rmeric.[139] A specialty of the city and the symbol of its cuisine is tanjia marrakshia a local tajine prepared with beef meat, spices and "smen" and slow-cooked in a traditional oven in hot ashes.[140] Tajines can be prepared with chicken, lamb, beef or fish, adding fruits, olives and preserved lemon, vegetables and spices, including cumin, peppers, saffron, turmeric, and ras el hanout. The meal is prepared in a tajine pot and slow-cooked with steam. Another version of tajine includes vegetables and chickpeas seasoned with flower petals.[141] Tajines may also be basted with "smen" moroccan ghee that has a flavour similar to blue cheese.[142]

Shrimp, chicken and lemon-filled briouats are another traditional specialty of Marrakesh. Rice is cooked with saffron, raisins, spices, and almonds, while couscous may have added vegetables. A pastilla is a filo-wrapped pie stuffed with minced chicken or pigeon that has been prepared with almonds, cinnamon, spices and sugar.[143] Harira soup in Marrakesh typically includes lamb with a blend of chickpeas, lentils, vermicelli, and tomato paste, seasoned with coriander, spices and parsley. Kefta (mince meat), liver in crépinette, merguez and tripe stew are commonly sold at the stalls of Jemaa el-Fnaa.[144]

The desserts of Marrakesh include chebakia (sesame spice cookies usually prepared and served during Ramadan), tartlets of filo dough with dried fruit, or cheesecake with dates.[145]

The Moroccan tea culture is practiced in Marrakesh; green tea with mint is served with sugar from a curved teapot spout into small glasses.[146] Another popular non-alcoholic drink is orange juice.[147] Under the Almoravids, alcohol consumption was common;[148] historically, hundreds of Jews produced and sold alcohol in the city.[149] In the present day, alcohol is sold in some hotel bars and restaurants.[150]

Education

Université Privée de Marrakech

Marrakesh has several universities and schools, including Cadi Ayyad University (also known as the University of Marrakech), and its component, the École nationale des sciences appliquées de Marrakech (ENSA Marrakech), which was created in 2000 by the Ministry of Higher Education and specializes in engineering and scientific research.[151][152] Cadi Ayyad University was established in 1978 and operates 13 institutions in the Marrakech Tensift Elhaouz and Abda Doukkala regions of Morocco in four main cities, including Kalaa of Sraghna, Essaouira and Safi in addition to Marrakech.[153] Sup de Co Marrakech, also known as the École Supérieure de Commerce de Marrakech, is a private four-year college that was founded in 1987 by Ahmed Bennis. The school is affiliated with the École Supérieure de Commerce of Toulouse, France; since 1995 the school has built partnership programs with numerous American universities including the University of Delaware, University of St. Thomas, Oklahoma State University, National-Louis University, and Temple University.

Ben Youssef Madrasa

A patio of the madrasa

The Ben Youssef Madrasa, located to the north of the Medina, was an Islamic college in Marrakesh named after the Almoravid sultan Ali ibn Yusuf (1106–1142) who expanded the city and its influence considerably. It is the largest Madrasa in all of Morocco and was one of the largest theological colleges in North Africa, at one time housing as many as 900 students.[154]

The college, which was affiliated with the neighbouring Ben Youssef Mosque, was founded during the Marinid dynasty in the 14th century by Sultan Abu al-Hassan.[154]

This education complex specialized in Koranic law and was linked to similar institutions in Fez, Taza, Tale, and Meknes.[107] The Madrasa was re-constructed by the Saadian Sultan Abdallah al-Ghalib (1557–1574) in 1564 as the largest and most prestigious madrasa in Morocco.[107] The construction ordered by Abdallah al-Ghalib was completed in 1565 as attested by the inscription in the prayer room.[155] Its 130 student dormitory cells cluster around a courtyard richly carved in cedar, marble and stucco. In accordance with Islam, the carvings contain no representation of humans or animals, consisting entirely of inscriptions and geometric patterns. One of the school's best known teachers was Mohammed al-Ifrani (1670-1745). After a temporary closure beginning in 1960, the building was refurbished and reopened to the public as a historical site in 1982.[156]

Sports

Football clubs based in Marrakesh include Najm de Marrakech, KAC Marrakech, Mouloudia de Marrakech and Chez Ali Club de Marrakech. The city contains the Marrakech Street Circuit a 4.624 kilometres (2.873 mi) race track which hosts the World Touring Car Championship, the Formula Two and the Auto GP World Series races. The Marrakech Marathon is also held here.[157] Roughly 5000 runners turn out for the event annually.[158]

Golf is a popular sport in Merrakech. The city has three golf courses, located just outside the city limits and played almost through the year. The three main courses are the Golf de Amelikis on the road to Ourazazate, the Palmeraie Golf Palace near the Palmeraie, and the Royal Golf Club, the oldest of the three courses.[159]

Transport and communications

Marrakesh railway station

The Marrakesh railway station is linked by several trains running daily to other major cities in Morocco such as Casablanca, Tangiers, Fez, Meknes and Rabat. A modern high-speed rail system has been planned.[160] The main road network within and around Marrakesh is well paved. The major highway connecting Marrakesh with Casablanca to the south is A7, a toll expressway, 210 km (130 mi) in length. The road from Marrakesh to Settat, a 145 km (90 mi) stretch, was inaugurated by King Mohammed VI in April 2007, completing the 558 km (347 mi) highway to Tangiers. Highway A7 connects also Marrakesh to Agadir, 233 km (145 mi) to the west.[160]

The Marrakesh-Menara Airport (RAK) is 3 km (1.9 mi) southwest of the city centre. It is an international facility that receives several European flights as well as flights from Casablanca and several Arab nations.[161] The airport is located at an elevation of 471 metres (1,545 ft) at .[162] It has two formal passenger terminals, but these are more or less combined into one large terminal. A third terminal is being built.[163] The existing T1 and T2 terminals offer a space of 42,000 m2 (450,000 sq ft) and have a capacity of 4.5 million passengers per year. The blacktopped runway is 4.5 km (2.8 mi) long and 45 m (148 ft) wide. The airport has parking space for 14 Boeing 737 and four Boeing 747 aircraft. The separate freight terminal has 340 m2 (3,700 sq ft) of covered space.[164]

Healthcare

Marrakesh has long been an important centre for healthcare in Morocco, and the regional rural and urban populations alike are reliant upon hospitals in the city. The psychiatric hospital installed by the Merinid Caliph Ya'qub al-Mansur in the 16th century was described by the historian 'Abd al-Wahfd al- Marrakushi as one of the greatest in the world at the time.[165] A strong Andalusian influence was evident in the hospital, and many of the physicians to the Caliphs came from places such as Seville, Zaragoza and Denia in eastern Spain.[165]

A severe strain has been placed upon the healthcare facilities of the city in the last decade as the city population has grown dramatically.[166] Ibn Tofail University Hospital is one of the major hospitals of the city.[167] In February 2001, the Moroccan government signed a loan agreement worth eight million U.S. dollars with the The OPEC Fund for International Development to help improve medical services in and around Marrakesh, which led to expansions of the Ibn Tofail and Ibn Nafess hospitals. Seven new buildings were constructed, with a total floor area of 43,000 square metres (460,000 sq ft). New radiotherapy and medical equipment was provided and 29,000 square metres (310,000 sq ft) of existing hospital space was rehabilitated.[166]

In 2009, king Mohammed VI inaugurated a regional psychiatric hospital in Marrakesh, built by the Mohammed V Foundation for Solidarity, costing 22 million dirhams (approximately 2.7 million U.S. dollars).[168] The hospital has 194 beds, covering an area of 3 hectares (7.4 acres).[168] Mohammed Vi has also announced plans for the construction of a 450 million dirham military hospital in Marrakesh.[169]

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Marrakesh is twinned with:

See also

Morocco portal

References

  1. ^ Central Intelligence Agency (12 October 2011). The CIA World Factbook 2012. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. p. 2006.  
  2. ^ "Marrakech or Marrakesh". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 24 September 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Shillington 2005, p. 948.
  4. ^ a b Nanjira 2010, p. 208.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Searight 1999, p. 378.
  6. ^ a b Egginton & Pitz 2010, p. 11.
  7. ^ a b Bosworth 1989, p. 588.
  8. ^ a b Cornell 1998, p. 15.
  9. ^ Bosworth 1989, p. 593.
  10. ^ a b Gottreich 2007, p. 10.
  11. ^ International Business Publications (1 April 2006). Morocco Country Study Guide. International Business Publications. p. 23.  
  12. ^ a b Rogerson & Lavington 2004, p. xi.
  13. ^ Messier 2010, p. 180.
  14. ^ Naylor 2009, p. 90.
  15. ^ Gerteiny 1967, p. 28.
  16. ^ The Rotarian. Rotary International. July 2005. p. 14.  
  17. ^ Lehmann, Henss & Szerelmy 2009, p. 292.
  18. ^ Barrows 2004, p. 85.
  19. ^ a b Cenival (1913-38: p.300; 2007: p.324)
  20. ^ Lehmann, Henss & Szerelmy 2009, p. 57.
  21. ^ Orange Coast Magazine. Emmis Communications. February 1996. p. 46.  
  22. ^ "The Patron Saints of Marrakech". Dar-Sirr.com. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  23. ^ Bosworth 1989, p. 591.
  24. ^ Loizillon 2008, p. 50.
  25. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, General Editor. Entry for 'Marrakesh'. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica (1910).
  26. ^ Bibliographic Set (2 Vol Set). International Court of Justice, Digest of Judgments and Advisory Opinions, Canon and Case Law 1946 - 2011. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 117.  
  27. ^ a b Barrows 2004, p. 73.
  28. ^ Lehmann, Henss & Szerelmy 2009, p. 84.
  29. ^ Hoisington 2004, p. 109.
  30. ^ Christiani 2009, p. 38.
  31. ^ MEED.. Economic East Economic Digest, Limited. 1971. p. 324. Retrieved 8 July 2013. 
  32. ^ a b Sullivan 2006, p. 8.
  33. ^ a b Howe 2005, p. 46.
  34. ^ Shackley 2012, p. 43.
  35. ^ "Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade Organization (with final act, annexes and protocol). Concluded at Marrakesh on 15 April 1994" (pdf). United Nations. Retrieved 13 July 2013. 
  36. ^ Academie de droit 2002, p. 71.
  37. ^ "Morocco: Marrakesh bomb strikes Djemaa el-Fna square".  
  38. ^ "Qaeda denies involvement in Morocco cafe bomb attack". Reueters. 7 May 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2013. 
  39. ^ a b c Google Maps. Maps (Map).
  40. ^ Clark 2012, pp. 11-13.
  41. ^ Searight 1999, p. 407.
  42. ^ Rogerson & Lavington 2004, p. 49.
  43. ^ Lehmann, Henss & Szerelmy 2009, p. 310.
  44. ^ a b c "Climatological Information for Marrakech, Morocco".  
  45. ^ Barrows 2004, p. 74.
  46. ^ "Recensement général de la population et de l'habitat de 2004". Haut-commissariat au Plan, Lavieeco.com. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  47. ^ a b "WORLD TRAVEL: Africa's beating heart; Marrakech, no longer a hippy paradise, is still a vital centre of economy and culture in Morocco.".  
  48. ^ a b Duncan, Fiona. "The best Marrakesh hotels".  
  49. ^ a b c d "Marrakech is the new Costa del Sol: for a host of Western celebrities, Marrakech in Morocco has become the place to be seen at and increasingly, to live in. Where celebrities go, the lesser folk are bound to follow. The result is that Morocco's economy and its culture is changing--but for the better or for the worse?".  
  50. ^ a b "Fatima Zahra Mansouri, première dame de Marrakech" (in French).  
  51. ^ "La reprise de la croissance du secteur immobilier à Marrakech" (in French). Regiepresse.co. 28 February 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  52. ^ "Marrakech, Morocco Sees Hotel Boom". Huffington Post. 19 July 2012. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  53. ^ "Royal Ranches Marrakech' closes land sale with Equine Management Services".  
  54. ^ "Bahrain : Royal Ranches Marrakech inks MoU with BMCE.(Memorandum of Understanding )(Banque Marocaine de Commerce Exteriur)".  
  55. ^ Humphrys 2010, p. 9.
  56. ^ Misc. (1 June 2008). Cool Restaurants Top of the World. teNeues. p. 274.  
  57. ^ Humphrys 2010, p. 161.
  58. ^ The Report: Morocco 2011. Oxford Business Group. p. 100.  
  59. ^ "Nos usines et centres L'usine de Marrakech" (in French). Ciments du Maroc. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  60. ^ "L'Organisation Judicaire" (in French). Le Ministère de la Justice. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  61. ^ "Adresses Utiles" (in French). Chambre de Commerce, D'Industrie et des Services de Marrakech. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  62. ^ a b c "Morocco's Marrakech elects first woman mayor".  
  63. ^ "Biography of Fatima Zahra MANSOURI". African Success. Retrieved 27 October 2012. 
  64. ^
  65. ^ فاطمة الزهراء المنصوري تستقيل من عمودية مراكش (in Arabic). Hespress.com. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  66. ^ "Législatives 2011 – Marrakech: Grosse défaite pour les partis de la Koutla" (in French). L'Economiste. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  67. ^ "Législatives partielles: Marrakech: Le PJD garde son siège" (in French). L'Economiste. Retrieved 23 October 2012. 
  68. ^ Pons, Crang & Travlou 2009, p. 39.
  69. ^ a b Harrison 2012, p. 144.
  70. ^ a b Barrows 2004, pp. 76-78.
  71. ^ "UNESCO World Heritage Convention". UNESCO. Retrieved 17 October 2012. 
  72. ^ Hamilton 2011, p. 13.
  73. ^ a b c Here Publishing (March 2003). Out. Here Publishing. pp. 73–75.  
  74. ^ a b Sullivan 2006, p. 148.
  75. ^ a b Christiani 2009, p. 51.
  76. ^ a b Christiani 2009, p. 50.
  77. ^ Christiani 2009, p. 49.
  78. ^ Christiani 2009, p. 52.
  79. ^ Jacobs 2013, p. 153.
  80. ^ a b c Christiani 2009, p. 43.
  81. ^ Gottreich 2007, p. 117.
  82. ^ a b c Searight 1999, p. 402.
  83. ^ Gottreich 2007, p. 106.
  84. ^ Febvre 1988, p. 1401.
  85. ^ a b c Christiani 2009, p. 101.
  86. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 147.
  87. ^ "History". Fondation Pierre Bergé - Yves Saint Laurent. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  88. ^ Davies 2009, p. 111.
  89. ^ Sullivan 2006, pp. 145-146.
  90. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 145.
  91. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 146.
  92. ^ Davies 2009, p. 104.
  93. ^ Listri & Rey 2005, p. 3.
  94. ^ a b c Bloom & Blair 2009, p. 466.
  95. ^ a b c Searight 1999, p. 403.
  96. ^ Aldosar 2007, p. 1253.
  97. ^ a b Listri & Rey 2005, p. 72.
  98. ^ New York Magazine. New York Media, LLC. 24 March 1986. p. 33.  
  99. ^ Listri & Rey 2005, pp. 72,75.
  100. ^ a b c d e VorheesEdsall 2005, p. 288.
  101. ^ Searight 1999, p. 404.
  102. ^ E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. BRILL. 1987. p. 35.  
  103. ^ "Koutoubia Mosque, Marrakesh". Sacred Destinations. Retrieved 5 October 2012. 
  104. ^ a b Searight 1999, p. 399.
  105. ^ Jacobs 2013, p. 425.
  106. ^ Rogerson 2000, p. 100.
  107. ^ a b c Rogerson 2000, pp. 100-102.
  108. ^ Jacobs 2013, pp. 425-426.
  109. ^ a b Rogerson & Lavington 2004, p. 106.
  110. ^ "la-mosquee-al-mouassine-3 La mosquée Al Mouassine" (in French). Ciyzeum. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  111. ^ Christiani 2009, p. 53.
  112. ^ a b Bloom & Blair 2009, p. 189.
  113. ^ Vorhees & Edsall 2005, p. 287.
  114. ^ a b VorheesEdsall 2005, p. 285.
  115. ^ "The Patron Saints of Marrakech". Dar Sirr. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  116. ^ Gottreich 2003, p. 287.
  117. ^ a b Larson, Hilary (May 8, 2012). "The Marrakesh Express". The Jewish Week. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  118. ^ "Marrakech". International Jewish Cemetery Project. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 21 October 2012. 
  119. ^ Denby 2004, p. 194.
  120. ^ Layton 2011, p. 104.
  121. ^ a b c Sullivan 2006, p. 45.
  122. ^ a b Venison 2005, p. 214.
  123. ^ Davies 2009, p. 103.
  124. ^ Hudson, Christopher (20 March 2012). "Accor opens first Pullman hotel in Marrakech".  
  125. ^ Mayhew & Dodd 2003, p. 341.
  126. ^ a b Vorhees & Edsall 2005, p. 286.
  127. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 144.
  128. ^ "Musée de Marrakech: Fondation Omar Benjelloun" (in French). Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  129. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 143.
  130. ^ "Museum Of Islamic Art". Hg2 Marrakech. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  131. ^ Bing 2011, pp. 154-6.
  132. ^ a b c d e Bing 2011, pp. 154-156.
  133. ^ Christiani 2009, p. 134.
  134. ^ Hudson, Christopher (26 December 1998). "The Magic Marrakech".  
  135. ^ a b Aldosar 2007, p. 1245.
  136. ^ Bing 2011, p. 25.
  137. ^ a b Humphrys 2010.
  138. ^ "History". Marrakech Biennale. Retrieved 2 June 2013. 
  139. ^ Radan, Silvia (13 April 2013). "A journey through Marrakech cuisine".  
  140. ^ Hal 2002, pp. 16, 29.
  141. ^ Caldicott & Caldicott 2001, p. 153.
  142. ^ Mallos 2006, p. 253.
  143. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 13.
  144. ^ Koehler 2012, p. 32.
  145. ^ "Marrakech magic".  
  146. ^ Humphrys 2010, p. 114.
  147. ^ Davies 2009, p. 62.
  148. ^ Ring, Salkin & Boda 1996, p. 468.
  149. ^ Gottreich 2007, p. 164.
  150. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 71.
  151. ^ Arino, Hbid & Dads 2006, p. 21.
  152. ^ Casas, Solh & Hafez 1999, p. 74.
  153. ^ "The University". Cadi Ayyad University. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 
  154. ^ a b Lehmann, Henss & Szerelmy 2009, p. 299.
  155. ^ Cheurfi 2007, p. 740.
  156. ^ Michelin 2001, p. 363.
  157. ^ Christiani 2009, p. 161.
  158. ^ Clammer 2009, p. 308.
  159. ^ Sullivan 2006, p. 175.
  160. ^ a b Group, Oxford Business (18 October 2012). The Report: Emerging Morocco. Oxford Business Group. pp. 104–107.  
  161. ^ "Marrakech".  
  162. ^ "MenARA Airport General Information". World Aero Data.com. Retrieved 18 October 2012. 
  163. ^ "Investment program 2011".  
  164. ^ "Presentation RAK".  
  165. ^ a b Laet 1994, p. 344.
  166. ^ a b "Morocco expands hospital services with US$8 million OPEC Fund loan".  
  167. ^ "Marrakech attack, terrorist act resulting from strong explosion caused by an explosive device".  
  168. ^ a b "H.M. the king inaugurates regional psychiatry hospital in Marrakech.".  
  169. ^ "HM the King launches relocation operation of military installations in Marrakech.".  
  170. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 

Bibliography

Further reading

External links

  • Marrakesh travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Parliament of Morocco

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.


Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.


By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.