areer. In 1916, Pickford signed a new contract with Zukor that granted her full authority over production of the films in which she starred,[14] and a record-breaking salary of $10,000 a week.[15] Occasionally, she played a child, in films like The Poor Little Rich Girl (1917), Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm (1917), Daddy-Long-Legs (1919) and Pollyanna (1920). Pickford's fans were devoted to these "Little Girl" roles, but they were not typical of her career.[1]

In August 1918, Pickford's contract expired and, when refusing Zukor's terms for a renewal, she was offered $250,000 to leave the motion picture business. She declined, and went to First National Pictures, which agreed to her terms.[16] In 1919, Pickford, along with D.W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, and Douglas Fairbanks, formed the independent film production company United Artists. Through United Artists, Pickford continued to produce and perform in her own movies; she could also distribute them as she chose. In 1920, Pickford's film Pollyanna grossed around $1,100,000.[17] The following year, Pickford's film Little Lord Fauntleroy was also a success, and in 1923, Rosita grossed over $1,000,000 as well.[17] During this period, she also made Sparrows (1926), which blended the Dickensian with newly minted German expressionist style, and the romantic comedy My Best Girl (1927).

The arrival of sound was her undoing. Pickford underestimated the value of adding sound to movies, claiming that "adding sound to movies would be like putting lipstick on the Venus de Milo".[17]

She played a reckless socialite in Coquette (1929), a role for which her famous ringlets were cut into a 1920s bob. Pickford had already cut her hair in the wake of her mother's death in 1928. Fans were shocked at the transformation.[18] Pickford's hair had become a symbol of female virtue, and when she cut it, the act made front-page news in The New York Times and other papers. Coquette was a success and won her an Academy Award for Best Actress,[19] but the public failed to respond to her in the more sophisticated roles. Like most movie stars of the silent era, Pickford found her career fading as talkies became more popular among audiences.[19]

Her next film, The Taming of The Shrew, made with husband Douglas Fairbanks, was not well received at the box office.[20] Established Hollywood actors were panicked by the impending arrival of the talkies. On March 29, 1928, The Dodge Brothers Hour was broadcast from Pickford's bungalow, featuring Douglas Fairbanks, Charlie Chaplin, Norma Talmadge, Gloria Swanson, John Barrymore, D.W. Griffith and Dolores del Rio, among others. They spoke on the radio show to prove that they could meet the challenge of talking movies.[21]

But the transition came as Pickford was in her late 30s, no longer able to play the children, teenage spitfires, and feisty young women so adored by her fans. She was not suited for the sleekly elegant heroines of early sound. In 1933, Pickford underwent a Technicolor screen test for an animated/live action film version of Alice in Wonderland, but Walt Disney discarded the project when Paramount released its own version of the book. Only one Technicolor "still" of her screen test still exists. She retired from acting in 1933; her last acting film was released in 1934. She continued to produce for others, however, including Sleep, My Love (1948; with Claudette Colbert) and Love Happy (1949;, with the Marx Brothers).[1]

The film industry

Mary Pickford giving President Herbert Hoover a ticket for a film industry benefit for the unemployed, 1931

Pickford used her stature in the movie industry to promote a variety of causes. During World War I, she promoted the sale of Liberty Bonds, through an exhausting series of fund-raising speeches that kicked off in Washington, D.C., where she sold bonds alongside Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Theda Bara, and Marie Dressler. Five days later she spoke on Wall Street to an estimated 50,000 people. Though Canadian-born, she was a powerful symbol of Americana, kissing the American flag for cameras and auctioning one of her world-famous curls for $15,000. In a single speech in Chicago she sold an estimated five million dollars' worth of bonds. She was christened the U.S. Navy's official "Little Sister"; the Army named two cannons after her and made her an honorary colonel.[1]

At the end of World War I, Pickford conceived of the Joseph Schenck voted its first president and Pickford its vice president. In 1932, Pickford spearheaded the "Payroll Pledge Program", a payroll-deduction plan for studio workers who gave one half of one percent of their earnings to the MPRF. As a result, in 1940 the Fund was able to purchase land and build the Motion Picture Country House and Hospital, in Woodland Hills, California.[1]

An astute businesswoman, Pickford became her own producer within three years of her start in features. According to her Foundation, "she oversaw every aspect of the making of her films, from hiring talent and crew to overseeing the script, the shooting, the editing, to the final release and promotion of each project." She demanded (and received) these powers in 1916, when she was under contract to Zukor's Famous Players In Famous Plays (later Paramount). He also acquiesced to her refusal to participate in block-booking, the widespread practice of forcing an exhibitor to show a bad film of the studio's choosing in order to also show a Pickford film. In 1916, Pickford's films were distributed, singly, through a special distribution unit called Artcraft. The Mary Pickford Corporation was briefly Pickford's motion-picture production company.[22]

Mary Pickford War Funds bungalow, 1943

In 1919, she increased her power by co-founding United Artists (UA) with Charlie Chaplin, D. W. Griffith, and her soon-to-be husband, Douglas Fairbanks. Before UA's creation, Hollywood studios were vertically integrated, not only producing films but forming chains of theaters. Distributors (also part of the studios) then arranged for company productions to be shown in the company's movie venues. Filmmakers relied on the studios for bookings; in return they put up with what many considered creative interference. United Artists broke from this tradition. It was solely a distribution company, offering independent film producers access to its own screens as well as the rental of temporarily unbooked cinemas owned by other companies. Pickford and Fairbanks produced and shot their films after 1920 at the jointly owned Pickford-Fairbanks studio on Santa Monica Boulevard. The producers who signed with UA were true independents, producing, creating and controlling their work to an unprecedented degree. As a co-founder, as well as the producer and star of her own films, Pickford became the most powerful woman who has ever worked in Hollywood. By 1930, Pickford's acting career had largely faded.[19] After retiring three years later, however, she continued to produce films for United Artists, and she and Chaplin remained partners in the company for decades. Chaplin left the company in 1955, and Pickford followed suit in 1956, selling her remaining shares for three million dollars.[22]

Personal life

Mary Pickford, 1921

Pickford was married three times. She married Owen Moore, an Irish-born silent film actor, on January 7, 1911. It is believed she became pregnant by Moore in the early 1910s and had a miscarriage or an abortion. Some accounts suggest this resulted in her later inability to have children.[1] The couple had numerous marital problems, notably Moore's alcoholism, insecurity about living in the shadow of Pickford's fame, and bouts of domestic violence. The couple lived apart for several years.

Pickford became secretly involved in a relationship with Douglas Fairbanks. They toured the US together in 1918 to promote Liberty Bond sales for the World War I effort. Around this time, Pickford also suffered from the flu during the 1918 flu pandemic, but survived.[23] Pickford divorced Moore on March 2, 1920, and married Fairbanks on March 28 of the same year. They went to Europe for their honeymoon; fans in London and in Paris caused riots trying to get to the famous couple. The couple's triumphant return to Hollywood was witnessed by vast crowds who turned out to hail them at railway stations across the United States.

The Mark of Zorro (1920) and a series of other swashbucklers gave the popular Fairbanks a more romantic, heroic image. Pickford continued to epitomize the virtuous but fiery girl next door. Even at private parties, people instinctively stood up when Pickford entered a room; she and her husband were often referred to as "Hollywood royalty". Their international reputations were broad. Foreign heads of state and dignitaries who visited the White House often asked if they could also visit Pickfair, the couple's mansion in Beverly Hills.[9]

Dinners at Pickfair included a number of notable guests. Albert Einstein, Elinor Glyn, Helen Keller, H. G. Wells, Lord Mountbatten, Fritz Kreisler, Amelia Earhart, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Noël Coward, Max Reinhardt, Baron Nishi, Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko,[24] Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Austen Chamberlain, Sir Harry Lauder, and Meher Baba, among others. The public nature of Pickford's second marriage strained it to the breaking point. Both she and Fairbanks had little time off from producing and acting in their films. They were also constantly on display as America's unofficial ambassadors to the world, leading parades, cutting ribbons, and making speeches. When their film careers both began to founder at the end of the silent era, Fairbanks' restless nature prompted him to overseas travel (something which Pickford did not enjoy). When Fairbanks' romance with Sylvia, Lady Ashley became public in the early 1930s he and Pickford separated. They divorced January 10, 1936. Fairbanks' son by his first wife, Douglas Fairbanks Jr., claimed his father and Pickford long regretted their inability to reconcile.[1]

On June 24, 1937, Pickford married her third and last husband, actor and [25]

Later years

Mary Pickford in Star Night at the Cocoanut Grove (1934), her only film appearance in Technicolor

After retiring from the screen, Pickford became an alcoholic, as her father had before her. Her mother, Charlotte, died of breast cancer in March 1928. Her siblings, Lottie and Jack, died of alcohol-related causes. These deaths, her divorce from Fairbanks, and the end of silent films left Pickford deeply depressed. Her relationship with her children, Roxanne and Ronald, was turbulent at best. Pickford withdrew and gradually became a recluse, remaining almost entirely at Pickfair and allowing visits only from Lillian Gish, her stepson Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., and a few select others. She appeared in court in 1959, in a matter pertaining to her co-ownership of North Carolina TV station WSJS-TV. The court date coincided with the date of her 67th birthday; under oath, when asked to give her age, Pickford replied, "I'm 21, going on 20".[26]

In the mid-1960s, Pickford often received visitors only by telephone, speaking to them from her bedroom. Buddy Rogers often gave guests tours of Pickfair, including views of a genuine western bar Pickford had bought for Douglas Fairbanks, and a portrait of Pickford in the drawing room. A print of this image now hangs in the Library of Congress.[22] In addition to her Oscar as best actress for Coquette (1929), Mary Pickford received an Academy Honorary Award for a lifetime of achievements in 1976. The Academy sent a TV crew to her house to record her short statement of thanks – offering the public a very rare glimpse into Pickfair Manor.

Pickford had become an American citizen upon her marriage to Fairbanks in 1920.[27] Towards the end of her life, Pickford made arrangements with the Department of Citizenship to regain her Canadian citizenship because she wished to "die as a Canadian". Her request was approved and she became a dual Canadian-American citizen.[28][29]

Death

On May 29, 1979, Pickford died at a Santa Monica hospital of complications from a cerebral hemorrhage she had suffered the week before.[30] She was interred in the Garden of Memory of the Forest Lawn Memorial Park cemetery in Glendale, California.[31] Buried alongside her in the Pickford private family plot are her mother Charlotte, her siblings Lottie and Jack Pickford, and the family of Elizabeth Watson, Charlotte's sister, who had helped raise Pickford in Toronto.

Legacy

Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California
  • The Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study at 1313 Vine Street in Hollywood, constructed by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, opened in 1948 as a radio and television studio facility. The Mary Pickford Theater at the Library of Congress is named in her honor.[22]
  • The Mary Pickford Auditorium at Claremont McKenna College is named in her honor.
  • There is a first-run movie theatre in Cathedral City, California, called The Mary Pickford Theatre. The theater is a grand one with several screens and is built in the shape of a Spanish Cathedral, complete with bell tower and three-story lobby. The lobby contains a historic display with original artifacts belonging to Pickford and Buddy Rogers, her last husband. Among them are a rare and spectacular beaded gown she wore in the film Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall (1924) designed by Mitchell Leisen, her special Oscar, and a jewelry box.
  • The 1980 stage musical The Biograph Girl about the silent film era features the character of Pickford. In 2007, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences sued the estate of the deceased Buddy Rogers' second wife, Beverly Rogers, in order to stop the public sale of one of Pickford's Oscars.[32]
  • On February 8, 1960, Pickford was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6280 Hollywood Blvd. Her handprints and footprints are also displayed at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, California.
Pickford's handprints and footprints at Grauman's Chinese Theatre in Hollywood, California
  • A bust and historical plaque marks her birthplace in Toronto, now the site of the Hospital for Sick Children.[33] The plaque was unveiled by her husband Buddy Rogers in 1973. The bust by artist Eino Gira was added ten years later.[34]
  • Her date of birth on the plaque is displayed as April 8, 1893. This can only be assumed to be because her date of birth was never registered – and throughout her life, beginning as a child, she led many people to believe that she was a year younger so she would appear to be more of an acting prodigy and continue to be cast in younger roles, which were more plentiful in the theatre.[35]
  • The family home had been demolished in 1943, and many of the bricks delivered to Pickford in California. Proceeds from the sale of the property were donated by Pickford to build a bungalow in East York, Ontario, then a Toronto suburb. The bungalow was the first prize in a lottery in Toronto to benefit war charities, and Pickford herself unveiled the home on May 26, 1943.[36]
  • In 1993, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars was dedicated to her.[37]
Pickford's star on Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto, Ontario
  • Pickford received a posthumous star on Canada's Walk of Fame in Toronto in 1999. In 2006, along with fellow deceased Canadian-born stars Fay Wray, Lorne Greene and John Candy, Pickford was featured on a Canadian postage stamp.[38] From January 2011 until July 2011, the Toronto International Film Festival exhibited a collection of Mary Pickford memorabilia in the Canadian Film Gallery of the TIFF Bell LightBox building.[39] * In February 2011, the Spadina Museum, a museum dedicated to the 1920s and 1930s era in Toronto, staged performances of Sweetheart: The Mary Pickford Story, a one-woman musical based on the life and career of Pickford.[40]
  • In 2013, a copy of an early Pickford film that was thought to be lost (Their First Misunderstanding) was found by Peter Massie, a carpenter tearing down an abandoned barn in New Hampshire. It was donated to Keene State College and is currently undergoing restoration by the Library of Congress for exhibition. The film is notable as being the first in which Pickford was credited by name.[41][42][43]

Filmography

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Whitfield, Eileen: Pickford: the Woman Who Made Hollywood (1997), pp. 8, 25, 28, 115, 125, 126, 131, 300, 376. University Press of Kentucky; ISBN 0-8131-2045-4
  2. ^ Photoplay, Volume 18, Issues 2–6. Macfadden Publications. 1920. p. 99. 
  3. ^ Obituary Variety, May 30, 1979.
  4. ^ Baldwin, Douglas; Baldwin, Patricia (2000). The 1930s. Weigl. p. 12.  
  5. ^ Flom, Eric L. (2009). Silent Film Stars on the Stages of Seattle: A History of Performances by Hollywood Notables. McFarland. p. 226.  
  6. ^ a b Sonneborn, Liz (2002). A to Z of American Women in the Performing Arts. Infobase. p. 166.  
  7. ^ Gladys Smith (Mary Pickford) was baptized in the Catholic faith at the age of four at her home by a visiting priest, books.google.com; accessed May 19, 2014.
  8. ^ Pictorial History of the American Theatre 1860–1985 by Daniel C. Blum, c. 1985
  9. ^ a b "Mary Pickford at Filmbug.". Filmbug. Retrieved January 24, 2007. 
  10. ^ Mary Pickford, Sunshine and Shadow, Doubleday & Co., 1955, p. 10.
  11. ^ "Mary Pickford at Golden Silents.". Golden Silents.com. Retrieved January 15, 2007. 
  12. ^ a b c Brownlow, Kevin (May 1, 1999). Mary Pickford Rediscovered. Harry N. Abrams. pp. 86, 93.  
  13. ^ "Mary Pickford, Filmmaker" (PDF). Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  14. ^ Lane, Christina (January 29, 2002). Mary Pickford. St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Timeline: Mary Pickford". American Experience. PBS. July 23, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  16. ^ The New York Times, October 29, 1925
  17. ^ a b c "Timeline: Mary Pickford". American Experience. PBS. July 23, 2004. Retrieved January 11, 2009. 
  18. ^ Fan CulturePeople & Events: Mary Pickford, , PBS,
  19. ^ a b c The Long Decline, PBS People & Events, Mary Pickford
  20. ^ "Douglas Fairbanks profile", pbs.org; accessed May 19, 2014.
  21. ^ Ramon, David (1997). The Dodge Brothers Hour. Clío.  
  22. ^ a b c d "Mary Pickford biography". Retrieved January 24, 2007. 
  23. ^
  24. ^ Sergei Bertensson; Paul Fryer; Anna Shoulgat (2004). In Hollywood with Nemirovich-Danchenko, 1926–1927: the memoirs of Sergei Bertensson. Scarecrow Press. pp. 47–.  
  25. ^ "Buddy Rogers, Mary Pickford and Their Children".  
  26. ^ "Mary Pickford "Going On 20" (Or Is It 66?)", The Ottawa Citizen, April 11, 1959, p. 18
  27. ^ "Mary Pickford Files TV Bid". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.): 14. April 30, 1949.  
  28. ^ Colombo, John Robert (2011). Fascinating Canada: A Book of Questions and Answers. Dundurn. p. 20.  
  29. ^ "City, fans honor Mary Pickford". The Leader-Post. May 18, 1983. pp. D–8. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  30. ^ "Mary Pickford Is Dead At 86". The Palm Beach Post. May 30, 1979. Retrieved 26 November 2012. 
  31. ^ Mary Pickford at Find a Grave
  32. ^ Siderious, Christina (September 1, 2007). "The Oscar goes to ... Court". The Seattle Times. ; September 1, 2007.
  33. ^ "Mary Pickford Historical Plaque". Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  34. ^ Filey, Mike (2002). A Toronto Album 2: More Glimpses of the City That Was. Dundurn Press Ltd. p. 9. 
  35. ^ "ARCHIVED – Mary Pickford – Celebrating Women's Achievements". Collectionscanada.gc.ca. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Yardwork at the Mary Pickford Bungalow". Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  37. ^
  38. ^ Canadians in Hollywood "Collecting"]. Canada Post. May 26, 2006. 
  39. ^ "TIFF: Films – Winter Calendar". Toronto International Film Festival. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Featured Events – January and February 2011". City of Toronto. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  41. ^ September 24, 2013 (September 24, 2013). "Lost Mary Pickford movie discovered in N.H. barn". CBS News. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  42. ^ "Mary Pickford Film 'Their First Misunderstanding' Found In Barn Is Restored". Huffingtonpost.com. September 24, 2013. Retrieved February 15, 2014. 
  43. ^ "Mary Pickford film found in New Hampshire barn is restored". 

Further reading

  • Schmidt, Christel, ed. Mary Pickford: Queen of the Movies (University Press of Kentucky/Library of Congress; 2013) 288 pages; scholarly essays
  • Menefee, David Sweet Memories (Menefee Publishing Inc., 2012) ISBN 1-4699-6695-6
  • ebook or online Preserving Pickford: The Mary Pickford Collection and the Library of Congress article in The Moving Image, Volume 3, Number 1, Spring 2003

External links

  • Mary Pickford at the Internet Broadway Database
  • Mary Pickford at the Internet Movie Database
  • Mary Pickford at the TCM Movie Database
  • Mary Pickford at the Women Film Pioneers Project
  • About Mary Pickford, from the website of the Mary Pickford Institute for Film Education
  • Mary Pickford CBC Radio interview May 25, 1959
  • Biography of Mary Pickford at Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Footage of Mary Pickford with Charlie Chaplin and Douglas Fairbanks in 1919
  • Mary Pickford at Virtual History