus concolor".  
  48. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus guttatus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  49. ^ (Bloch & Schneider, 1801)Scomberomorus guttatus FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  50. ^ Collette B and 9 others (2011). "Scomberomorus guttatus".  
  51. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus koreanus in FishBase. December 2012 version.
  52. ^ Collette B and 4 others (2011). "Scomberomorus koreanus".  
  53. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus lineolatus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  54. ^ Collette B and 4 others (2011). "Scomberomorus lineolatus".  
  55. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Scomberomorus maculatus in FishBase. March 2012 version.
  56. ^ a b (Mitchill, 1815)Scomberomorus maculatus FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  57. ^ a b Collette B and 7 others (2011). "Scomber maculatus".  
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Other references

  • Ahlstrom EH (1956) "Eggs and larvae of anchovy, jack mackerel, and Pacific mackerel" CalCOFI Reports, 5: 33–42.
  • Bertrand A, MA Barbieri, F Gerlotto, F Leiva and J Cordova (2006) "Trachurus murphyi"Determinism and plasticity of fish schooling behaviour as exemplified by the South Pacific jack mackerel Marine Ecology Progress Series, 311: 145–156.
  • Bigelow HB and Schroeder WC (1953) Fishes of the Gulf of Maine: Mackerel Fisheries Bulletin, Volume 53, Number 74, United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
  • Burton M and Burton R (2002) International Wildlife Encyclopedia Marshall Cavendish, pp. 1517–1518. ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7.
  • Hays GC (1996) "Large-scale patterns of diel vertical migration in the North Atlantic" Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research,43 (10): 1601–1615.
  • Keay JN (2001) Handling and processing mackerel Torry advisory note 66.
  • Masuda R, Shoji J, Nakatama Sand Tanaka T (2003) during early ontogeny"Scomberomorus niphonius"Development of schooling behavior in Spanish mackerel Fisheries Science, 69: 772–776.
  • Nakayama S, Masuda R and Tanaka M (2007) Scomber japonicusOnsets of schooling behavior and social transmission in chub mackerel Behav Ecol Sociobiol, 61:1383–1390. doi:10.1007/s00265-007-0368-4
  • Nakayama A, Masuda R, Shoji J, Takeuchi T and Tanaka M (2003) in the laboratory"Scomber japonicus"Effect of prey items on the development of schooling behavior in chub mackerel Fisheries Science, 69: 670–676.
  • Nakayama S, Masuda R and Tanaka M (2007) "Scomber japonicus"Onsets of schooling behavior and social transmission in chub mackerel Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 61 (9): 1383–1390.
  • SPRFMO(2009) Information describing Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fisheries relating to the South Pacific Regional Fishery Management Organisation Working draft.

External links

  • Atlantic Mackerel British Marine Life Study Society. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  • Mackerel nutrition facts
  • Fishing for mackerel