Magonism[1][2] (Mexican Liberal Party), as Práxedis Guerrero, Librado Rivera and Anselmo L. Figueroa.[6][7]

Magonism and anarchism

Cover of Regeneración, with portraits of the organizing board of PLM and European anarchists (1910)

Mexican government and the press of the early 20th century called as magonistas people and groups who shared the ideas of the Flores Magón brothers, who inspired the overthrow of the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz and perform an economic and not only political revolution. The fight against tyranny encouraged by the Flores Magón contravened official discourse of Porfirian Peace by which the protesters were rated as the Revoltosos Magonistas (i.e. "Magonist rioters") to isolate any social basis and preserve the image of peace and progress imposed by force.[8]

Both Flores Magón brothers, like other members of the Ricardo Flores Magón affirmed: Liberal Party members are not magonistas, they are anarchists!. In his literary work Verdugos y Víctimas (i.e. "Executioners and Victims"),[10] one of the characters responds indignantly when he was arrested and judged: I'm not a magonist, I am an anarchist. An anarchist has no idols.

Magonist thinking was influenced by anarchist philosophers such as Mikhail Bakunin and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, and others as Élisée Reclus, Charles Malato, Errico Malatesta, Anselmo Lorenzo, Emma Goldman, Fernando Tarrida del Mármol and Max Stirner. They were also influenced by the works of Marx, Gorky and Ibsen. However, the most influential works were the ones of Peter Kropotkin The Conquest of Bread and Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, at the same time they were influenced by the Mexican liberal tradition of 19th century and the self-government system of the indigenous people.[11]

Magonism and indigenous movement

Magonistas in Tijuana in 1911

Indigenous peoples, since the mutual aid as the community exploitation and rational use of natural resources, shared anarchist principles raised by the magonists.[12]

The direct influence of indigenous thought in magonism were the teachings of Popoluca in Veracruz, the Yaqui and Mayo in Sonora, and the Cocopah in Baja California.

Fernando Palomares, a Mayo indigenous, was one of the most active members of the Liberal Party who took part in the Cananea strike and libertarian campaign of 1911 in Mexicali and Tijuana.[14][15]

Legacy

Citizen Year of Ricardo Flores Magón poster (1997)

After the end of the armed phase of Mexican Revolution, and after the death of Ricardo Flores Magón in 1922, began the rescue of magonist thought, mainly due to trade unionists in Mexico and the United States. In the post-revolutionary Mexico, the figures of Flores Magón brothers was recollected by governments, considering them precursors of the revolution. Both the insurrection of 1910 as social rights enshrined in the Mexican Constitution of 1917 was due largely to the magonistas, which since 1906 took up arms and drafted an economic and social program.[16]

However, although the demands that led to the revolution in theory were resolved in the Constitution and in the speeches of the revolutionary governments, there was no significant change in the lives of the most vulnerable populations. Also the magonistas considered not fighting to change the administrators of the state, but to abolish them. For this reason, the survived magonistas continued to spread anarchist propaganda. Librado Rivera was persecuted and imprisoned during the government of Plutarco Elías Calles and Enrique Flores Magón, who believed that the Mexican social revolution is not yet over,[17] could enjoy security until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas.

The Mexican Anarchist Federation, founded in 1941 and active for about 40 years, edited the newspaper Regeneración and spread magonist thought.

In the 1980s the magonism survived among some youth anarcho-punk groups. The Biblioteca Social Reconstruir, founded in 1980 by the Spanish anarchist in exile Ricardo Mestre and located in Mexico City, was a library where to find anarchist literature and works on Ricardo Flores Magón or copies of Regeneración.[18]

In 1994, when the Oaxaca, declared the "Citizen Year of Ricardo Flores Magón" from 21 November (1997) to 16 September 1998.[19]

In August 2000, driven by indigenous organizations in the State of Oaxaca and libertarian groups in [20]

Literature

  • Rubén Trejo: Magonismo: utopía y revolución, 1910-1913. 2005, Cultura Libre - ISBN 970-9815-00-8
  • M. Ballesteros, J. C. Beas, B. Maldonado: Magonismo y Movimiento Indígena en México. 2003, Ce-Acatl AC[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Magón and Magonism at Blackwell Reference
  2. ^ Magonism and Zapatism
  3. ^ "The Mexican Revolution (libcom.org)
  4. ^ , by James D. Cockcroft (academia.edu)Mexico’s Revolution Then and NowReview of
  5. ^ (Spanish) Magonismo, anarquismo en México
  6. ^ Magonismo: An Overview
  7. ^ (Spanish) History of Magonism
  8. ^ National Archive of Mexico, Governance Branch: Revoltosos Magonistas (1906)
  9. ^ Magonistas at Oxford Reference
  10. ^ (Spanish) from the Ricardo Flores Magón ArchiveVerdugos y Víctimas
  11. ^ (Spanish) Magonism; Historical Perspectives of a Mexican Anarchist Model
  12. ^ (Spanish) Magonism and Indigenous Movement in Mexico
  13. ^ (Spanish) The Indian in the Magonist Movement
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ (Spanish) Program of the PLM
  17. ^ Enrique Flores Magón: Aclaraciones a la vida y obra de Ricardo Flores Magón, La Protesta, Argentina, 30 March 1925
  18. ^ (Spanish) Biblioteca Social ReconstruirArticle about the
  19. ^ (Spanish) Article about the Citizen Year of Ricardo Flores Magón
  20. ^ (Spanish) Anarchy and libertarian currents in the Oaxaca insurrectionary movement
  21. ^ (AK Press)Magonismo y Movimiento Indígena en México

External links

  • An overview about the magonism
  • (Spanish) Ricardo Flores Magón Archive