Several military Soyuz spacecraft models were planned, but none actually flew in space. These versions were named Soyuz P, Soyuz PPK, Soyuz R, Soyuz 7K-VI, and Soyuz OIS (Orbital Research Station).
Soyuz P, R and PPK
In the initial draft project, the Soyuz P would use the Soyuz 9K rocket stage and Soyuz 11K tanker spacecraft to conduct a series of dockings and re-fueling operations. The complete complex would then could conduct intercepts of enemy satellites in orbits up to 6,000 km in altitude.
The Soyuz-R system consisted of two separately launched spacecraft, including the small orbital station 11F71 with photo-reconnaissance and electronic intelligence equipment and a Soyuz 7K-TK for crew transport.
Initially the Soyuz P was designed for piloted inspection and destruction of enemy satellites. It was intended that the Soyuz would rendezvous with the target satellite. To minimize risk to the crew, a new version, Soyuz PPK (pilotiruemovo korablya-perekhvatchika, manned interceptor spacecraft) was later proposed.
Soyuz 7K-VI Zvezda
The Zvezda (star) station was based on a radically modified Soyuz. Objectives were manned earth observation, orbital inspection and destruction of enemy satellites. Zvezda would be powered by two plutonium radioisotope generators and had a recoilless gun for defense. It was designed for shooting in a vacuum and defending the military research spacecraft from enemy satellite inspector and interceptor satellites. The gun was aimed by maneuvering the entire spacecraft. A special gunsight was installed in the descent module for aiming the gun. A forward docking apparatus to allow docking with Almaz was also included. Work on Zvezda was canceled in 1967 with a single prototype in advanced stages of construction.
Cosmonaut training for the VI began in September 1966. The cosmonaut group selected included commander Pavel Popovich, pilot Alexei Gubarev, flight-engineers Yuri Artyukhin, Vladimir Gulyaev, Boris Belousov, and Gennadiy Kolesnikov. Popovich-Kolesnikov and Gubarev-Belousov were the prime crews, with the other engineers acting as reserves and then assigned to later crews.
Soyuz OIS (Orbital Research Station)
The Soyuz OIS (Orbital Research Station) would consist of a separately-launched orbital block 11F731 OB-VI and a transport Soyuz 7K-S.
The Soyuz OB-VI would be launched for 30 day missions in a 51.6 degree orbit at 250 x 270 km. Power was provided by solar panels, and the payload included 700 to 1,000 kg of instrumentation. The total mass would be around 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
The initial Soyuz 7K-S program was to consist of four unmanned, followed by two manned test flights, then two operational launches. Cosmonauts were assigned to the project in 1973.
In 1975 the project was canceled. At that time the launch escape system for 7K-S was ready and was used for Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flights. Three complete vehicles were launched as unmanned test missions:
- Crew Size: 2
- Total Length: 7.5 m
- Maximum Diameter: 2.7 m
- Total Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3
- Total Mass: 6,800 kg
- Primary Engine Thrust: 400 kgf
- Main Engine Propellants: N2O4/UDMH
- Main Engine Isp: 305 sec
- Electrical System: Solar panels
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Mir Hardware Heritage
- David S.F. Portree, Mir Hardware Heritage, NASA RP-1357, 1995
- Mir Hardware Heritage (wikisource)
- Information on Soyuz spacecraft
- OMWorld's ASTP Docking Trainer Page
- NASA - Russian Soyuz TMA Spacecraft Details
- Space Adventures circum-lunar mission - details